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Introduction to Developmental Learning 11 March 2014 t 1/33oliviergeorgeon.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Developmental Learning 11 March 2014 t 1/33oliviergeorgeon.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Developmental Learning 11 March t 1/33oliviergeorgeon.com

2 Old dream of AI Instead of trying to produce a program to simulate the adult mind, why not rather try to produce one which simulates the child's? If this were then subjected to an appropriate course of education one would obtain the adult brain. Presumably, the child brain is something like a notebook […]. Rather little mechanism, and lots of blank sheets. […]. Our hope is that there is so little mechanism in the child brain that something like it can be easily programmed. The amount of work in the education we can assume, as a first approximation, to be much the same as for the human child. Computing machinery and intelligence (Alan Turing, 1950, Mind, philosophy journal). 2/33oliviergeorgeon.com

3 Is it even possible? Spiritualist vision of consciousness (it would require a soul). Causal openness of physical reality (quantum theory). Too complex. … Materialist theory of consciousness – (Julien Offray de La Mettrie, ). Consciousness as a computational process – (Chalmers 1994) No ? Yes? 3/33oliviergeorgeon.com

4 Outiline Example – Demo of developmental learning. Theoretical bases – Pose the problem. – The question of self-programming. Exercise – Implement your self-programming agent. 4/33oliviergeorgeon.com

5 6 Experiments The coupling agent/environment offers hierarchical sequential regularities of interactions, for example : After i 7, attempting i 1 or i 2 results more likely in i 1 than in i 2. After  i 9, i 3, i 1, i 8 ,  i 4, i 7, i 1  can often be enacted. After i 8, sequence  i 9, i 3, i 1  can often be enacted. After i 8, i 8 can often be enacted again. i 1 (5) i 2 (-10) i 3 (-3) i 7 (-1) i 8 (-1) i 5 (-1) i 6 (-1) i 9 (-1) i 10 (-1) i 4 (-3) 2 Results10 Interactions (value) Example 1 5/28

6 Exemple 1: Bump: Touch: Move Forward or bump(5) (-10) Turn left / right (-3) Feel right/ front / left (-1) 6/28

7 Theoretical bases Philosophy of mind. Epistemology (theory of knowledge) Developmental psychology. Biology (autopoiesis, enaction). Neurosciences. 7/33oliviergeorgeon.com

8 Philosophy : is it possible? John Locke (1632 – 1704) – « Tabula Rasa » La Mettrie ( ). – « Matter can think » David Chalmers – A Computational Foundation for the Study of Cognition (1994) Daniel Dennett – Consciousness explained (1991) – Free will, individual choice, self-motivation, déterminism… 8/33oliviergeorgeon.com

9 Key philosophical ideas for DIA cognition ascomputation in the broad sense. – Causal structure Example: neural net with chemistry (neurotransmitters, hormones etc.). Determinisme does not contradict free will. – Do not mistake determinism for predictibility. Hervé Zwirn (Les systèmes complexes, 2006) 9/33oliviergeorgeon.com

10 Epistémology (what can I know?) Concept of ontology Study of the nature of being – Aristotle (384 – 322 BC). – Onto: « being », Logos: discourse. – Discourse on the properties and categories of being. Reality as such is unknowable – Emmanuel Kant, (1724 – 1804) 10/33oliviergeorgeon.com

11 Key epistemological ideas for DAI Implement learning mechanism with no ontological asumptions. – Agnostic agents (Georgeon 2012). – The agent will never know its environment as we see it. But with interactional assumptions – Predefine the possibilities of interaction between the agent and its environment. – Let the agent alone to construct its own ontology of the environment through its experience of interaction. 11/33oliviergeorgeon.com

12 Developmental psychology (How can I know?) Developmental learning – Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) Teleology / motivational principles ”the individual self-finalizes recursively”. Do not separate perception and action a priori: Notion of sensorimoteur scheme Contructivist epistemology – Jean-Louis Le Moigne ( ) – Ernst von Glasersfeld. Knowledge is an adaptation in the functional sense. 12/33oliviergeorgeon.com

13 Etapes développementales indicatives Month 4: “Bayesian prediction”. Month 5: Models of hand movement. Month 6: Objects and face recognition. Month 7: Persistency of objects. Month 8: Dynamic models of objects. Month 9: Tool use (bring a cup to the mouth). Month 10: Gesture imitation, crawling. Month 11: Walk with the help of an adult. Month 15: Walk alone. 13/45oliviergeorgeon.com

14 Key psychological ideas for DAI Think in terms of « interactions » rather than separating perception and action a priori. Focus on an intermediary level of intelligence: – Cognition sémantique (Manzotti & Chella 2012) stimulus-response adaptation Semantic cognition Reasoning and language Low level High level Intermediary level 14/33oliviergeorgeon.com

15 Biology (why know?) Autopoiese – auto: self, poièse : creation – Maturana (1972) – Structural coupling agent/environment. – Relational domain (the space of possibilities of interaction) Homeostasis – Internal state regulation – Self-motivation Theory of enaction – Self-creation through interaction with the environment. – Enactive Artificial Intelligence (Froeze and Ziemke 2009). 15/33oliviergeorgeon.com

16 Key ideas from biology for DAI Constitutive autonomy is necessary for sense- making. – Evolution of possibilities of interaction during the system’s life. – Individuation. Design systems capable of programming themselves. – The data that is learned is not merely parameter values but is executable data. 16/33oliviergeorgeon.com

17 Neurosciences Many levels of analysis A lot of plasticity AND a lot of pre-wiring 17/33oliviergeorgeon.com

18 Neuroscience Connectome of C. Elegans: 302 neurons. Entirely inborn connectome rather than acquired through experience 18/33oliviergeorgeon.com

19 Human connectome 19/33oliviergeorgeon.com

20 Neurosciences Examples of mammalian brains No qualitative rupture : human cognitive functions (e.g., language reasoning) relies of brain structures that exist in other mammalian brains. (This does not mean there is no innate differences !). The brain serves at organizing behaviors in time and space. 20/33oliviergeorgeon.com

21 Key neuroscience ideas for DAI Renounce the hope that it will be simple. Maybe begin at an intermediary level and go down if it does not work? Biology can be source of inspiration – Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures. Importance of the capacity to internally simulate courses of behaviors. 21/33oliviergeorgeon.com

22 Key ideas of the key ideas The objective is to learn (discover, organze and exploit) regularities of interaction in time and space to satisfy innate criteria (survival, curiosity, etc.). Without pre-encoded ontological knowledge Which allows a kind of constitutive autonomy (self-programming). 22/33oliviergeorgeon.com

23 Teaser for next course 23/5oliviergeorgeon.com

24 Exercice 24/33oliviergeorgeon.com

25 Exercice Two possible experiences E = {e 1,e 2 } Two possible results R = {r 1,r 2 } Four possible interactions E x R = {i 11, i 12, i 21, i 22 } Two environments – env 1 : e 1 -> r 1, e 2 -> r 2 (i 12 et i 21 are never enacted) – env 2 : e 1 -> r 2, e 2 -> r 1 (i 11 et i 22 are never enacted) Motivational systems: – mot 1 : v(i 11 ) = v(i 12 ) = 1, v(i 21 ) = v(i 22 ) = -1 – mot 2 : v(i 11 ) = v(i 12 ) = -1, v(i 21 ) = v(i 22 ) = 1 – mot 2 : v(i 11 ) = v(i 21 ) = 1, v(i 12 ) = v(i 22 ) = -1 Implement un agent that learn to enact positive interactions without knowing its motivatins a priori (mot 1 or mot 2 ) neither its environnement (env 1 or env 2 ). Write a rapport of behavioral analysis based on activity traces. 25/33oliviergeorgeon.com

26 No hard-coded knowledge of the environment Agen{ … public Experience chooseExperience(){ If (env == env 1 and mot == mot 1 ) or (env == env 2 and mot == mot 2 ) return e 1 ; else return e 2 ; } 26/33oliviergeorgeon.com

27 Implementation public static Experience e1 = new experience(); Experience e2 = new experience(); public static Result r1 = new result(); Result r2 = new result(); public static Interaction i11 = new Interaction(e1,r1, 1); etc. Public static void main() Agent agent = new Agent(); Environnement env = new Env1(); // Env2(); for(int i=0 ; i < 10 ; i++) e = agent.chooseExperience(r); r = env.giveResult(e); System.out.println(e, r, value); Class Agent public Experience chooseExperience(Result r) Class Environnement public Result giveResult(experience e) Class Env1 Class Env2 Class Experience Class Result Class Interaction(experience, result, value) public int getValue() 27/33oliviergeorgeon.com


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