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Dialectic & The Sage By: K.C. Fowler and Seamus Kerivan.

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Presentation on theme: "Dialectic & The Sage By: K.C. Fowler and Seamus Kerivan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dialectic & The Sage By: K.C. Fowler and Seamus Kerivan

2 Dialectic & Rhetoric Rhetoric- “Science of speaking well on arguments which are set out in narrative form” Dialectic- “Science of discoursing well on arguments in question and answer form” OR The later conception: “Science of things true and false and neither true nor false” (Long. 87)

3 Logos and Orthos Logos in Relation Orthos Logos- “Right Reason”,Nature, and God Logos- Individual’s reason The Sage’s Logos follows directly with Orthos Logos *All based off assenting correctly

4 The Sage and Dialectic - To the Stoics, “the wise man is the only dialectician”(Long. 88) - Dialectic allows for the access of true propositions - “In the Sage truth refers to his rational disposition, his systematic knowledge and ability to state all that is true”(Long. 101) - This is all the natural disposition of the sage

5 The Non-Sage and Dialectic - Dialectic allows the non-Sage to access true propositions and prevent cases of erroneous assent - Non- Sage has no access to “the truth” that the Sage has access to

6 Socrates and Dialectic -Socrates taught, and was recorded in question and answer format -He used dialectic to get a student to contradict a previous statement, and arrive at a new conclusion -Dialect from greek ‘converse’ - dialegesthai

7 Other Schools & Early Stoicism -Epicureans & Cynics- rejected dialectic as confusing -Zeno- finds dialectic interesting in solving paradoxes, but that’s as far as he goes -Zeno also explains the difference between dialectic and rhetoric with closed and open fist

8 Cleanthes -Cleanthes laid the foundation for dialectics new importance for the Stoics -Was not very interested in logic, but realized the importance of dialectic in countering the attacks of other schools (especially sceptical Academy of Arcesilaus)

9 Chrysippus -First Stoic to teach dialectic as a means of determining true from false -Called it the science of “signs and things signified” (D.L.VII.62) -Diogenes Laertius interprets this as the science of things that are true

10 Dialectic Dog -Chrysippus uses example of the dialectic dog -Three roads to choose from -Dog smells at two -He runs down the third road without smelling because he has inferred the ‘rightness’ of the road, by the foul smells of the first two

11 Epictetus -Epictetus believed dialectic was only important in matters of improving one’s conduct -By using it in self-evaluation he says it is possible to improve yourself “A man might analyse syllogisms in the manner of Chrysippus and still be wretched” (II.23.44)

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