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In Theory Philo- sophical Constitut -ing Where’s it found? Federal- isms Feeling “power” -ful Mis-cell- any 100 200 200 300 400 500 AP Government Jeopardy.

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Presentation on theme: "In Theory Philo- sophical Constitut -ing Where’s it found? Federal- isms Feeling “power” -ful Mis-cell- any 100 200 200 300 400 500 AP Government Jeopardy."— Presentation transcript:

1 In Theory Philo- sophical Constitut -ing Where’s it found? Federal- isms Feeling “power” -ful Mis-cell- any AP Government Jeopardy – Constitutional Foundations

2 Final Jeopardy! Question Constitutional Foundations Federalism

3 Citizens vote to make decisions on public policy, directly making law themselves Ex: Town meetings, referendums, initiative Direct democracy In Theory 100

4 Citizens elect representatives who make laws Ex: U.S. Congress, state legislatures Representative democracy In Theory 200

5 A small group of people, identified by wealth or political power, rule in their self- interest Elite Theory In Theory 300

6 Pluralism In a political culture with multiple interest groups, no one group can gain ascendency to govern, requiring bargaining and compromise among groups In Theory 400

7 A situation in which interest groups block one another, creating stalemate and inaction Hyperpluralism In Theory 500

8 The concept that people are born with and entitled to certain rights; championed by John Locke who included life, liberty, and property ownership among these Natural rights Philo- sophical 100

9 The idea that governmental authority is derived from an implicit understanding with the governed that imposes responsibilities on both parties Social contract theory Philo- sophical 200

10 The idea that power of government is restricted to those powers that the people have granted it, often embodied in a written constitution Limited government Philo- sophical 300

11 The idea that government derives its authority from the people, who are the ultimate rulers Popular sovereignty Philo- sophical 400

12 Principle that each of the three branches of U.S. government is subject to restraint by the other two branches Ex: Senate approval of major Presidential appointees Checks and Balances Philo- sophical 500

13 Replaced by the current constitution, as it had a number of faults that generally resulted from its weak central government Articles of Confederation Constituting 100

14 Called to rewrite the Articles of Confederation, but instead wrote a new constitution Constitutional Convention Constituting 200

15 Compromise between large and small states that created a bicameral legislature with equal representation in the Senate and population- based representation in the House Great (Connecticut) Compromise Constituting 300

16 Highly opposed by the Anti-Federalists, this required the consent of 9 of the 13 states Ratification of the U.S. Constitution (1788) Constituting 400

17 Led by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay; supported ratification of the U.S. Constitution Federalists Constituting 500

18 First Amendment Guarantees basic freedoms: speech, religion, press, petition, andassembly Where’s it found? 100

19 Fourteenth Amendment Consists of two clauses: Due Process that extends most of the Bill of Rights to states, and Equal Protection that provided the basis for ending discriminating practices Where’s it found? 200

20 Full Faith and Credit Clause States are required to recognize the laws and legal documents of other states (Article IV) Ex: birth certificates, marriage licenses, drivers’ licenses, wills Where’s it found? 300

21 Supremacy Clause States laws are invalid if they contradict the U.S. Constitution, federal laws, or treaties (Article VI) – Strengthened in McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden Where’s it found? 400

22 Commerce Clause Basis for federal legislation regarding civil rights, labor relations, and other areas only indirectly related to trade between the states Where’s it found? 500

23 Dual federalism Concept that national and state governments are each supreme within their own spheres of influence Ex: U.S. government has sole responsibility for foreign policy Federalisms 100

24 Cooperative federalism Concept that national and state governments share policymaking power in some areas Ex: Cooperation of state and federal governments in building the interstate highway system Federalisms 200

25 Devolution (New Federalism) Giving states more authority over use of federal grants Ex: Welfare reform legislation dismantled a federal program and gave the power to the states Federalisms 300

26 Fiscal federalism National government grant money is used to influence and fund state and local policies and programs Federalisms 400

27 Mandates Requirements imposed by the federal government on state and local governments (sometimes unfunded) Federalisms 500

28 Separation of powers Principle that powers are divided between three independent branches of government, keeping any one branch from becoming too powerful Feeling “power”-ful 100

29 Enumerated (Delegated) Powers Powers specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution (Article I, Section 8) Ex: Power to raise an army, print money, regulate immigration Feeling “power”-ful 200

30 Implied Powers Powers not specifically granted to the federal government, but “necessary and proper” to carry out listed powers Ex: Creation of a national bank upheld in McCulloch v. Maryland Feeling “power”-ful 300

31 Concurrent powers Powers granted to both the national government and state governments Ex: Power to levy taxes, borrow money, establish courts Feeling “power”-ful 400

32 Reserved powers Powers not specifically granted to the national government, nor denied to the states (10 th Amendment) Ex: Administer elections Feeling “power”-ful 500

33 Legislative, Judicial, & Judicial The three branches of the U.S. government Mis-cell-any 100

34 2/3 of Congress; 3/4 of states Majorities – Congressional initiation AND states ratifying – needed for a constitutional amendment Mis-cell-any 200

35 Block Grants Grants given to states that can be used for a variety of programs in a broad policy area; states have considerable discretion as to how money is spent Mis-cell-any 300

36 Categorical grants Grants not for a specific program, but for a specified purpose; state defines program and has some discretion as to how funds are spent Ex: “drug prevention” funds could be used for law enforcement, education, rehab centers Mis-cell-any 400

37 Grants-in-aid Money provided by the federal government for a specific project or program; state has little discretion as to how funds are spent Mis-cell-any 500

38 Why did the framers choose federalism? List two advantages of federalism. List two disadvantages of federalism. FINAL JEOPARDY

39 Preserve state government while creating a stronger national government. Avoids concentration of power, keeps government close to people, states as “laboratories of democracy,” allows for regional differences. Complexity and duplication, conflicts of authority, inconsistency in regulations, education, etc. FINAL JEOPARDY


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