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Chapter 1 Review (Foundations)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Review (Foundations)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Review (Foundations)

2 Multiple Choice An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world. Science Observation Conclusion Manipulated variable

3 True or False The goals of science are to give explanations for natural events, to understand patterns, and to make predictions. True

4 Fill in the Blank Scientists must be _____-_______. They must be willing to listen to new ideas without evidence. open minded

5 Multiple Choice A logical conclusion based on evidence or what is already known. Manipulated variable Inference Theory Data

6 True or False Science almost always proves things in absolute terms. False Science rarely proves things in absolute terms.

7 Fill in the Blank Experiments with multiple trials that include large sample sizes that are randomly selected help reduce sources of __________. error

8 Multiple Choice The act of noticing and describing what is happening in an orderly way. Conclusion Controlled variable Observation Bias

9 True or False Scientists often define “scientific uncertainty” as being 95% sure that cause and effect have been correctly identified. True

10 Fill in the Blank Scientists are ________ , which means that they question existing ideas and hypotheses. They also do not believe ideas without evidence. skeptics

11 Multiple Choice A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested. Conclusion Peer Review Skepticism Hypothesis

12 True or False Peer review does not make sure that a piece of work is correct, but it does make sure the work meets standards set by the scientific community. True

13 Fill in the Blank Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and creativity are scientific __________ or attributes that all good scientists share that lead them to exploration and discovery. attitudes

14 Multiple Choice A statement of how the responding variable will change in response to changes in the manipulated variable. Prediction Observation Validity Reliability

15 True or False Biology is the study of life. True

16 Fill in the Blank All organisms store information they need to live, grow, and reproduce in a genetic code written in a molecule called ______. DNA

17 Multiple Choice An experiment in which only one variable is changed. Procedure or process Protocol Controlled experiment Analytic investigation

18 True or False Homeostasis is a signal to which a living thing reacts. False A stimulus is a signal to which a living thing reacts.

19 Fill in the Blank The chemical reactions through which a living thing builds up or breaks down materials are called_____________. metabolism

20 Multiple Choice The result or consequence of an action, influence, or casual event. Effect Selection Inference Cause

21 True or False Evolutionary change links all forms of life to a common origin more than 3.5 billion years ago. True

22 Fill in the Blank All forms of life are connected into a __________ , which means “living planet.” biosphere

23 Multiple Choice Prediction Control group Controlled variable
The factor of a system being investigated that is changed to determine that factor’s relationship to the responding variable. Prediction Control group Controlled variable Manipulated variable

24 True or False The prefix that means 1000 is milli. False The prefix that means 1000 is kilo.

25 Fill in the Blank Most scientists use the ________ system when gathering data and doing experiments. metric

26 Multiple Choice Mistakes of perception, measurement, or process during an investigation; an incorrect result or discrepancy. Cause Observation Inference Error

27 True or False When scientists explain “why” something happens, their explanation is about only nature. Science does not include ethical or moral views. True

28 Fill in the Blank Sometimes, _______ keeps scientists from doing certain kinds of experiments, such as cloning people. ethics

29 Multiple Choice Observations, measurements, or data collected through established and recognized scientific processes. Evidence Hypotheses Theories Consequences

30 True or False Controlled experiments typically involve testing two or more variables at a time. False Controlled experiments involve testing only one variable at a time.

31 Fill in the Blank In the leaf toughness experiment, the leaf’s exposure to sunlight was the ____________ variable and how easily the leaf ripped was the ___________ variable . manipulated responding

32 Multiple Choice The factor of a system being investigated that changes in response to the manipulated variable and is measured. Quantitative data Responding variable Controlled variable Qualitative data

33 True or False Placing the rip-o-meter’s binder clip in the same position on each leaf tested is an example of a controlled variable. True

34 Fill in the Blank Comparing the toughness of leaves as a function of branch position was best graphed using a ___________________ chart. Scatter plot

35 Multiple Choice The conditions that are kept the same from trial to trial in a laboratory investigation. Controlled variables Responding variable Manipulated variable Quantitative data

36 True or False In the leaf toughness lab, a strong correlation was found between branch position and ease of ripping. False In the leaf toughness lab, no correlation was found between branch position and ease of ripping.

37 Fill in the Blank In the leaf toughness lab, we can __________ from the data that our hypothesis, which stated that older leaves would be tougher to rip than younger leaves, was not supported by the evidence. conclude

38 Multiple Choice An investigation under which the conditions for a phenomenon to occur are arranged beforehand by the investigator. Variable Experiment Trial Effect

39 A strong correlation implies causation.
True or False A strong correlation implies causation. False Remember the example about shoe size and math ability among children showing a strong correlation, but certainly no causation.

40 Draw a Graph Draw a scatterplot graph that shows a strong correlation between two variables.

41 Multiple Choice The part of a controlled experiment that is treated the same as the experimental set-up except for one manipulated variable. Qualitative data Conclusion Control group Observations

42 Multiple Choice Records of experimental observations. Inferences Bias Experimental group Data

43 Draw a Graph Draw a scatterplot graph that shows little or no correlation between two variables.

44 Multiple Choice Data that consists of numbers that are found by measuring or counting. Variables Qualitative Quantitative Sources of Error

45 Multiple Choice Data that consists of descriptions because they cannot be counted. Variables Qualitative Quantitative Measurements

46 Draw a Graph Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing a significant difference between two sets of data.

47 Multiple Choice An agent or condition that could cause a change. Factor Observation Effect Hypothesis

48 Multiple Choice Theory Control Validity Hypothesis
An attribute of an investigation that describes the degree of confidence that data collected and logical inferences are accurate representations of the phenomena being investigated. Theory Control Validity Hypothesis

49 Multiple Choice Repetitions of data collection procedures in an investigation . Trials Quantitative data Inferences Experimental group

50 Multiple Choice Open-mindedness Skepticism Bias Conclusions
The attitude in scientific thinking that emphasizes that no fact or principle can be known with complete certainty; the view that all knowledge is uncertain. Open-mindedness Skepticism Bias Conclusions

51 Draw a Graph Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing no significant difference between two sets of data.

52 Multiple Choice An attribute of any investigation that promotes consistency of results during repeated trials. Inferences Bias Variability Reliability

53 True or False Peer reviewers may have biases and be prejudiced against studies that contradict their own research or preferred beliefs. True

54 Fill in the Blank A _____ is a certain preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific. bias Bias in weight loss advertisement

55 Multiple Choice A rigorous process of evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field. Peer review Conclusions Data analysis Theories

56 True or False The metric system is harder to use than the old Imperial (standard) system, because it is based on multiples of 10. False The metric system is easier to use than the old Imperial (standard) system, because it is based on multiples of 10.

57 Fill in the Blank Scientists are __________ and ask questions about what they observe. curious

58 Multiple Choice Any changed or changing factor used to test a hypothesis or prediction in and investigation that could affect the results. Variable Data set Inference Hypothesis

59 Fill in the Blank Scientists need to think ________ to design experiments that provide good data. creatively

60 Multiple Choice A well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses and that lets scientists make good predictions. Hypothesis Evidence Theory Observations

61 True or False Because technology uses the discovery process rather than the scientific method, it is not closely linked to science at all. False Technology and science are closely linked. Discoveries in science may lead to new technologies.

62 Fill in the Blank Over generations, groups of living things ________ , or change over time. evolve

63 Multiple Choice Conclusion Theory Procedure Predictions
A summary of how the results of a scientific investigation support or contradict the original hypothesis. This statement also evaluates the experimental procedure and its effectiveness. Conclusion Theory Procedure Predictions


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