Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Review (Foundations). An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world. A.Science B.Observation C.Conclusion D.Manipulated."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1 Review (Foundations)
An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world. A.Science B.Observation C.Conclusion D.Manipulated variable Multiple Choice
The goals of science are to give explanations for natural events, to understand patterns, and to make predictions. True True or False
Scientists must be _____-_______. They must be willing to listen to new ideas without evidence. Fill in the Blank open minded
A logical conclusion based on evidence or what is already known. Multiple Choice A.Manipulated variable B.Inference C.Theory D.Data
Science almost always proves things in absolute terms. False True or False Science rarely proves things in absolute terms.
Experiments with multiple trials that include large sample sizes that are randomly selected help reduce sources of __________. Fill in the Blank error
The act of noticing and describing what is happening in an orderly way. Multiple Choice A.Conclusion B.Controlled variable C.Observation D.Bias
Scientists often define “scientific uncertainty” as being 95% sure that cause and effect have been correctly identified. True True or False
Scientists are ________, which means that they question existing ideas and hypotheses. They also do not believe ideas without evidence. Fill in the Blank skeptics
A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested. Multiple Choice A.Conclusion B.Peer Review C.Skepticism D.Hypothesis
Peer review does not make sure that a piece of work is correct, but it does make sure the work meets standards set by the scientific community. True or False True
Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and creativity are scientific __________ or attributes that all good scientists share that lead them to exploration and discovery. Fill in the Blank attitudes
A statement of how the responding variable will change in response to changes in the manipulated variable. Multiple Choice A.Prediction B.Observation C.Validity D.Reliability
Biology is the study of life. True or False True
All organisms store information they need to live, grow, and reproduce in a genetic code written in a molecule called ______. Fill in the Blank DNA
An experiment in which only one variable is changed. Multiple Choice A.Procedure or process B.Protocol C.Controlled experiment D.Analytic investigation
Homeostasis is a signal to which a living thing reacts. True or False False A stimulus is a signal to which a living thing reacts.
The chemical reactions through which a living thing builds up or breaks down materials are called_____________. Fill in the Blank metabolism
The result or consequence of an action, influence, or casual event. Multiple Choice A.Effect B.Selection C.Inference D.Cause
Evolutionary change links all forms of life to a common origin more than 3.5 billion years ago. True or False True
All forms of life are connected into a __________, which means “living planet.” Fill in the Blank biosphere
The factor of a system being investigated that is changed to determine that factor’s relationship to the responding variable. Multiple Choice A.Prediction B.Control group C.Controlled variable D.Manipulated variable
The prefix that means 1000 is milli. True or False False The prefix that means 1000 is kilo.
Most scientists use the ________ system when gathering data and doing experiments. Fill in the Blank metric
Mistakes of perception, measurement, or process during an investigation; an incorrect result or discrepancy. Multiple Choice A.Cause B.Observation C.Inference D.Error
When scientists explain “why” something happens, their explanation is about only nature. Science does not include ethical or moral views. True or False True
Sometimes, _______ keeps scientists from doing certain kinds of experiments, such as cloning people. Fill in the Blank ethics
Observations, measurements, or data collected through established and recognized scientific processes. Multiple Choice A.Evidence B.Hypotheses C.Theories D.Consequences
Controlled experiments typically involve testing two or more variables at a time. True or False False Controlled experiments involve testing only one variable at a time.
In the leaf toughness experiment, the leaf’s exposure to sunlight was the ____________ variable and how easily the leaf ripped was the ___________ variable. Fill in the Blank manipulated responding
The factor of a system being investigated that changes in response to the manipulated variable and is measured. Multiple Choice A.Quantitative data B.Responding variable C.Controlled variable D.Qualitative data
Placing the rip-o-meter’s binder clip in the same position on each leaf tested is an example of a controlled variable. True or False True
Comparing the toughness of leaves as a function of branch position was best graphed using a ___________________ chart. Fill in the Blank Scatter plot
The conditions that are kept the same from trial to trial in a laboratory investigation. Multiple Choice A.Controlled variables B.Responding variable C.Manipulated variable D.Quantitative data
In the leaf toughness lab, a strong correlation was found between branch position and ease of ripping. True or False False In the leaf toughness lab, no correlation was found between branch position and ease of ripping.
In the leaf toughness lab, we can __________ from the data that our hypothesis, which stated that older leaves would be tougher to rip than younger leaves, was not supported by the evidence. Fill in the Blank conclude
An investigation under which the conditions for a phenomenon to occur are arranged beforehand by the investigator. Multiple Choice A.Variable B.Experiment C.Trial D.Effect
A strong correlation implies causation. True or False False Remember the example about shoe size and math ability among children showing a strong correlation, but certainly no causation.
Draw a scatterplot graph that shows a strong correlation between two variables. Draw a Graph
The part of a controlled experiment that is treated the same as the experimental set-up except for one manipulated variable. Multiple Choice A.Qualitative data B.Conclusion C.Control group D.Observations
Records of experimental observations. Multiple Choice A.Inferences B.Bias C.Experimental group D.Data
Draw a scatterplot graph that shows little or no correlation between two variables. Draw a Graph
Data that consists of numbers that are found by measuring or counting. Multiple Choice A.Variables B.Qualitative C.Quantitative D.Sources of Error
Data that consists of descriptions because they cannot be counted. Multiple Choice A.Variables B.Qualitative C.Quantitative D.Measurements
Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing a significant difference between two sets of data. Draw a Graph
An agent or condition that could cause a change. Multiple Choice A.Factor B.Observation C.Effect D.Hypothesis
An attribute of an investigation that describes the degree of confidence that data collected and logical inferences are accurate representations of the phenomena being investigated. Multiple Choice A.Theory B.Control C.Validity D.Hypothesis
Repetitions of data collection procedures in an investigation. Multiple Choice A.Trials B.Quantitative data C.Inferences D.Experimental group
The attitude in scientific thinking that emphasizes that no fact or principle can be known with complete certainty; the view that all knowledge is uncertain. Multiple Choice A.Open-mindedness B.Skepticism C.Bias D.Conclusions
Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing no significant difference between two sets of data. Draw a Graph
An attribute of any investigation that promotes consistency of results during repeated trials. Multiple Choice A.Inferences B.Bias C.Variability D.Reliability
Peer reviewers may have biases and be prejudiced against studies that contradict their own research or preferred beliefs. True or False True
A _____ is a certain preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific. Fill in the Blank bias Bias in weight loss advertisement
A rigorous process of evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field. Multiple Choice A.Peer review B.Conclusions C.Data analysis D.Theories
The metric system is harder to use than the old Imperial (standard) system, because it is based on multiples of 10. True or False False The metric system is easier to use than the old Imperial (standard) system, because it is based on multiples of 10.
Scientists are __________ and ask questions about what they observe. Fill in the Blank curious
Any changed or changing factor used to test a hypothesis or prediction in and investigation that could affect the results. Multiple Choice A.Variable B.Data set C.Inference D.Hypothesis
Scientists need to think ________ to design experiments that provide good data. Fill in the Blank creatively
A well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses and that lets scientists make good predictions. Multiple Choice A.Hypothesis B.Evidence C.Theory D.Observations
Because technology uses the discovery process rather than the scientific method, it is not closely linked to science at all. True or False False Technology and science are closely linked. Discoveries in science may lead to new technologies.
Over generations, groups of living things ________, or change over time. Fill in the Blank evolve
A summary of how the results of a scientific investigation support or contradict the original hypothesis. This statement also evaluates the experimental procedure and its effectiveness. Multiple Choice A.Conclusion B.Theory C.Procedure D.Predictions