Transcendence – outside of space and timeImmanence – inside of space and time
‘We might begin to see a way to resolve the tension between immanence and transcendence if we accept that God is quite separate from His creation but through his omnipotence and omniscience He is, in a sense, present everywhere within the world, i.e. omnipresent. Aquinas uses the analogy of a king and his kingdom. Thus there is a sense in which a king, through his power, is present in the whole of his kingdom.’
If God is all-knowing, this is understood that in his transcendence he sees all knowledge and events in one eternal moment. But, if God can gain new knowledge this means he has to change, and cannot be eternal. It also means that he was not previously perfect. Also he will have access to bad knowledge which may make him less perfect. Does he know every possible outcome, or is there only one outcome? If there is no choice in the outcome, what impact does this have? If he is outside space and time, he may know something will happen, but not be able to say it is happening or has happened. He knows of time but is not within it.