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1EXAMPLE PRESENTATION: Title of the Article (Number 7):The Effects of Job Demands, Job Resources and Intrinsic Motivation onEmotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intentions:A Study in the Turkish Hotel IndustryCOURSE: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN THE TOURISM AND HOSPITALITYCOURSE CODE: TOUR 501LECTURER: PROF. DR. HUSEYIN ARASLISubmitted by:MARYAM VALAMOHAMMAD MANOUCHEHRIFATEMEH NOORIOURSpring 2013
3Aim of the Study:This study investigates the simultaneous effects of job demands, job resources, and a personal resource on emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions.Results show that job demands trigger frontline employees’ emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions. Job resources and intrinsic motivation reduce emotional exhaustion.
4Dimensions:: physical, psychological, social, or organizational aspects of a job that require sustained physical and/or psychological effort . (Bakker et al., 2003):Job resources refer to those physical, psychological, social or organizational aspects of the work environment that assist achievement of work goals, or stimulate personal growth and development. (Bakker et al., 2004;Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004).Job Demands (JD)Job Resources (JR)
5Personal Resources (PR): : (Intrinsic motivation): refers to an individual's feeling of challenge or competence derived from performing a job. (Keaveney, 1992, p. 151).: Emotional exhaustion, which is defined as “the feeling of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by one’s work”, along with depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. (Maslach & Jackson,1981, p.101): intend to leaving and changing your current job.Personal Resources (PR):Emotional ExhaustionTurnover Intentions
6Research contextIn today’s competitive marketplace, delivery of quality services to customers is a top priority for many service organizations.Because of their boundary-spanning roles, frontline employees play the most critical role in the delivery of quality services. (Yavas & Shemwell, 1998).Frontline employees are often underpaid, typically work long hours with irregular schedules, and carry heavy workloads (Babin & Boles,1998).
7They also often receive incompatible demands from co-workers, managers and customers and lack specific information to perform their job-related tasks effectively. (Singh, 2000)Our study extends the domain of inquiry to the hospitality sector (hotels) in Turkey.Because of unsocial work hours, low pay, heavy workloads, low training, job insecurity, high turnover and poor management practices, the hotel sector provides an interesting setting for examining the issues we address here (cf. Guerrier & Deery, 1998; Tsaur & Lin, 2004).
8Personal Resources (PR) Specific Dimensions in our study are:The effects of (Intrinsic Motivation) are specifically examined in this study along with job demand and job resources on frontline employees 'emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions and also the effect of on Turnover intention.Personal Resources (PR)Emotional Exhaustion
9Contribution of the Study: First, the literature review shows that, in their conceptualization, none of the extant studies using this framework includes personal resources (e.g., intrinsic motivation) as antecedents and examines their simultaneous effects (along with job demand and job resources) on frontline employees 'emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions.
10Second, empirical studies have been conducted insurance services, pension funds, occupational health and safety services, home-care services, education, government,transportation, manufacturing and health care services. (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke,2004; Demerouti et al., 2001).A shortage of studies utilizing this theory in the hospitality sector persists.
11Third, much of our extant knowledge on job demands-resources theory is based on studies undertaken in the West, primarily in Europe .There is a lack of research examining job demands-resources theory in countries beyond the North American-European axis.(Bakker et al., 2004; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004).Mardan Hotel in Turkey
12Context of the StudyThe investigation was conducted in 3,4 and 5 star hotels.Location of the Hotels: AnkaraPopulation of the Hotels in Ankara in Total:5 five-star hotels10 four-star hotels27 three-star hotelsThe Sampling was conducted in:all the five-star hotels9 four-star hotels23 three-star
13The specific theory of this study: the purpose of the current study is to develop and test a model that examines the simultaneous effects of job demands, job resources and a personal resource (intrinsic motivation) on emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions by using the organizing framework of job demands-resources theory (Bakker, Demerouti, Taris, Schaufeli, &Schreurs, 2003).
14RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES What is Job demands-resources theory?
15Our model also proposes that emotional exhaustion results in higher turnover intentions. Hence, job demands, job resources and intrinsic motivation impact turnover intentions both directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of emotional exhaustion.Past research suggests thatageeducationtenuregender may impact the key constructs in our study.
16Job DemandsJob demands also referred to as role stressors. (Thompson, Kirk & Brown, 2005)physical, psychological, social, or organizational aspects of a job that require sustained physical and/or psychological effort and include: (Bakker et al., 2003)role conflictrole ambiguityrole overloadinterpersonal conflicts
17Role conflict occurs when an individual receives incompatible job demands from his/her role partners such as customers, co-workers and managers and cannot satisfy all the demands simultaneously. (Churchill, Ford, & Walker, 1976).Role ambiguity occurs when an individual lacks information about his/her job and experiences a great deal of uncertainty about how to perform job-related tasks. (Churchill et al., 1976).
18For example, research by Posig and Kickul (2003) and Jaramillo, Mulki, and Locander (2006) show that employees who experience high levels of role conflict and role ambiguity become emotionally exhausted.
19Job ResourcesJob resources refer to those physical, psychological, social or organizational aspects of the work environment that assist achievement of work goals, or stimulate personal growth and development. (Bakker et al., 2004;Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004). It includes:empowermentservice technologyperformance feedbacksalaryskill varietyautonomysupervisory supportrewardstraining
20Supervisory support refers to “the degree to which employees perceive that supervisors offer employees support, encouragement and concern”. (Babin & Boles, 1996, p. 60).supervisory support can serve as an antidote to job demands such as role overload and role ambiguity, and consequently reduce emotional exhaustion. (Lee & Ashforth, 1996)
21Training programsLack of task-related skills and behavioral skills are the factors, which makes the frontline employees’ emotional exhausted. (cf. Karatepe, 2006; Wilk & Moynihan,2005)In addition, training enhances employees’ affective commitment to their organization and reduces their turnover intentions. (Tsui, Pearce, Porter, & Tripoli, 1997)
22Empowerment is “the freedom and ability to make decisions and commitments”. (Forrester,2000, p. 67). Employees can respond to customer requests and complaints quickly without a long chain of command. (Babakus et al., 2003)Empowered employees are less likely to be emotionally exhausted. (Ben-Zur & Yagil,2005)
23Forrester (2000,p.69) argument that “money counts a lot, especially for those who have little of it,”is highly relevant to frontline service jobs in hotels, which are low-paying positions with minimal tangible rewards despite long work hours.
24Having appropriate levels of pay and related rewards in place is important in inducing frontline employees to deliver high quality service and to deal with customer complaints effectively.An organization’s reward structure has a significant impact on employee loyalty and commitment. (Lawler, 2000).
25Intrinsic motivation refers to an individual's "feeling of challenge or competence derived from performing a job” . (Keaveney, 1992, p. 151).Intrinsically motivated employees seek enjoyment and self-expression .They perform an activity for itself in order to experience the pleasure, stimulation and joy inherent in the activity. (Amabile, 1993).Such employees have better problem-solving skills and are more innovative. (Miller, 2002).
26Intrinsic motivation may create a positive impact of stress caused from long working hours, irregular work schedules etc. that characterize frontline jobs in hotels. (Deci and Ryan,1985)
27Emotional ExhaustionEmotional exhaustion, which is defined as “the feeling of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by one’s work”, along with depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. (Maslach & Jackson,1981, p.101)employees who are emotionally exhausted feel as though they lack adaptive resources to perform their job. (McManus et al., 2002).
29Hypothesis:H1: Job demands are positively related to frontline employees 'emotional exhaustion.H2: Job demands are positively related to frontline employees’ turnover intentions.H3: Job resources are negatively related to frontline employees 'emotional exhaustion.H4: Job resources are negatively related to frontline employees 'turnover intentions.H5: Intrinsic motivation is negatively related to frontline employees 'emotional exhaustion.H6: Intrinsic motivation is negatively related to frontline employees 'turnover intentions.H7: Emotional exhaustion is positively related to frontline employees 'turnover intentions.
30Methodology Sampling=which sampling method used. Write here! From 1, usable questionnaires were collected.Data for the study were collected from the frontline employees such as:food serversfront desk agentsconciergesand bartendersResponse rate of 54.9%.A pilot sample of 30 frontline employees were conducted for pre-testing the questionnaire.
31Design of the Survey:Multiple item indicators from well-established scales were used to operationalize the study constructs:Intrinsic motivation was measured via four(4) items from Low, Cravens, Grant, and Moncrief (2001).Job demands were operationalized via seven (7) role conflict and sixSix (6) role ambiguity items from Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970).Job resources were measured via five (5) supervisory support items from Babin and Boles (1996),
32Six(6)training items from Boshoff and Allen (2000) Five (5)empowerment items adapted from Hayes (1994).Five (5)rewards items from Boshoff and Allen (2000).Emotional exhaustion was operationalized via eight (8) items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981).Three (3) items were adapted from Boshoff and Allen (2000) to measure turnover intentions.
35DISCUSSIONThe seven hypotheses we tested, six received full and one partial (H4) support from our data.(H4: Job resources are negatively related to frontline employees 'turnover intentions).(t-value= -1.83)
37RESULTSjob demands construct exerts significant direct influences on emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions:JD TI T-value: 11.54JD EE T-value: 6.47emotional exhaustion showed a significant positive effect on turnover intentions:EE TI T-value: 12.03
39An examination of the standardized total effects in Table of results reveals that Job demands has the strongest impact on turnover intentions:JD TI Standardized Estimate: 0.43which is followed byjob resources Standardized Estimate:−.21andintrinsic motivation Standardized Estimate:−.14
40Of the demographic control variables, education and tenure had significant negative impacts and gender had a significant positive impact on job demands where females perceived higher job demands.Education JD T-value: -4.48Tenure JD T-value: -1.97Gender JD T-value: 6.27
41On a broader front, the current findings in the context of the Turkish hospitality sector are consistent with those from different industries in Europe and North America.For instance, based on an extensive study of four occupational groups in the Netherlands,Schaufeli and Bakker (2004), concluded that job demands and job resources exert significant effects on emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion significantly influences turnover intentions regardless of industry.
42DISCUSSIONS Who found what ? In line with or contradict to the articles' findings!!!!
43Implications Managers should: Try to reduce their employees’ emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions.Take concerted actions to establish a work environment where imbalance between job demands and job resources is minimized.To reduce Role Ambiguity and Conflict management can carefully prepare or revise job descriptions
44Enhance supervisory support and start sending strong signals to employees regarding management’s commitment to training, empowerment and rewards.Setting clear organizational policies about the indicators of job resources can potentially pay dividends by reducing employee's emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions.In feeling vacant positions seek, screen and recruit individuals with high intrinsic Motivation.Enhance the basic orientations of current employees who are already intrinsically motivated.
45Future Research Directions Future studies employing longitudinal designs would be helpful in establishing causal relationships.Replications in other regions of Turkey and other countries among frontline employees in the hotel sector as well as other hospitality/tourism settings are in order to broaden the database for further generalizations.