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Chapter 15 Managing Communication © 2015 Cengage Learning MGMT7
© 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1 explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems 15-2 describe the communication process and the various kinds of communication in organizations 15-3 explain how managers can manage one-on-one communication effectively 15-4 describe how managers can manage organization-wide communication effectively
Perception The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments. © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1
Basic Perception Process © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1
Perception Problems Selective perception Closure © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1
Perceptions of Others Attribution theory: we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior – internal attribution – external attribution Defensive bias Fundamental attribution theory © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1
Defensive Bias and Fundamental Attribution Error © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1
Self-Perception Self-serving bias The tendency to overestimate our value by attributing success to ourselves and failures to others or the environment © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-1
The Interpersonal Communication Process 15-2 © 2015 Cengage Learning
Noise © 2015 Cengage Learning Anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message. The sender isn’t sure what message to communicate. The message is not clearly encoded. The wrong communication channel is chosen. The message is not received or decoded properly. The receiver doesn’t have the experience or time to understand the message. 15-2
Formal Communication Channel The system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information. Downward communication Upward communication Horizontal communication 15-2 © 2015 Cengage Learning
Informal Communication Channel The transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels. © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-2
Grapevine Communication Networks 15-2 © 2015 Cengage Learning
Managing Grapevines Worst thing to do is withhold information Keep employees informed about possible changes and strategies Do not overlook the grapevine as a tremendous source of information and feedback © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-2
Coaching Communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person’s on-the-job performance. Mistakes managers make Waiting for a problem before coaching Waiting too long before talking to employee about problem © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-2
Counseling Communicating with someone about non-job-related issues. Managers should not be clinicians Discuss specific performance problems Listen if the employee shares personal issues Recommend that employees call the company’s Employee Assistance Program (EAP) © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-2
Nonverbal Communication Any communication that doesn’t involve words; almost always accompanies verbal communication and may either support or contradict it. Kinesics Paralanguage © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-2
Communication Medium The method used to deliver a message. Oral communication Written communication © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-3
Oral Communication Managers generally prefer oral communication over written because it provides opportunity to ask questions. A rich communication medium © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-3
Written Communication Well suited for delivering straightforward messages and information is fastest growing communication form in organizations because of convenience and speed. © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-3
Listening Most people are terrible listeners, retaining only about 25% of what they hear. About 45% of total communication time is spent listening. © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-3
Active Listening © 2015 Cengage Learning Assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you’ve accurately heard what he or she said. Clarify responses Paraphrase Summarize 15-3
Clarifying, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Responses for Active Listeners 15-3 © 2015 Cengage Learning
Empathetic Listening © 2015 Cengage Learning Understanding the speaker’s perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker. Show desire to understand Reflect the speaker’s emotions 15-3
Giving Feedback Destructive feedback Constructive feedback © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-3
Giving Constructive Feedback Immediate Specific Problem-oriented © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-3
Improving Transmission Online discussion forums Televised/videotaped speeches and meetings Voice messaging © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-4
Establishing Collaborative Discussion Sites 15-4 © 2015 Cengage Learning
Organizational Silence Withholding information about organizational problems or issues. Occurs when employees believe that telling management about problems won’t make a difference, or that they’ll be punished. © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-4
Improving Reception Company hotlines Survey feedback Frequent informal meetings Surprise visits Blogs © 2015 Cengage Learning 15-4
Plant Fantasies 1.Why would Teresa Carleo and Steve Martucci favor face-to- face communication over when dealing with customers? 2.Why would Carleo and Martucci prefer to use electronic communication methods for certain types of communication within the company? 3. In the video, Carleo says that she worries that at times she communicates too much. What steps could she take to confirm that her messages are being heard and understood by others? © 2015 Cengage Learning
Chapter 15 Managing Communication © 2015 Cengage Learning MGMT7 “Seek first to understand, then to be understood” Stephen R. Covey.
Chapter 15 Managing Communication © 2015 Cengage Learning MGMT7.
1 Chapter 15 Managing Communication Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd. MGMT Chuck Williams.
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