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The challenges of implementing the common core ela

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1 The challenges of implementing the common core ela
Timothy Shanahan University of Illinois at Chicago

2 Big Shifts Challenging text Close reading Informational text
Multiple texts Disciplinary literacy (Grades 6-12) Argument 21st century research and communication tools Writing about sources

3 Challenging Text Past standards focused on cognitive skills and ignored text difficulty (in terms of the linguistic complexity) CCSS: Text difficulty is central to learning Specific cognitive skills have to be executed, but with texts that are sufficiently challenging (Item 10). The shift raises text levels for the grades by about 2 grade levels (across Grades 2-12)

4 Challenging Text (cont.)
Quantitative factors: Readability formulas that predict comprehension from vocabulary and sentence complexity Includes ATOS, Degrees of Reading Power, Flesch-Kincaid, Lexiles, Reading Maturity, Source Reader Set higher than in the past” Flesch- Kincaid The Lexile Framework® 2nd – 3rd 1.98 –5.34 420 – 820 4th – 5th 4.51 –7.73 740 – 1010 6th – 8th 6.51 –10.34 925 – 1185 9th – 10th 8.32 –12.12 1050 – 1335 11th –CCR 10.34 –14.2 1185 – 1385

5 Challenging Text (cont.)
CCSS requires that children will be taught from harder texts than in the past (texts often likely to be at their “frustration level”) ELA teachers often teach with texts that are thematically complex, but that are linguistically simple Raises both grade level standards and discourages as much out-of-level teaching as in the past This is the opposite of what teachers most elementary and many secondary teachers have been taught

6 Challenging Text (cont.)
This will be difficult to implement because it conflicts with how teachers have been prepared and current practices The new tests and textbooks will present more challenging texts (selecting harder texts is the easy part of the task) However, teaching students to read texts that they will struggle with will require a very different approach

7 Resources Shanahan, T., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012), March. The challenge of challenging text. Educational Leadership.

8 Resources Shanahan, T., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012), March. The challenge of challenging text. Educational Leadership.

9 Close Reading New standards encourage close reading
Close reading is an idea that emerged in ELA in the 1920s and 1930s It emphasizes a heavy reliance on the information within text as the source of interpretation

10 Close Reading (cont.) Easiest to understand through contrasts with other approaches to reading One way of reading is to examine the context and history of a text Another way is to examine a text through a particular philosophy or ideology (e.g., Marxism, feminism) Still another way is to focus heavily on the reader’s own knowledge and experience to make sense of what is in the text Often readings, especially in elementary grades, emphasize how to read rather than what is read

11 Close Reading (cont.) Close reading, unlike these other approaches, minimizes information from outside the text Asks readers text dependent questions Requires reliance on textual evidence to support answers Emphasizes the content of the text over how to read Asks readers to identify what the text says, how the text works, and what the text means (in terms of critical analysis and connections with other texts/sources)

12 Close Reading (cont.) New assessments will stay to text dependent questions, and will ask students to identify what texts say, how texts work, and for critical analysis and comparisons of texts with other texts/sources Teachers will have to learn to put greater emphasis on the texts than on the methods and strategies of reading (less pre-reading, fewer questions about background information, less contextualizing, more text dependent questions) More short reads Multi-day commitments to text

13 Text dependent questions
How did Frederick Douglass’ ability to read contribute to his emotional struggle for freedom? Cite examples from the text to support your answer. After reading Frederick Douglass’ narrative, in what ways does America represent the hope for freedom that lived in the heart of Frederick Douglass?

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16 Grade 3 EBSR from End Of Year Assessment
Sample Item  Read all parts of the question before responding Part A What is one main idea of “How Animals Live?” a. There are many types of animals on the planet. b. Animals need water to live. c. There are many ways to sort different animals. d. Animals begin their life cycles in different forms. Part B Which detail from the article best supports the answer to Part A? a. “Animals get oxygen from air or water." b. "Animals can be grouped by their traits." c. "Worms are invertebrates." d. "All animals grow and change over time." e. "Almost all animals need water, food, oxygen, and shelter to live." Passage 

17 SAMPLE ITEM  Part A What does the word “regal” mean as it is used in the passage? a. generous b. threatening c. kingly d. uninterested Part B Which of the phrases from the passage best helps the reader understand the meaning of “regal?” a. “wagging their tails as they awoke” b. “the wolves, who were shy” c. “their sounds and movements expressed goodwill” d. “with his head high and his chest out” Passage  George, Jean C. Julie of the Wolves. New York: Harper and Row, Print. PARCC is committed to using authentic texts. Permissions are pending for the texts associated with this item.

18 Grade 6 TECR from Narrative Writing Task
Sample Item  Part A Choose one word that describes Miyax based on evidence from the text. There is more than one correct choice listed below. reckless lively imaginative Impatient confident observant Part B Find a sentence in the passage with details that support your response to Part A. Click on that sentence and drag and drop it into the box below. Part C Find another sentence in the passage with details that support your response to Part A. Click on that sentence and drag and drop it into the box below.

19 Grade 7 TECR from Research Simulation Task
Sample Item  Below are three claims that one could make based on the article “Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found.” Claims Earhart and Noonan lived as castaways on Nikumaroro Island. Earhart and Noonan’s plane crashed into the Pacific Ocean. People don’t really know where Earhart and Noonan died. Part A Highlight the claim that is supported by the most relevant and sufficient evidence within “Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found.” Part B Click on two facts within the article that best provide evidence to support the claim selected in Part A. assage  Lorenzi, Rosella. "Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found." Discovery News. Discovery News, 23 Oct Web. 2 Feb <http://news.discovery.com/history/amelia-earhart-resting-place.html [1]>.

20 Disciplinary literacy
Past standards have not made a big deal out of reading in history/social studies or science Emphasis was on learning how to read and applying these skills to content area textbooks However, there are unique reading demands within the various disciplines (reading history is not the same thing as reading literature, etc.) The common core state standards requires specialized reading emphasis for literature, history/social studies and science/technical subjects

21 Disciplinary Literacy (cont.)
Disciplines possess their own language, purposes, ways of using text There are special skills and strategies needed for students to make complete sense of texts from the disciplines As students begin to confront these kinds of texts (especially in middle school and high school), instruction must facilitate their understanding of what it means to read disciplinary texts

22 Disciplinary Literacy (cont.)
Thus, science students learn to follow and record multistep lab procedures, and to account for exceptions or special cases while history students are learning to analyze a series of events to determine the causal relations among the events Or, history students learn to make sense of discrepancies between primary accounts while science students learn to analyze the relationship between the graphical and prose information in a text Or, science and history both require summaries, but summaries of what?

23 Chemistry Note-taking
Substances Properties Processes Interactions Atomic Expression Experts, teacher educators and high school teachers displayed reluctance in embracing the idea of strategy instruction. For most, the concept was new, and the reading strategies we shared with them seemed contrived and irrelevant. This reluctance was revealing, because it mirrored the disinclination of the preservice students in the high school literacy class. The chemistry team’s reluctance only changed when we introduced our version of structured summarization, a strategy that we based specifically on their insights about chemistry reading. Using this strategy, students take notes in a chart format. Each section of the chart reflected the information that these chemistry specialists said was essential to reading chemistry text. Because chemistry is about the properties of substances and their reactions, a reader who paid attention to these would be engaging in a disciplinary-focused reading. We had illustrated the chart using information from one of the chemistry textbooks the team members had shared with us. One of the chemists who had been dismissive of teaching content area reading strategies (such as summarization) in chemistry reacted by saying, “Well, if they used this, they would be learning chemistry.” He then suggested a modification (the inclusion of a place to summarize atomic expression). The difference between this strategy and summarization was its subject-matter specificity. This strategy was not just about understanding text; it was also about understanding the essence of chemistry. This structured-summarization strategy meshed well with concerns the chemists had expressed earlier when they examined high school chemistry textbooks: the need to identify where the chemistry was. That is, although they understood that some of the information in the text was included purely for motivational purposes or to establish context for students, they were concerned that what students were actually supposed to learn about chemistry was obscured and hidden by these devices. One of the chemistry teachers bitterly complained about a text she had to use in which each chapter began with a real-life problem (such as lake pollution) that was then followed by an explanation of the chemistry behind the problem. She complained that the students were not learning the chemistry. Chemistry learning is somewhat hierarchical in nature. The concepts build on each other, and these concepts can then be applied to situations. That is, the principles are taught as abstractions, and the particulars are exemplars of the abstractions. This chemistry book, however, perseverated on the particular, providing students with little real opportunity to learn the abstractions that could be used to solve other problems.

24 History Events Chart TEXT WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? Relation:
1 Relation: 2 3 Relation 4 Main point: In the history meetings, the team liked a number of strategies and made suggestions for improvement. One such strategy was the history events chart. Coherence and understanding how the stories of history connect to each other is crucial to understanding narrative history. As students read about a particular event, they write down answers to the questions of who, what, where, when, how, and why in order to summarize the key narrative events. They do the same with each event they read about. However, the compelling task — the one that addresses a specific disciplinary problem in reading history — is to determine what the relationship is between the first and second event, between the second and third event, and so on. Students are asked to think about the most likely connections and to write these on the chart. The historians were approving of this task because it mirrored the kind of thinking that historians do. That is, historians infer cause-and-effect relationships when they study events and what precedes and follows them. These relationships are not necessarily visible in the events themselves, nor are they always made explicit in high school history texts, so they must be surmised. And, if they are made explicit in the text, students generally regard the connection as “truth” rather than as the construction of the writer. The task, then, not only mirrored historians’ thinking, but also offered the opportunity for students to construct the cause-and-effect relationships themselves. The high school teachers have tried out several promising strategies in the classroom, including the ones described above. One of the history teachers engaged in a quasi-experimental study of another history strategy — one he called “The Multiple Gist” strategy. In this strategy, students read one text and summarize it, read another text and incorporate that text into the summary, then read another text and incorporate that text into the summary, and so on. The summary has to stay the same length, essentially, and this forces a student to use words such as similarly or in contrast when incorporating texts that compare or contrast with each other. His preliminary results reveal that students who learned the multiple-gist strategy wrote longer, more coherent answers to essay questions.

25 Informational text Past standards emphasized literary and informational texts, but distribution was left to teachers Reading textbooks emphasized informational texts only about 20% of the time a decade ago, but this has been changing The common core standards requires the teaching of comprehension within both informational and literary texts These new standards emphasize informational texts equally with literary texts (in Grades K-5) – and a 70%-30% emphasis in the Grades 6-12

26 Informational text (cont.)
Informational text is text the primary purpose of which is to convey information about the natural and social world. Informational text typically addresses whole classes of things in a timeless way (they are not typically about specific instances). Informational text requires the interpretation of structures, graphics, features, etc. that are not available in literary text This shift has been surprisingly controversial

27 Informational text

28 Multiple texts/sources
Past standards have emphasized the reading of single texts: students had to learn how to make sense of a story, article or book (with perhaps an occasional emphasis on multiple texts) The common core state standards emphasize the interpretation of multiple texts throughout (at all grade levels, and in reading, writing, and oral language) Students will still have to be able to interpret single texts, but much more extensive emphasis on reading and using multiple texts (nearly 15% of the ELA standards explicitly mention multiple texts)

29 Multiple Texts Compare and contrast the adventures of characters in familiar stories (K) With prompting and support, recognize basis similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations or descriptions) (K) Distinguish major categories of writing from each other (e.g., stories and poems), drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types (1) Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures (1) Identify similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations or descriptions) (1) Compare and contrast characters or events from different stories addressing similar themes (2) Describe similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (2)

30 Multiple Texts Compare and contrast the plots, settings, and themes of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books in a series) (3) Compare and contrast information drawn from two texts on the same subject (3) Compare and contrast thematically similar tales, myths, and accounts of events from various cultures (4) Describe how two or more texts on the same subject build on one another; provide a coherent picture of the same information they convey (4) Compare the treatment of similar ideas and themes (e.g., opposition of a good and evil) as well as character types and patterns of events in myths and other traditional literature from different cultures (5)

31 Multiple Texts Analyze stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries, adventure stories), comparing and contrasting their approaches to similar themes and topics (6) Assess the similarities and differences between two or more texts on the same subject and apply the knowledge gained to inform reading of additional texts (6) Analyze a specific case in which a modern work of fiction drawn on patterns of events or character types found in traditional literature (7) Analyze where two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same subject and determine whether the texts disagree on matters of fact or on matters of interpretation (7)

32 Multiple Texts Compare a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character to historical sources from the same period as a means of understanding how authors use or alter history (8) Compare and contrast how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts (8) Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic (History, 6-8) Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic (Science, 6-8)

33 Multiple Texts Analyze a wide range of 19th and early 20th century foundational works of American literature, comparing and contrasting approaches to similar idea or themes in two or more texts from the same period (9-10) Analyze how authors argue with or otherwise respond to one another’s ideas or accounts of key events, evaluating the strength of each author’s interpretation (9-10) Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources (9-10, History) Compare experimental findings presented in a text to information from other sources, noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts (9-10, Science)

34 Multiple Texts Analyze how an author draws on and transforms fictional source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare draws on a story from Ovid or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare) (11-12) Synthesize explanations and arguments from diverse sources to provide a coherent account of events or ideas, including resolving conflicting information (11-12) Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources (11-12) Integrate information from diverse sources (e.g., video, multimedia sources, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a concept, process, or phenomenon, noting discrepancies among sources (11-12)

35 Writing about Text Past standards have emphasized writing as a free-standing subject or skill Students have been expected to be able to write texts requiring low information (or only the use of widely available background knowledge) The common core puts greater emphasis on the use of evidence in writing Thus, the major emphasis shifts from writing stories or opinion pieces to writing about the ideas in text

36 Writing about Text Read the following excerpt from a poem by Walt Whitman. There was a child who went forth every day, And the first object he look'd upon, that object he became, And that object became part of him for the day or a certain part of the day, Or for many years or stretching cycles of years. Whitman's poem suggests that certain objects become important to us and remain important to us even if we no longer have them. Write a story in which you tell about an object that remains important to the main character over a period of years. The main character could be you or someone you know. In your story, describe the main character's first encounter with the object, why the object is so important to the character, and how, over the years, it remains a part of the character’s life.

37 Writing about Text Based on the information in the text “Biography of Amelia Earhart,” write an essay that summarizes and explains the challenges Earhart faced throughout her life. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas. ________________________________________________ You have read three texts describing Amelia Earhart. All three include the claim that Earhart was a brave, courageous person. The three texts are: “Biography of Amelia Earhart” “Earhart's Final Resting Place Believed Found” “Amelia Earhart’s Life and Disappearance” Consider the argument each author uses to demonstrate Earhart’s bravery. Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the arguments about Earhart’s bravery in at least two of the texts. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas.

38 Writing about Text (cont.)
Summarizing text Analyzing and critiquing texts Synthesizing texts

39 Writing about Text (cont.)
Writing will need to be more closely integrated with reading comprehension instruction The amount of writing about what students read will need to increase Greater emphasis on synthesis of information and critical essays than in the past

40 Argument In the past, students have been taught to treat texts as sources of information However, scholars and other advanced readers do not approach text in such static ways Instead, they see texts (all kinds of texts) as arguments that authors present; and as such, readers can join in the argument Similarly, writing standards have included “persuasive writing” but have not typically required that students engage in argument

41 Argument (cont.) Argument requires that a speaker/writer present a point of view supported by evidence Also, it is wise to consider counter-arguments and refutations for these CCSS requires more argumentative stances in reading and more engagement in the writing of arguments This places a greater emphasis on content and reasoning

42 Argument (cont.) Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

43 Argument (cont.) Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed). Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.) Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact. Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement). Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

44 21st Century Research/Communication Tools
Digital tools to produce and publish writing Multimedia (e.g., audio recordings, film, etc.) Presentation technology, including multimedia Internet search tools Digital references (e.g., glossaries, dictionaries, thesauruses) Keyboarding skills Web supports: hyperlinks, interactive elements, electronic menus, icons Communications technology

45 Technology With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K) With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (1) Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. (1) With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2) Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (2) Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases. (2)

46 Technology With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (3) Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3) Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4) Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. (4)

47 Technology Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (4) Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (4) Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently (5) Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (5) Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem). (5)

48 Technology With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting. (5) Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. (5) Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (5) Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. (5)

49 Technology Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch. (6) Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. (6) Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. (6)  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (6) Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. (6)

50 Technology Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (6) Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. (6-8) Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (6-8) Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). (7) Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. (7) Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. (7)

51 Technology Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (7) Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. (7) Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (7) Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. (8)

52 Technology?  Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. (8) Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. (8) Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (8) Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. (8) Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. (8)

53 Technology Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (9-10) Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (9-10) Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. (9-10) Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (9-10)

54 Technology Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. (9-10)  Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text. (9-10) Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. (9-10) Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. (9-10) Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. (11-12)

55 Technology Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. (11-12) Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (11-12)


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