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A Creative Genius for Vision Visual Intelligence Donald D. Hoffman Chapter One.

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1 A Creative Genius for Vision Visual Intelligence Donald D. Hoffman Chapter One

2 The Genius of Vision  Everything you see, you construct  Our visual prowess is a genius that often goes unrecognized  Yet, we construct scenes that contradict reality  Is our vision or our hand erroneous?  Can there be elements in the picture causing the problem?

3 More Evidence The “Magic Square”  Brighter inside is a vision or photometer error?  Ironically, the boundary increase makes the construction of the square difficult

4 More Evidence  Vision can do more than fabricate a structure, as it goes against reality  We build a triangle, even though this could be a structure photographed at a specific angle The Devil’s Triangle

5 “What you see”  There are elegant principles being applied when constructing an image  Phenomenal sense – The way things appear to us, objects we construct regardless of reality constraints  Relational sense – what you interact with when you see, things must exist to be seen  The phenomenal sense applies to our “visual genius”  Visual experiences serve as user-friendly computer icon interface with those things we relationally see

6 Vision Comes Naturally  Unlike the ability to walk or talk, humans can see upon birth  It is also an ability that we share with animals alike  Gold fish have four color receptors  Honeybees see ultraviolet light  Is our vision the correct vision?

7 A Child’s Visual Development  One month – infants blink if something moves toward their eyes  3 months – infants use visual motion to construct boundaries of objects  4 months – use motion and stereovision to construct 3D shapes of objects  7 months – use shading, perspective, and interposition to construct depth and shape  One year – visual geniuses that begin to learn the name of objects

8 Visual Construction in Nature  For some species, their visual construction displays less genius  But no different than humans, this leaves room for visual errors Blackbird Nestlings

9 Visual Construction in Nature View of Chickens and Ducks The Common Toad

10 Brief History  Ptolemy (2 nd century AD) – recognized in Optics is a dictate of logic  Alhazen ( ) – visual properties due to unconscious inference  Nicolas Malebranche ( ) – visual inferences came God

11 A Brief History  Hermann von Helmholtz ( ) – described vision as a process of unconscious inference  David Marr ( ) – compared visual construction to information processing in computers  Ernst Hans Gombrich(1909) – unconscious and automatic processes are “projections”, while those that are more labored for are “inference” or “knowledge”

12 Fundamental Problem of Vision  The image at the eye has countless interpretations  How can we know that we all see the same thing?  Innate rules which grant visual mastery and lead to consensus in the visual constructions despite ambiguity  Everyone constructs the same vision (with or without the same interpretation)  The rules, which work quickly and effectively are the key


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