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Multi-layer Orthogonal Codebook for Image Classification Presented by Xia Li.

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Presentation on theme: "Multi-layer Orthogonal Codebook for Image Classification Presented by Xia Li."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multi-layer Orthogonal Codebook for Image Classification Presented by Xia Li

2 Outline Introduction – Motivation – Related work Multi-layer orthogonal codebook Experiments Conclusion

3 Image Classification local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Dense, uniformlySparse, at interest points For object categorization, dense sampling offers better coverage. [Nowak, Jurie & Triggs, ECCV 2006] Use orientation histograms within sub-patches to build 4*4*8=128 dim SIFT descriptor vector. [David Lowe, 1999, 2004] Image credits: F-F. Li, E. Nowak, J. Sivic Sampling: Descriptor:

4 Image Classification local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Visual codebook construction – Supervised vs. Unsupervised clustering – k-means (typical choice), agglomerative clustering, mean-shift,… Vector Quantization via clustering –Let cluster centers be the prototype “visual words” Descriptor space –Assign the closest cluster center to each new image patch descriptor. Image credits: K. Grauman, B. Leibe

5 Image Classification local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Bags of visual words Represent entire image based on its distribution (histogram) of word occurrences. Analogous to bag of words representation used for documents classification/retrieval. Image credit: Fei-Fei Li

6 Image Classification local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Image credit: S. Lazebnik [S. Lazebnik, C. Schmid, and J. Ponce, CVPR 2006]

7 Image Classification local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier  Histogram intersection kernel:  Linear kernel: Image credit: S. Lazebnik

8 Image Classification local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Image credit: S. Lazebnik [S. Lazebnik, C. Schmid, and J. Ponce, CVPR 2006]

9 Motivation local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Codebook quality – Feature type – Codebook creation Algorithm e.g. K-Means Distance metric e.g. L2 Number of words – Quantization process Hard quantization: only one word is assigned for each descriptor Soft quantization: multi-words may be assigned for each descriptor

10 Motivation local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Quantization error – The Euclidean squared distance between a descriptor vector and its mapped visual word Hard quantization leads to large error Effects of descriptor hard quantization – Severe drop in descriptor discriminative power. A scatter plot of descriptor discriminative power before and after quantization. The display is in logarithmic scale in both axes. O. Boiman, E. Shechtman, M. Irani, CVPR 2008

11 Motivation local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Codebook size is an i mportant factor for applications that need efficiency – Simply enlarging codebook size can reduce overall quantization error – but cannot guarantee every descriptor got reduced error codebook sizepercent of descriptors codebook 128 vs. codebook % codebook 128 vs. codebook % The right column is the percentage of descriptors whose quantization error is reduced when codebook size grows

12 Motivation local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier Good codebook for classification Small individual quantization error -> discriminative Compact in size – Contradict in some extent Overemphasizing on discriminative ability may increase the size of dictionary and weaken its generalization ability Over-compressing to a dictionary will more or less lose the information and its discriminative power – Find a balance! [X. Lian, Z. Li, C. Wang, B. lu, and L. Zhang, CVPR 2010]

13 Related Work No quantization – NBNN [6] Supervised codebook – Probabilistic models [5] Unsupervised codebook – Kernel codebook [2] – Sparse coding [3] – Locality-constrained linear coding [4] local feature extraction visual codebook construction vector quantization spatial pooling linear/nolinear classifier

14 Multi-layer Orthogonal Codebook (MOC) Use standard K-Means to keep efficiency or any other clustering algorithm can be adopted Build codebook from residues to reduce quantization errors explicitly

15 MOC Creation First layer codebook – K-Means Residue: N is the number of descriptors randomly sampled to build the codebook, d i is one of the descriptors.

16 MOC Creation Orthogonal residue: Second layer codebook – K-Means Third layer …

17 Vector Quantization How to use MOC? – Kernel fusion: use them separately Compute the kernels based on each layer codebook separately Let the final kernel to be the combination of multiple kernels – Soft weighting: adjust weight for words from different layers individually for each descriptor Select the nearest word on each layer codebook for a descriptor Use the selected words from all layers to reconstruct that descriptor and minimize reconstruction error

18 Hard Quantization and Kernel Fusion (HQKF) Hard quantization on each layer – average pooling: descriptors in the m-th sub-region, totally M sub-regions on an image, histogram for m-th sub- region is Histogram intersection kernel …… Linear combine kernel values from each codebook

19 Soft Weighting (SW) Weighting words for each descriptor Max pooling Linear kernel K is codebook size

20 Soft Weighting (SW-NN) To further consider the relationships between words from multi-layers Select 2 or more nearest words on each layer codebook, and then weighting them to reconstruct the descriptor Each descriptor is more accurately represented by multiple words on each layer The correlation between similar descriptors by sharing words is captured d1d1 d2d2 [J. Wang, J. Yang, K. Yu, F. Lv, T. Huang, Y. Gong, CVPR 2010]

21 Experiment Single feature type: SIFT – 16*16 pixel patches densely sampled over a grid with spacing of 6 pixels Spatial pyramid layer: – 21= sub-regions at three resolution level Clustering method on each layer: K-Means

22 Datasets Caltech-101 – 101 categories, images per category 15 Scenes – 15 scenes, 4485 images

23 Quantization Error Quantization error is reduced more effectively by MOC compared with simply enlarging codebook size Experiment is done on Caltech101 codebook sizepercent of descriptors codebook 128 vs. codebook % codebook 128 vs. codebook % codebook 128 vs. codebook % codebook 256 vs. codebook % codebook 512 vs. codebook % The right column is the percentage of descriptors whose quantization error is reduced when codebook changes

24 Codebook Size Classification accuracy comparisons with single layer codebook Comparison with single codebook (Caltech101). 2-layer codebook has the same size on each layer which is also the same size as the single layer codebook.

25 Comparisons with existing methods Caltech10115 Scenes # of training SPM [1]56.40 (200)64.60 (200)  0.5 (1024) KC [2]-64.14±  0.39 ScSPM [3] 67.0  0.45 (1024)73.2  0.54 (1024)  0.93 (1024) LLC [4]65.43 (2048)*73.44 (2048) - HQKF  0.7 (3-layer 512)  0.8 (3-layer 512)  0.6 (3-layer 1024) SW  0.5 (3-layer 512)  1.1 (3-layer 512)  0.6 (3-layer 1024) SW+2NN  0.5 (2-layer 1024)  0.8 (2-layer 1024) - Classification accuracy comparisons with existing methods Listed methods all used single type descriptor *only LLC used HoG instead of SIFT, we repeated their method with the type of descriptors we use, result is ±1.2

26 Conclusion Compared with existing methods, the proposed approach has the following merits: – 1) No complex algorithm and easy to implement. – 2) No time-consuming learning or clustering stage. Able to be applied on large scale computer vision systems. – 3) Even more efficient than traditional K-Means clustering. – 4) Explicit residue minimization to explore discriminative power of descriptors. – 5) The basic idea can be combined with many state-of- the-art methods.

27 References [1] S. Lazebnik, C. Schmid, and J. Ponce, “Beyond bags of features: Spatial pyramid matching for recognizing natural scene categories,” CVPR, pp – 2178, [2] J. Gemert, J. Geusebroek, C. Veenman, and A. Smeulders, “Kernel codebooks for scene categorization,” ECCV, pp , [3] J. Yang, K. Yu, Y. Gong, and T. Huang, “Linear spatial pyramid matching using sparse coding for image classification,” CVPR, pp , [4] J. Wang, J. Yang, K. Yu, F. Lv, T. Huang, and Y. Gong, “Locality- constrained linear coding for image classification,” CVPR, pp , [5] X. Lian, Z. Li, C. Wang, B. Lu, and L. Zhang, “Probabilistic models for supervised dictionary learning,” CVPR, pp , [6] O. Boiman, I. Rehovot, E. Shechtman, and M. Irani, “In defense of nearest-neighbor based image classification,” CVPR, pp. 1-8, 2008.

28 Thank you!

29 Codebook Size Different size combination on 2-layer MOC Caltech101: The X-axis is the size of the 1 st layer codebook Different colors represent the size of the 2 nd layer codebook


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