Improving Communication Climate & Conflicts Chapter 10 & 11
Communication Climate Describes: Quality of personal relationships Emotional tone
Confirming Communication- Messages that convey value Types of confirming messages: ä Recognition- recognize the other person. (there are many times that people don’t respond on this basic level) ä Acknowledgment- Listening is the most common form of acknowledgment (being interested in others ideas) ä Endorsement- You agree with others ideas and find them important
Disconfirming Communication Messages that show a lack of regard Types of disconfirming message: ä Verbal Abuse- Communication that appears to be meant to cause psychological pain to another person. ä Complaining ä Impervious response- ignoring the other person’s attempt to communicate ä Interrupting-beginning to speak before the other person has finished speaking ä Irrelevant response- a comment unrelated to what the other person has just said
ä Tangential response- instead of ignoring the speakers remarks completely, the other party uses them as a starting point for a shift to a different topic ä Impersonal response- loaded with clichés and other statements that never truly respond to the speaker. ä Ambiguous response- contain messages with more than one meaning, leaving the other party unsure of the responders position. ä Incongruous response-contain two messages that seem to deny or contradict each other.
Climate Development 1. When Communication begins Spiral: reciprocating communication style Escalatory Conflict Spiral: disconfirming messages are reinforced De-escalatory Conflict spirals: parties lessen dependence
Defensiveness Face-threatening acts: Messages that challenge your image Defensive Supportive Evaluation Description Control Problem Orientation Strategy Spontaneity Neutrality Empathy Superiority Equality Certainty Provisionalism
Dealing with Criticism Criticism can start a cycle of defensiveness that pollutes the communication climate between people or working groups. Offering Constructive Criticism-the way you present your comments can make a difference between their being accepted and considered or being disputed and rejected.
Consider the content Consider the sender Consider the relational climate Consider the delivery Responding to Criticism Seek more information Agree with criticism Work for a cooperative solution
Conflict Management Chapter 11 “Nothing can be changed until it is faced” James Baldwin
Conflict An expressed dissatisfaction An expressed disagreement with: An interaction A process A product A service
A. Negatives & Positives of Conflict 1.negatives a.increased negative regard for other b.close yourself off from the other I.Nature of Conflict
2.positives 1.forces you to examine a problem 2.allows you to express yourself 3.prevents hostilities from building up
B.Content vs. Relational Conflict 1.Content = over objects, events, and persons external to the dyad
2. Relational = between the two individuals involved
Approaches to Conflict A. Avoidance = physically leaving to ignoring 1.Nonnegotiation = special type of avoidance
C.Face Detracting & Enhancing Strategies 1.detracting = treating the other as incompetent, untrustworthy, or bad 2.enhancing = treating the other as competent, trustworthy, or good
E.Argumentativeness = willingness to stand up and argue for your point of view
Accommodating-giving ground as a way of maintaining harmony. Collaborating: meeting one’s needs and those of others Compromising: Each party sacrifices something to gain an agreement.
C.Conflict & Culture 1.differ in how they define/evaluate conflict 2.differ in perceptions of abuse 3.differ in the types of conflicts that will arise
Effective Conflict Management Be knowledgeable and respectful of different worldviews. Engage in “mindfulness” Create new categories Be open to new information Be aware that multiple perspectives typically exist in viewing a basic event.
II.Model of Conflict Resolution A.Define the conflict 1.both content and relational conflict 2.with specific, behavioral terms
3.focus on the present 4.use empathy 5.avoid blame 6.use empathic understanding 7.avoid mindreading
Negotiation Styles and Outcomes Win-lose- one party gets what they want, the other comes up short Lose-Lose-neither side is satisfied with the outcome Compromise-both sides at least get some of what they wanted, through sacrifice of part of their goals Win Win-find a solution that satisfies the needs of everyone involved
B.Examine Possible Solutions 1.look for a win-win situation True Collaboration
2.avoid a win-lose situation Win the battle - lose the war
C.Test Solution = put the plan into action D.Evaluate the Solution = according to the criteria previously established
Handling Conflicts Assertively ä Identify the goal you are seeking ä Choose the best time to speak ä Rehearse the statement ä Pinpoint the specific behavior you want to discuss ä Explain your reaction to the behavior ä Make a request ä Describe the consequences
Conflict Management A case study A primary school teacher (3 rd grade) has had some discipline problems in her classroom. Several students have been chronically disruptive. The teacher has disciplined them in various ways (e.g., verbal warnings, extra homework, and detention) with little success. The students’ clownish antics threaten to turn the classroom into a zoo. As a “last resort she sends the disruptive students to the principal whose policy is that of corporal punishment. The teacher is uncomfortable with this policy, but desperate. The spankings temporarily reduced the disruption but it is beginning to increase again.
To make matters worse, now the entire class sees the teacher as an insensitive ogre. In addition, the parents have verbally accosted the teacher for sending their kids to be spanked. The teacher is beginning to lose motivation and the classroom has become a battlefield. Little learning is taking place. Parents are upset with the teacher, the students are upset with the teacher, and the teacher hasn’t a clue how to proceed. All right you brilliant conflict mangers, help this teacher. What should the teacher do?
What are some of the cultural issues addressed in this case study? What conflict style did the teacher use? What conflict style would you use? What are some helpful tools we can use assist the teacher?