Is Commodification Recycling? What is the difference between recycling, up-cycling, or down-cycling? All plastics are not made equal (Type,Shape,Color,Grade) Many names: Waste? Resource? Raw material? Scrap Plastic? A commodity? At what point is a material “recycled”? Bale? A ton? Flake? Pellet? Actual “new” material or product?
Conclusions & Recommendations Up-cycling: (Single use) MULTI USE Design a circular economy DISCLOSURE! Beyond diversion rates Utilize a “systems” approach Examine upstream & downstream processes Shift the burden: Extended Producer Responsibility Internalize externalities-separate costs RESEARCH more alternatives! – Social responsibility – Environmental responsibility – The role of POLICY MIXED bales contradict VHQ