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Pfander's 19th century polemics against Muhammad HPCF 2012 Jay Smith 5/5/2015.

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1 Pfander's 19th century polemics against Muhammad HPCF 2012 Jay Smith 5/5/2015

2 Muhammad’s Biographies 1,548 biographies have been listed (Hamadeh 1965: ; taken from Royster 1972:49) 1,548 biographies have been listed (Hamadeh 1965: ; taken from Royster 1972:49) Karen Armstrong: Muhammad was the man “who gave birth to a literary masterpiece, created a major religion and founded a world power, whose descendants are viewed as a profound threat to Western civilization” (Armstrong 1992:back cover) Karen Armstrong: Muhammad was the man “who gave birth to a literary masterpiece, created a major religion and founded a world power, whose descendants are viewed as a profound threat to Western civilization” (Armstrong 1992:back cover) W.Montgomery Watt: Muhammad was a “seer..a statesman, and an administrator” (Watt 1961:237) W.Montgomery Watt: Muhammad was a “seer..a statesman, and an administrator” (Watt 1961:237) Maxine Rodinson: Muhammad was an ideal, “the utopia that has never been achieved [which] is always before us” Maxine Rodinson: Muhammad was an ideal, “the utopia that has never been achieved [which] is always before us” Michael Cook: Muhammad was “a historical figure whose historicity yet leaves us much in doubt” (Cook 1983:61) Michael Cook: Muhammad was “a historical figure whose historicity yet leaves us much in doubt” (Cook 1983:61) Alfred Guillaume: Alfred Guillaume: Gives us the closest and best translation of Ibn Hisham’s 9 th century biography, derived from Ibn Ishaq.

3 II PFANDER’S HISTORICAL ASSESSMENTII PFANDER’S HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT CLASSICAL ACCOUNT: 570Muhammad was born 570Muhammad was born 610Met ‘Jibril’ in the Hira Cave 610Met ‘Jibril’ in the Hira Cave Received ‘Meccan Revelations’ Received ‘Meccan Revelations’ 621‘Mi’raj’ to the 7 heavens (5 prayers) 621‘Mi’raj’ to the 7 heavens (5 prayers) 622‘Hijra’ from Mecca to Medina 622‘Hijra’ from Mecca to Medina Received ‘Medinan Revelations’ Received ‘Medinan Revelations’ 630Conquered Mecca peacefully 630Conquered Mecca peacefully 632Died (poisoning?)…no written Qur’an 632Died (poisoning?)…no written Qur’an 5/5/2015

4 Dependency on THE TRADITIONS Many traditions speak of Muhammad’s sayings, works, miracles and prophecies, which gave him his authority. Many traditions speak of Muhammad’s sayings, works, miracles and prophecies, which gave him his authority. Dr. Carl Pfander doubts their authenticity, for a number of reasons: Dr. Carl Pfander doubts their authenticity, for a number of reasons: –The primary sources for these traditions come from relatives and followers of Muhammad, who would have had an agenda. –Those who collected them were not from that period, or from that area. 5/5/2015

5 Problem #1: Late DatesProblem #1: Late Dates 5/5/2015 Pfander’s 9 Problems with the Traditions

6 No extant MSS is written before 800 AD:No extant MSS is written before 800 AD: Sira (Hisham=833AD), Sira (Hisham=833AD), Hadith (Bukhari=870AD, Mishkat al-Masabih 14th C.), Hadith (Bukhari=870AD, Mishkat al-Masabih 14th C.), Tafsir, Tarikh Tafsir, Tarikh –Tabari=923AD,–Tabari=923AD, –al-Baladhuri=892,–al-Baladhuri=892, –az-Zamakshari=1144,–az-Zamakshari=1144, –al-Baydawi=1282,–al-Baydawi=1282, –as-Suyuti=1502–as-Suyuti=1502 Thus, not Primary, but Secondary sources Thus, not Primary, but Secondary sources 5/5/2015

7 Pfander’s Conclusion Since almost all the material available to us concerning the life of Muhammad, and the emergence of Islam from the 7 th c. (i.e. that of the Sira, Hadith, Tafsir, Ta’rikh), is not compiled until the 9 th - 10 th c., Pfander (and others) believe it cannot be trusted. Since almost all the material available to us concerning the life of Muhammad, and the emergence of Islam from the 7 th c. (i.e. that of the Sira, Hadith, Tafsir, Ta’rikh), is not compiled until the 9 th - 10 th c., Pfander (and others) believe it cannot be trusted. 5/5/2015

8 Contrast with Christ’s Biography Pfander: “On the other hand, all the sayings, doings, and miracles of Christ, were related by those who, with their own eyes and ears, heard and saw him” Pfander: “On the other hand, all the sayings, doings, and miracles of Christ, were related by those who, with their own eyes and ears, heard and saw him” Paul’s Letters = years (Tafsir) Paul’s Letters = years (Tafsir) Acts = years (Tahrikh) Acts = years (Tahrikh) 3 Gospels = years (Sira & Hadith) 3 Gospels = years (Sira & Hadith) 5/5/2015

9 Problem #2: Credibility The compilers took their material from collections compiled within the decades around 800 A.D., and not from any documents which were written in the seventh century, and certainly not from the person of Muhammad or his companions The compilers took their material from collections compiled within the decades around 800 A.D., and not from any documents which were written in the seventh century, and certainly not from the person of Muhammad or his companions –(Humphreys 1991:73, 83; Schacht 1949: : ; 145; Goldziher Goldziher :72). The Maghazi, which are stories of the prophet's battles and campaigns, are the earliest Muslim documents which we possess. They should have given us the best snapshot of that time, yet they tell us little concerning the prophet's life or teachings. In fact, oddly enough nowhere in these documents is there a veneration of Muhammad as a prophet! The Maghazi, which are stories of the prophet's battles and campaigns, are the earliest Muslim documents which we possess. They should have given us the best snapshot of that time, yet they tell us little concerning the prophet's life or teachings. In fact, oddly enough nowhere in these documents is there a veneration of Muhammad as a prophet! –John Wansbrough ( ): (Qur’anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation 1977) (Qur’anic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation 1977) (The Sectarian Milieu: Content and Composition of Islamic Salvation History 1978) (The Sectarian Milieu: Content and Composition of Islamic Salvation History 1978) 5/5/2015

10 Problem #3: Contradictions Al-Tabari’s conflicting accounts - i.e.15 different accounts of child Muhammad meeting a religious man (Crone 1987: ) during his infancy (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:107) during his infancy (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:107) when he was 9 (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:107) when he was 9 (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:107) or 12 years old (Ibn Sa’d 1960:120) or 12 years old (Ibn Sa’d 1960:120) Or when he was 25 (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:119) Or when he was 25 (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:119) seen by Ethiopian Christians (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:107) seen by Ethiopian Christians (Ibn Hisham ed.1860:107) or by Jews (‘Abd al-Razzaq 1972: 318) or by Jews (‘Abd al-Razzaq 1972: 318) Or by a seer (‘Abd al-Razzaq 1972: 318) Or by a seer (‘Abd al-Razzaq 1972: 318) or a Kahin (Ibn Sa’d 1960:166) or a Kahin (Ibn Sa’d 1960:166) at either Mecca, (‘Abd al-Razzaq 1972:317) at either Mecca, (‘Abd al-Razzaq 1972:317) or Ukaz (Abu Nu’aym 1950:116f). or Ukaz (Abu Nu’aym 1950:116f). or Dhu’l-Majaz (Abu Nu’aym 1950:95). or Dhu’l-Majaz (Abu Nu’aym 1950:95). “What we have here is nothing more than fifteen equally fictitious versions of an event that never took place.” (Crone 1987:220)

11 Problem #4: Proliferation Ishaq (765 AD): ‘Abdallah had died early enough to leave Muhammad an orphan; but as to the specific details of his death, “God knew best” (Cook 1983:63) Ishaq (765 AD): ‘Abdallah had died early enough to leave Muhammad an orphan; but as to the specific details of his death, “God knew best” (Cook 1983:63) Waqidi: when ‘Abdallah died, how he died, where he died, what his age was, and the exact place of his burial. Waqidi: (50 yrs. Later) when ‘Abdallah died, how he died, where he died, what his age was, and the exact place of his burial. According to Michael Cook, “this evolution in the course of half a century from uncertainty to a profusion of precise detail suggests that a fair amount of what Waqidi knew was not knowledge.” (Cook 1983:63-65) According to Michael Cook, “this evolution in the course of half a century from uncertainty to a profusion of precise detail suggests that a fair amount of what Waqidi knew was not knowledge.” (Cook 1983:63-65) Bukhari: from 600,000 down to 7,397 =1.2% (or 2,762 non-repetitive Hadith) Bukhari: from 600,000 down to 7,397 =1.2% (or 2,762 non-repetitive Hadith)

12 Problem #5: Isnad Names of transmitters Names of transmitters No documentation before 9th century No documentation before 9th century Prophetic authority begins with Sha’fi (820AD) Prophetic authority begins with Sha’fi (820AD) Based on Oral Tradition… Based on Oral Tradition…-Embellishment -No need for Oral Tradition after 4 th c. -Conquest of Literate metropolises 5/5/2015

13 Problem #6: Storytellers Kussas: “As storyteller followed upon storyteller, the recollection of the past was reduced to a common stock of stories, themes, and motifs that could be combined and recombined in a profusion of apparently factual accounts. Each combination and recombination would generate new details, and as spurious information accumulated, genuine information would be lost. In the absence of an alternative tradition, early scholars were forced to rely on the tales of storytellers, as did Ibn Ishaq, Waqidi, and other historians. It is because they relied on the same repertoire of tales that they all said such similar things”. (Crone 1987:225) Kussas: “As storyteller followed upon storyteller, the recollection of the past was reduced to a common stock of stories, themes, and motifs that could be combined and recombined in a profusion of apparently factual accounts. Each combination and recombination would generate new details, and as spurious information accumulated, genuine information would be lost. In the absence of an alternative tradition, early scholars were forced to rely on the tales of storytellers, as did Ibn Ishaq, Waqidi, and other historians. It is because they relied on the same repertoire of tales that they all said such similar things”. (Crone 1987:225) 5/5/2015

14 Problem #7: Ridiculous language & ideas –Virgins in heaven are grown out of the ground ‘like roses on the banks of the river of paradise, gathered by believers, and replaced by new virgins’ –‘Birds of Paradise descend upon tables, already cooked and roasted, and when eaten they come to life again and fly away’ –‘1000 years before it was lighted, Hell was blown by bellows’ –‘The damned wear shoes of fire, whose heat is so great it causes their brains to boil’ 5/5/2015

15 –‘Gabriel wanted to take clay from the earth, but the clay refused, until the angel of death took it by force, gave it to Gabriel, who then created mankind with it’ –‘Angels are so large that the expanse of heaven only comes to their loins, and travelling from the shoulder to the ear would take 700 years’ –‘God created the dog from Satan’s spittle’ –‘Iblis, the accursed, after Adam’s death, urinated at the foot of a vine, which caused wine to be intoxicating’ –‘At judgement, men will sweat so much, it will reach above their heads’ 5/5/2015

16 Problem #8: Traditions contradict the Qur’an Traditions claim he was born a believer, while the Qur’an says he was first ignorant. Traditions claim he was born a believer, while the Qur’an says he was first ignorant. Traditions claim he did many miracles, while the Qur’an only denies them (Suras 2: ; 6:37, 124; 13:7; 17:59; 54:1) Traditions claim he did many miracles, while the Qur’an only denies them (Suras 2: ; 6:37, 124; 13:7; 17:59; 54:1) Traditions claim Muhammad is without sin, while Suras 40:55; 47:19; 48:1-2; 94:1-3 claim he sinned. Traditions claim Muhammad is without sin, while Suras 40:55; 47:19; 48:1-2; 94:1-3 claim he sinned. 5/5/2015

17 Problem #9: The Traditions contradict themselves In the “Haqq-ul-Yakin” it states forgiveness cannot come thru lamentations, worship, prostrations, fasting, or reading the Qur’an. Yet a few traditions state sins are forgiven by reading the Qur’an, purifications, and almsgiving. In the “Haqq-ul-Yakin” it states forgiveness cannot come thru lamentations, worship, prostrations, fasting, or reading the Qur’an. Yet a few traditions state sins are forgiven by reading the Qur’an, purifications, and almsgiving. In the same tradition Muhammad will be called first in the day of judgement, while in leaf 188 it is Noah who is called first. In the same tradition Muhammad will be called first in the day of judgement, while in leaf 188 it is Noah who is called first. 5/5/2015

18 In the “Hyat-ul-Kuloub”, vol.2, leaf 175 Muhammad is in the 2 nd heaven, while in leaf 180, on the authority of Ibn Babiwihi Iman Mohammed Bakir, he is in the 7 th heaven. In the “Hyat-ul-Kuloub”, vol.2, leaf 175 Muhammad is in the 2 nd heaven, while in leaf 180, on the authority of Ibn Babiwihi Iman Mohammed Bakir, he is in the 7 th heaven. Many of the Sunni traditions contradict the Shia traditions Many of the Sunni traditions contradict the Shia traditions As Ali Ibn Talib concludes “I find that some of the traditions handed down from Mohammed contradict one another and that you even do not count them reliable…how should we know a true tradition?” As Ali Ibn Talib concludes “I find that some of the traditions handed down from Mohammed contradict one another and that you even do not count them reliable…how should we know a true tradition?” 5/5/2015

19 II PFANDER’S PERSONAL ASSESSMENT OF MUHAMMAD 4 Biblical qualities of a true Prophet of God A Prophet must be born in the Prophetic Race (Genesis 17 & 22) A Prophet must be born in the Prophetic Race (Genesis 17 & 22) A Prophet's Predictions must be Verifiable, or he must perform a miracle to verify his authority ( A Prophet's Predictions must be Verifiable, or he must perform a miracle to verify his authority (Deut. 18:21-22; Is. 43:9; John 13:18-21) A Prophet's Message must Conform to previous Revelation ( A Prophet's Message must Conform to previous Revelation (Deut. 4:1-2; Is. 8:20; Psl. 89:35; Matt. 5:17-18; 24:35; Rev. 22:18-20) A Prophet’s Character must be a model for humanity, everywhere, and always A Prophet’s Character must be a model for humanity, everywhere, and always

20 5/5/2015 1) MIRACLES & PREDICTIONS Kairanvi’s Position: Sheikh Haji Rahmatu'llah Kairanvi’s Position: Supernatural witness points to Muhammad's Prophet-hood (angels & heart, protective cloud) Supernatural witness points to Muhammad's Prophet-hood (angels & heart, protective cloud) Prophesying points to his Prophet-hood (Sura 30:1-4 ‘defeat in a few years’…615 vs. 628). Prophesying points to his Prophet-hood (Sura 30:1-4 ‘defeat in a few years’…615 vs. 628). Miracles point to his Prophet hood (Challenge in Sura 17:90-93) Miracles point to his Prophet hood (Challenge in Sura 17:90-93) Illiterate Creator of the Qur'an points to his Prophet hood (Sura 7:157 & 62:2 = ‘unlettered’). Illiterate Creator of the Qur'an points to his Prophet hood (Sura 7:157 & 62:2 = ‘unlettered’).

21 Pfander’s Response: Muhammad responded in Suras 2: ; 6:37, 124; 13:7; 17:59 = ‘nothing more than a teacher, a warner, an apostle’ Muhammad responded in Suras 2: ; 6:37, 124; 13:7; 17:59 = ‘nothing more than a teacher, a warner, an apostle’ Pfander asks why Muhammad didn’t point to a miracle from the past? Pfander asks why Muhammad didn’t point to a miracle from the past? 5/5/2015

22 Kairanvi’s Miracle 1: Splitting the Moon, (Sura 54:1) Muhammad split the moon as proof of his prophet-hood Muhammad split the moon as proof of his prophet-hood 20 th C.: ‘Supposedly Neil Armstrong saw the fissure on the back side of the moon, as proof’ 20 th C.: ‘Supposedly Neil Armstrong saw the fissure on the back side of the moon, as proof’ 5/5/2015

23 Pfander’s Response: Quoting: Baidawi: “Some say the meaning of this verse is that in the day of judgment the moon will be split” Baidawi: “Some say the meaning of this verse is that in the day of judgment the moon will be split” Hadifa: “Truly the moon has been split, that is to say, the resurrection has drawn nigh; and truly the sign of its approach hath appeared, and that sign is, that the moon has been split” Hadifa: “Truly the moon has been split, that is to say, the resurrection has drawn nigh; and truly the sign of its approach hath appeared, and that sign is, that the moon has been split” 5/5/2015

24 Tafsir Tibyan: “The advent of the resurrection is at hand, for the moon has become split; that is one of the signs of the resurrection” “The advent of the resurrection is at hand, for the moon has become split; that is one of the signs of the resurrection” 5/5/2015

25 Pfander’s Conclusion: He contends that neither in this verse, nor elsewhere in the Qur’an is there any indication that it occurred by Muhammad’s hand. He contends that neither in this verse, nor elsewhere in the Qur’an is there any indication that it occurred by Muhammad’s hand. Certainly, Muhammad would have mentioned it as a proof of prophet-hood when questioned by the Jews in: Suras 2: ; 6:37, 124; 13:7; 17:59 Certainly, Muhammad would have mentioned it as a proof of prophet-hood when questioned by the Jews in: Suras 2: ; 6:37, 124; 13:7; 17:59 Thus, this is a future rendering, and cannot be attributed to Muhammad. Thus, this is a future rendering, and cannot be attributed to Muhammad. 5/5/2015

26 Kairanvi’s Miracle 2: Sand in the Enemy’s Eyes (Sura, The spoils) Kairanwi: At the Battle of Badr Muhammad threw sand into the eyes of the Meccans, blinding them and bringing about victory. Kairanwi: At the Battle of Badr Muhammad threw sand into the eyes of the Meccans, blinding them and bringing about victory. 5/5/2015

27 Pfander’s Response: This is no miracle, but a common gesture by military commanders to urge on their troops. This is no miracle, but a common gesture by military commanders to urge on their troops. Besides, a handful of sand would not rout men. Besides, a handful of sand would not rout men. 5/5/2015

28 Pfander’s Conclusion: “We now see that in no passage of the Koran is it said that Mohammed performed a certain miracle in a certain place, at such a time; that when those who denied his mission demanded a miracle, he always excused himself” “We now see that in no passage of the Koran is it said that Mohammed performed a certain miracle in a certain place, at such a time; that when those who denied his mission demanded a miracle, he always excused himself” 5/5/2015

29 Kairanvi: Muhammad’s Predictions: Prediction 1: Kairanvi: Muhammad predicted a victory at Badr Kairanvi: Muhammad predicted a victory at Badr –“They say, We are a body of men able to prevail. The multitude shall surely be put to flight and shall turn their backs” 5/5/2015

30 Pfander’s Response: This is nothing more than an encouragement to the troops before the battle. This is nothing more than an encouragement to the troops before the battle. The fact the battle is won is merely coincidental. The fact the battle is won is merely coincidental. Besides, did he not also say he would win at ‘Uhud’, in 625 AD, yet he was routed, and nearly killed! Besides, did he not also say he would win at ‘Uhud’, in 625 AD, yet he was routed, and nearly killed! 5/5/2015

31 Prediction 2: Sura 30:1-4 Sura 30:1-4 ‘The Greeks (Byzantines) have been overcome in the nearest part of the land; but after their defeat they shall overcome within 3-9 years” ‘The Greeks (Byzantines) have been overcome in the nearest part of the land; but after their defeat they shall overcome within 3-9 years” 5/5/2015

32 Pfander’s Response: This is a 50/50 chance prophecy, great odds to ‘take to Las Vegas’ This is a 50/50 chance prophecy, great odds to ‘take to Las Vegas’ Besides, Sura 30 was revealed in 615 AD Besides, Sura 30 was revealed in 615 AD –Yet the Byzantines didn’t overcome the Persians until 628 AD…13 years later 5/5/2015

33 2) CONTRADICTORY MESSAGE The Qur’an, Muhammad’s revelation, contradicts much of the Bible. We are told to beware of those who were false prophets (Matt.24:11,24; Gal.1:8-9) The Qur’an, Muhammad’s revelation, contradicts much of the Bible. We are told to beware of those who were false prophets (Matt.24:11,24; Gal.1:8-9) Thus, according to Pfander, God would not send contradictory revelations, which puts doubt on Muhammad’s prophetic office. Thus, according to Pfander, God would not send contradictory revelations, which puts doubt on Muhammad’s prophetic office. 5/5/2015

34 3) MUHAMMAD’S CHARACTER Muhammad’s Wives Preferences: al-Zamakhshari: ‘Muhammad bestowed his love most often on Aisha, Hafsa, Um Salama and Zaynab’ ‘But deferred the turn of five of his women (Ummu Habiba, Maymuna, Sawda, Juwayrid, and Safiyya). These he would visit according to whim’ 5/5/2015

35 Maryam, the Copt, and Hafsa Muhammad had a rota with his wives. When Hafsa was out during her slot he slept with Maryam, in Hafsa’s bed, but when discovered declared an oath not to sleep with her again; yet did for a month when questioned by Aisha. S. 66:1 "O prophet, why forbiddest thou what God has made lawful to thee, seeking the good pleasure of thy wives...?“ S. 66:1 "O prophet, why forbiddest thou what God has made lawful to thee, seeking the good pleasure of thy wives...?“ –(Mizanu'l Haqq, pg.330 and Mishkat II, pgs ) (read Ali's version of 66:1, plus footnotes). 5/5/2015

36 Zaynab wife of Zaid, his adopted son Zaid divorces Zaynab once hearing Muhammad finds her beautiful. (S.33:36-38) Zaid divorces Zaynab once hearing Muhammad finds her beautiful. –(Hyat-ul-Kuloub Vol2,chap.53) Then the Almighty Allah revealed: you (Muhammad) may put off whom you please of them, you may take to you whom you wish, and if you desire any whom you have separated, no blame attaches to you” (Sura 33:51) Pfander: Marrying Zaynab could not be kept secret, and would offend the Arabs, so he produced this verse 5/5/2015

37 Aisha, Muhammad’s favourite (al Bukhari 7:64, 88) Muhammad married Aisha when she was seven years old, and she was taken to his house as a bride when she was nine, along with her dolls…he was 53. When Muhammad died she was only eighteen. (al Bukhari 7:64, 88) Pfander: is this a legitimate example for a prophet today? 5/5/2015

38 Should Prophets follow their Revelations? Sura 4:3 = 1 man can have up to 4 wives Sura 4:3 = 1 man can have up to 4 wives –Muhammad had 9, or 11, or 15! –Was permitted any number in S.33:50 Sura 4:3 = Men must treat their wives equally Sura 4:3 = Men must treat their wives equally –S.33:51 gave Muhammad permission to dissolve his oath not to sleep with Maryam over Hafsa 5/5/2015

39 Manipulating Scripture S. 2:217 – Permits fighting during the month of ‘Peace’ S. 2:217 – Permits fighting during the month of ‘Peace’ When Abdullah ibn Jahsh attacked a Quraishi caravan during the month of ‘peace’ near Taif, Muhammad ‘received’ S. 2:217, allowing him to fight during this month, and so permitting him 1/5 th of the booty for this raid. When Abdullah ibn Jahsh attacked a Quraishi caravan during the month of ‘peace’ near Taif, Muhammad ‘received’ S. 2:217, allowing him to fight during this month, and so permitting him 1/5 th of the booty for this raid. –(Rauzat ul Abbab, Vol.2,Pgs ) 5/5/2015

40 Muhammad’s violence Muhammad participated in 27 battles, and planned another 38 Muhammad participated in 27 battles, and planned another 38 Nadher and Okba were slain for suggesting the Qur’an was derived from fables Nadher and Okba were slain for suggesting the Qur’an was derived from fables Asma Bint Mervan was slain by Omar ibn Adij while suckling her child; her crime: writing poetic verse against Muhammad Asma Bint Mervan was slain by Omar ibn Adij while suckling her child; her crime: writing poetic verse against Muhammad Kaab ibn Ashraf was killed by Abu Naila for praising some slain Quraishis Kaab ibn Ashraf was killed by Abu Naila for praising some slain Quraishis Banu Quraiza Jewish men had their throats slit after the battle of the trenches Banu Quraiza Jewish men had their throats slit after the battle of the trenches 5/5/2015

41 Psychological Manifestations Ibn Ishaq’s ‘Insan-ul-Ayun’: ‘When receiving Qur’anic revelations, with his eyes closed, he would become unconscious, tremble, his mouth would foam, and he would bellow like a camel’. Ibn Ishaq’s ‘Insan-ul-Ayun’: ‘When receiving Qur’anic revelations, with his eyes closed, he would become unconscious, tremble, his mouth would foam, and he would bellow like a camel’. Zaid ibn Thabit: He would be in agony, lose his senses, and become intoxicated. Zaid ibn Thabit: He would be in agony, lose his senses, and become intoxicated. Abu Harira: “While revelation was descending on him, none of us could look upon him, because his mouth foamed, and his eyes closed, and sometimes he would cry like a camel” Abu Harira: “While revelation was descending on him, none of us could look upon him, because his mouth foamed, and his eyes closed, and sometimes he would cry like a camel” Pfander: These are examples of Epileptic fits, & visions; thus Muhammad believed he was inspired. Pfander: These are examples of Epileptic fits, & visions; thus Muhammad believed he was inspired. 5/5/2015

42 Many didn’t Believe him Aisha: When he died, the Arabs left Islam, the Jews and Christians rejoiced, and the Hypocrites scattered and fled. Aisha: When he died, the Arabs left Islam, the Jews and Christians rejoiced, and the Hypocrites scattered and fled. Abu Obeida: Upon Muhammad’s death most Meccans gave up Islam, forcing the governor of Mecca, Attab, to stay in his house for several days, out of fear. Abu Obeida: Upon Muhammad’s death most Meccans gave up Islam, forcing the governor of Mecca, Attab, to stay in his house for several days, out of fear. Pfander: It was only due to the aggressive wars of Abu Bakr and Umar, attributing their victories to Muhammad that Islam was retained, established, and then spread. Pfander: It was only due to the aggressive wars of Abu Bakr and Umar, attributing their victories to Muhammad that Islam was retained, established, and then spread. 5/5/2015

43 Pfander Concludes: ‘Does God allow a prophet to not follow his revelation, or manipulate that revelation, or break an oath to gratify his passion, or marry the wife of another person? Absolutely not; thus, these revelations are not from God, but entirely composed by Muhammad himself, while his character proves he can be no prophet worthy of God.’ 5/5/2015

44 Pfander: Were there Prophecies Concerning Muhammad? Sura 7:157: “Those who can follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write whom they find written with them in the Taurut and the Injeel…” Sura 7:157: “Those who can follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write whom they find written with them in the Taurut and the Injeel…” 61:6: “And when ‘Isa son of Maryam said ‘O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming the Taurat [Torah] before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad…” 61:6: “And when ‘Isa son of Maryam said ‘O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming the Taurat [Torah] before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad…” 5/5/2015

45 Kairanvi: Deuteronomy 18:15, Comparison: Who is the prophet like Moses? Is it his life or mission? 2. Contrast: This prophet cannot be Muhammad (“brothers”=Israelite 17:15). 2. Contrast: This prophet cannot be Muhammad (“brothers”=Israelite 17:15). 3. Condemnation: See the punishment for a ‘false prophet’…’Must be put to death!’ (Deut. 18:20) 4. Consideration: This prophet must be Jesus (John 1:45; John 5:46; John 6:14; Acts 3:22). 5. Conclusion: Without a prediction where is Muhammad's authority?

46 Kairanvi: Other Predictions in the Old Testament? sword (Psalm 45:2-5; 149; Isaiah 63). sword (Psalm 45:2-5; 149; Isaiah 63). geographical location (Deuteronomy 33:2; Isaiah 21 & 42 (kedar), 63; Habakkuk 3:3) geographical location (Deuteronomy 33:2; Isaiah 21 & 42 (kedar), 63; Habakkuk 3:3) Name: (Genesis 49:8-10=Judah; Haggai 2:7=Hemdah) Name: (Genesis 49:8-10=Judah; Haggai 2:7=Hemdah)

47 Kairanvi: Song of Solomon 5:16 Song of Solomon 5:16 = "His mouth is sweetness itself; he is altogether lovely. This is my lover, this my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem." ‘Machmad’ (Ahmad)vs. Hemdan Adjectival phrase vs. Proper Noun Adjectival phrase vs. Proper Noun 1 Kings 20:6 = "Yet I will send my servants to thee tomorrow about this time, and they shall search thy house, and the houses of thy servants; and it shall be, [that] whatever is Muhammad in thy eyes, they shall take [it] in their hand, and carry [it] away” (see also: 2 Chronicles 36:19; Isaiah 64:11; Lamentations 1:10, 11; 2:4; Ezekiel 24:16, 21, 25; Hosea 9:6, 16; Joel 3:5)

48 Kairanvi: Muhammad in the Injil? Parakletos or Periklytos (John 14:16 & 16:7)? Pfander: Greek language confirms parakletos. Greek language confirms parakletos. Greek manuscripts confirm parakletos Greek manuscripts confirm parakletos Therefore Muhammad could not be the parakletos Therefore Muhammad could not be the parakletos

49 5/5/2015 So who is the Parakletos? 14:16="he will be with you for ever" 14:16="he will be with you for ever" 14:17="he will be the spirit of truth" 14:17="he will be the spirit of truth" 14:17="the world neither sees him..." 14:17="the world neither sees him..." 14:17="...nor knows him" 14:17="...nor knows him" 14:17="and he will be in you" 14:17="and he will be in you" i.e. = Holy Spirit, who arrived 50 days later (Acts 1:4-5)

50 5/5/2015 THE DANISH CARTOON CONTROVERSY The original 12 Danish Cartoons, printed in Jyllands Posten Newspaper, Denmark, in Sept. 2005

51 5/5/2015 Danish Cartoon reprinted in the Egyptian Al-Fajr Newspaper, on Oct. 17, 2005, yet, resulting in no protests! So why such a contrast?

52 5/5/2015 Imam Ahmad Abu Laban (leader of the Islamic Society of Denmark) & his campaign to anger the Muslim World Imam Ahmad Abu Laban Aug. 15 photo of Jacques Barrot competing at the annual French Pig-Squealing Championships in Trie-sur-Baise

53 Why is he significant to Muslims? His role in history His role in history His role as intercessor His role as intercessor What are the claims they are making today? Their relationship with him Their relationship with him How can We use this in Evangelism? The need for a personal relationship with god/man The need for a personal relationship with god/man This is a great bridge to introduce Jesus as God/Man This is a great bridge to introduce Jesus as God/Man We have what they all want!!!! We have what they all want!!!! 5/5/2015

54 THE GREATEST, JESUS OR MUHAMMAD? Sura 19:20 = Isa ‘born of a virgin’ Sura 19:20 = Isa ‘born of a virgin’ Sura 3:46 = Isa able to speak from the cradle Sura 3:46 = Isa able to speak from the cradle Sura 3:49 = Isa: Sura 3:49 = Isa: Created birds out of clay Created birds out of clay Healed the blind Healed the blind Healed the leper Healed the leper Resuscitated the dead Resuscitated the dead Sura 19:19 – Isa the ‘righteous son’ Sura 19:19 – Isa the ‘righteous son’ –S.48:1-2: Muhammad asks forgiveness for sin 5/5/2015

55 PFANDER’S CONCLUSIONS: All we know of Muhammad comes from the Islamic Traditions All we know of Muhammad comes from the Islamic Traditions These Traditions are from the 8 th -9 th centuries, thus too late These Traditions are from the 8 th -9 th centuries, thus too late The traditions are not credible; derived from Oral Traditions The traditions are not credible; derived from Oral Traditions They begin to proliferate from the 9 th century on They begin to proliferate from the 9 th century on They use ridiculous language and ideas They use ridiculous language and ideas They contradict the Qur’an and themselves They contradict the Qur’an and themselves Thus, much of Muhammad’s biography is suspect Thus, much of Muhammad’s biography is suspect Muhammad doesn’t fulfil the 4 Biblical criteria for prophet-hood Muhammad doesn’t fulfil the 4 Biblical criteria for prophet-hood He could not provide any miracles, nor predictions He could not provide any miracles, nor predictions He could not control his wives, and was not a universal model He could not control his wives, and was not a universal model He used violence, was psychologically suspect He used violence, was psychologically suspect He is not referred to anywhere in the Old or New Testament! He is not referred to anywhere in the Old or New Testament! He is inferior to Jesus, and cannot give what Jesus can… He is inferior to Jesus, and cannot give what Jesus can… –Salvation from sin and an eternal life!!!


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