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1 Design Theory

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2 Minimal Sets of Dependancies A set of dependencies is minimal if: 1.Every right side is a single attribute 2.For no X A in F and proper subset Z of X is F – {X A} U {Z A} equivalent to F. 3.For no X A in F is the set F – {X A} equivalent to F If G is equivalent to F and G is minimal, we say that G is a minimal cover of F

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3 Finding Minimal Covers 1.Replace each FD of the form X A 1...A n with n FDs:X A 1,..., X A n 2.For each FD A 1...A n B and each attribute A i if F – {A 1...A n B} U {A 1...A i-1 A i+1...A n B} is equivalent to F, then delete A i from the left side. How do we check this? It is enough to check if F implies A 1...A i-1 A i+1...A n B. Why?

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4 Finding Minimal Covers (cont) 3.For each FD X A, if F – {X A} is equivalent to F, then delete X A How do we check this? It is enough to check if F – {X A} implies X A. Why?

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5 Example Find a minimal cover for: AB CD EG CACABE C BC DCG BD ACD BCE AG

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6 Normal Form of a Schema A schema S is in BCNF if for every FD X Y that holds in S, –Y is a subset of X or –X is a super-key (i.e., X contains a key) If this is not the case, our schema may be problematic. Example: Sup_Info(name, address, item, price) name address name, item price

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7 Decompositions A decomposition of a schema R is a set R 1...R n such that –R 1 is contained in R –R = R 1 U... U R n We may decompose a schema so that it will be a set of schemas all in BCNF. Not every decomposition is good. Can you find a trivial decomposition to BCNF?

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8 Lossless Join Decompositions A decomposition R 1...R n of R is lossless if for all instances r of R that satisfy the FDs of R: r = R 1 (r) ... R n (r) Checking if a decomposition is lossless: Create a table with a column for each attribute and a row for each sub-schema In row i and column k, put a symbol a k if the attribute of column k is in the schema of row i. Otherwise, put b ik

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9 Lossless Join Decompositions (2) While there is a dependency X A in F such that there are 2 rows that have the same values in X and differ in A do: –Choose one of the values. (if one is an a-value, then it must be chosen) –Make all the occurrences of the other value equal to the chosen value If the resulting relation has a row of all a-s, then the decomposition has a lossless join

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10 Example R = ABCDE, R 1 = AD, R 2 = AB, R 3 = BE, R 4 = CDE, and R 5 = AE Functional dependencies: –A C –B C –C D –DE C –CE A

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11 Example ABCDE a1a1 b 12 b 13 a4a4 b 15 a1a1 a2a2 b 23 b 24 b 25 b 31 a2a2 b 33 b 34 a5a5 b 41 b 42 a3a3 a4a4 a5a5 a1a1 b 52 b 53 b 54 a5a5

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12 Decompositions that Preserve Dependencies Problem: Suppose that we decompose R and then insert rows into the decomposition. Is it possible that the join of these rows will contradict a FD? Example: R = CSZ (city, street, zip-code) then, CS Z, Z C hold in R. Suppose we decompose into SZ and CZ. This is lossless. However, we can contradict CS Z

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13 Definitions We define Z (F) to be the set of dependencies X Y in F + such that X and Y are in Z. We say that a decomposition R 1...R n of R is dependency preserving if for all instances r of R that satisfy the FDs of R: R 1 (F) U... U R n (F) implies F Note that the other direction of implication clearly holds always.

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14 Testing Dependency Preservation To check if the decomposition preserves X Y: Z:=X while changes to Z occur do for i:=1..n do Z:=Z U ((Z R i ) + R i ) /*closure w.r.t. F*/ Return true if Y is contained in Z U U

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15 Example Suppose R=ABCD and we have a decomposition {AB, BC, CD}, and dependencies {A B, B C, C D, D A}. Does this decomposition preserve D A?

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16 Goal Given a schema R, we would like to check if R is in BCNF (How?). –If yes, good –If not, try to find a decomposition of R that has a lossless join and is dependency preserving. Is this always possible? –lossless join: yes –dependency preserving: no

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17 Decomposing to BCNF Lemma: 1.Every 2-attribute schema is in BCNF 2.If R is not in BCNF, then we can find attributes A and B in R such that (R – AB) A Proof: 1.Easy 2.Suppose that R is not in BCNF. Then there is a FD X A that violates the BCNF condition. Then, A is not in X and there is an attribute B other then A not in X (otherwise, X is a key).

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18 Algorithm for Lossless Join, BCNF Decomposition Algorithm in handout. Example: Relation CTHRSG (course, teacher, hour, room, student, grade), FDs: –C T –HR C –HT R –CS G –HS R

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Design Theory.

Design Theory.

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