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Universals of verbal and non-verbal messages. “To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and.

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Presentation on theme: "Universals of verbal and non-verbal messages. “To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Universals of verbal and non-verbal messages. “To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others.” “To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others.” - Anthony Robbins, Motivational Speaker

2 Chapter 6 Universals of verbal and non-verbal messages. Universals of verbal and non-verbal messages. Assertive Communication Assertive Communication

3 Assertiveness: “Win Win” Steps for increasing assertiveness: Steps for increasing assertiveness: 1. Analyze assertive communications 2. Rehearse assertive communications 3. Communicate assertively

4 Assertive Communication Stand up for yourself Stand up for yourself Express feelings directly Express feelings directly Improve relationships Improve relationships Give Compliments Give Compliments Give Criticism Give Criticism Make requests Make requests Say No / Set Limits Say No / Set Limits

5 Universals of Verbal and Non-Verbal Message Non-Verbal Messages are used to: 1. Accent 2. Complement 3. Contradict 4. Control 5. Repeat 6. Substitute For

6 Messages and Meanings Meanings are: In People In People More Than Words and Gestures More Than Words and Gestures Unique Unique Context-Based Context-Based

7 Meanings are in People You do not receive meaning. You create meaning. You do not receive meaning. You create meaning. Words do not mean. People mean. Words do not mean. People mean.

8 Meanings are more than words and gestures Understand other people’s meanings by your perceptions Understand other people’s meanings by your perceptions 1. who you are 2. what you are feeling

9 Meanings are Unique No two people derive the same meaning No two people derive the same meaning Same person can derive different meanings on different occasions Same person can derive different meanings on different occasions

10 Meanings are Unique As you change, you also change the meanings you create out of past messages As you change, you also change the meanings you create out of past messages Check your perceptions of another’s meanings Check your perceptions of another’s meanings

11 Messages Context-Based Context-Based Packaged Packaged Rule-Governed Rule-Governed Abstract/Concrete Abstract/Concrete Politeness Politeness Inclusion/Exclusion Inclusion/Exclusion Direct/Indirect Direct/Indirect Gender/Culture Gender/Culture

12 Messages are context-based Words or behaviors have different meanings in different contexts Words or behaviors have different meanings in different contexts Depends on other behavior that accompanies it Depends on other behavior that accompanies it Cultural context Cultural context

13 Messages are Packaged Parts work together to communicate a unified meaning Parts work together to communicate a unified meaning Look at entire package before interpreting another’s meaning Look at entire package before interpreting another’s meaning Contradictory verbal and non-verbal messages question credibility and sincerity Contradictory verbal and non-verbal messages question credibility and sincerity

14 Messages are Rule-Governed Grammar Grammar Behavior Behavior Non-Verbal rules and norms Non-Verbal rules and norms

15 Messages vary in abstraction General terms are abstract and specific terms are concrete General terms are abstract and specific terms are concrete Abstract terms lead to different images Abstract terms lead to different images Effective verbal messages usually include specifics Effective verbal messages usually include specifics

16 Messages vary in politeness Politeness is a desirable trait Politeness is a desirable trait Women’s speech tends to be more polite than men Women’s speech tends to be more polite than men

17 Messages vary in inclusion Inclusive messages: include all people present and acknowledge relevance of others Inclusive messages: include all people present and acknowledge relevance of others Exclusive messages: using language to exclude others outside your group Exclusive messages: using language to exclude others outside your group

18 Messages vary in directness Indirect messages AdvantagesDisadvantages Politeness Politeness Seeking compliments Seeking compliments Win Lose Win Lose Resentment & Competition Resentment & Competition

19 Gender differences WomenMen More indirect in giving orders More indirect in giving orders Power is ability to choose own style of communication Power is ability to choose own style of communication Indirect when Expressing weakness Expressing weakness Admitting problems Admitting problems Admitting an error Admitting an error Emotions (except anger) Emotions (except anger) Refusing increased intimacy Refusing increased intimacy Going against masculine stereotype Going against masculine stereotype

20 Cultural Differences Many Asian and Latin American countries stress indirectness to avoid appear being critical or contradicted as a way to “save face.” Many Asian and Latin American countries stress indirectness to avoid appear being critical or contradicted as a way to “save face.”

21 Indirectness Consider how easy it is for misunderstandings to occur. Consider how easy it is for misunderstandings to occur.

22 Messages vary in Assertiveness Nonassertiveness: You win I lose; passive approach to communication Nonassertiveness: You win I lose; passive approach to communication Aggresiveness: I win you lose; caring little for others’ needs Aggresiveness: I win you lose; caring little for others’ needs

23 Messages Vary in Assertiveness Nonassertiveness Nonassertiveness “You Win, I lose” “You Win, I lose” Aggressiveness Aggressiveness “I Win, You Lose” “I Win, You Lose” Assertiveness Assertiveness “I Win, You Win” “I Win, You Win”

24 Assertiveness I win you win I win you win Act in your own best interest without denying or infringing upon the rights of others Act in your own best interest without denying or infringing upon the rights of others

25 Assertiveness Steps for increasing assertiveness: Steps for increasing assertiveness: 1. Analyze assertive communications 2. Rehearse assertive communications 3. Communicate assertively

26 Communicating Assertively Describe the Problem Describe the Problem State How it Affects You State How it Affects You Propose Solutions Propose Solutions Confirm Understanding Confirm Understanding Reflect on Own Assertiveness Reflect on Own Assertiveness


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