Combine After you’ve evaluated the information you’ve found, how can you combine it with existing information?
Learning outcomes This unit aims to support you to develop skills associated with the Combine step of the information literacy cycle. It will enable you to: Summarise key points of the information you’ve found Use brainstorming and mindmapping to organise ideas and topics Understand how the tagging tool works in SSKS Understand copyright and plagiarism
Combining, organizing & storing the information you’ve found To help organise and summarise the information you’ve found in your search, it can be useful to reflect on your information need, what you’ve found out and from what sources. Summarising or listing the key points helps you consolidate what you’ve learned and will help you identify any gaps that might need more investigation.
Combining new and existing information think about what you’ve found: was it new to you? Did it back up or contradict something you already knew? creating a new folder on your computer and storing all the information you’re found print off materials you’ve found and file them in a binder or filing cabinet. summarise the information you’ve found in the course of your search by highlighting the key points
Summaries Summaries should be concise, logical and written in clear language (see unit 6 (Share) for more on this). Summaries can be emailed, posted to your organisation’s intranet or document sharing system if there is one. Remember, it is ok to share a summary of what you’ve found and cite the sources but not always to copy and share the original article. It depends on the copyright restrictions on the original document.
Brainstorming & Mind-mapping Brainstorming help to get all your ideas onto the page Mind maps help you make links between the pieces of information you’ve gathered and begin to organise it. Mind maps are a graphic way of seeing how ideas and topics can be linked.
Activity 1 Organise these terms into a mind map: Learning disabilities schools Legislationstress Autismchildren resilience Down syndromeparentssiblingscoping child development Additional Support for Learning Act
SSKS tagging tool SSKS has a handy tagging tool to help you group and combine resources you find useful. Insert image of search result
Adding tags to SSKS resources Add Tags lets you add keywords to a resource and will store them in your own personal space so you can access them again without searching next time you log in. Your personal space is part of an area linked to SSKS called My Community Space that has several useful tools to support communities and sharing. You can view other people’s tags or just your own. The SSKS tagging tool can also be used to tag any resource on the open Internet too, not just SSKS resources. You can downloaded the tagging tool to your browser (e.g. Internet Explorer or Firefox) to tag anything you find useful on the Internet and save them in your SSKS personal space. For more on My Community Space and the tools available including instructions on how to download the tagging tool go to www.mcs.scot.nhs.uk/www.mcs.scot.nhs.uk/
Free online tools for combining and organising information Boxnet (www.box.net/) is a free web service that allows you to upload and store your resources.www.box.net/ Delicious (http://delicious.com/) is another free web service that allows you to tag and manage your web favourites.http://delicious.com/ Both Boxnet and Delicious also allow you to share your resources with others. We’ll discuss sharing further unit 6 (Share) of this training pack.
Copyright All original work – music, journal articles, essays, photographs, user guides, PowerPoint presentations – has a creator, or author and that person or organisation automatically owns the copyright of that work. Copyright gives authors certain rights to control the use of their creations, e.g. making copies & issuing or communicating copies to the public. Copyright exists to prevent others from making a profit at the expense of the author. Often a copyrighted piece of work can only be used with permission from the copyright holder. There are some exceptions known as ‘fair dealing’ that allow you to use part of a copyrighted work for your own non-commercial research or study as long as you acknowledge the source (i.e. the journal article you’ve used). Acknowledging the sources you use in your work will ensure you avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism - when you pass off someone else’s work (their words and findings) as your own.
Citations & references Citations and references show that you know how to consult other people’s work and combine their findings with your own. They also provide anyone reading your report with the information they need to find the sources you’ve used. Citations and references both give details of your sources but in different ways.
Citations are in-text acknowledgements Substance misuse (particularly alcohol) contributes significantly to the number of children and families on social work caseloads (Forrester & Harwin, 2004). “…children formulate important opinions about their social, political and cultural contexts that are not simply reflective of their parents’ ideas…..if children had greater access to a public voice through vehicles such as research, they would be able to contribute to the social structures that concern them” (Irwin & Johnson, 2000, p821). The second example includes a direct quote and so includes a page number in the citation. Examples taken from Looking Beyond Risk: Parental Substance Misuse Scoping Study. Scottish Executive (2006).
References An alphabetical list of all sources you’ve used Citations appear in the text of your report and give the reader a quick indication of the author(s) and date of the source you’re referring to. References give a full description of the source e.g. authors, date of publication, source of publication and publisher. A reference list generally appears at the end of reports and articles.
Example reference list Bancroft A., Wilson S., Cunningham-Burley S., Backett-Milburn, K. & Masters, H. (2004). Parental drug and alcohol misuse: Resilience and transition among young people. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Banwell, C., Denton, B. & Bammer, G. (2002). Programmes for the children of illicit drug-using parents: issues and dilemmas. Drug and Alcohol Review 21(4); 381-386. Barber, J.G. & Crisp, B.R. (1995). The ‘pressures to change’ approach to working with the partners of heavy drinkers. Addiction 90; 269-276. Barnard, M. (2005). Drugs in the family: the impact on parents and siblings. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Barnard, M. (2003). Between a rock and a hard place: the role of relatives in protecting children from the effects of parental drug problems. Child and Family Social Work 8; 291-299.
Different types of references References contain different information depending on the type of resource they describe. For example, you can see that the below reference describes a journal article and gives information about: – The authors (Banwell, C., Denton, B. & Bammer, G.), the year of publication (2002), the article title (Programmes for the children of illicit drug-using parents: issues and dilemmas), the journal title (Drug and Alcohol Review), the edition of the journal (21) and the part (4) as well as the page numbers of the article (381-386).
The below reference isn’t a journal article but a report produced by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. In this case the reference includes: – The author (Barnard, M.), the year of publication (2005), the report title (Drugs in the family: the impact on parents and siblings), place of publication (York) and the publisher (Joseph Rowntree Foundation).
SceneriosIs there a risk copyright has been infringed? You find an article that you think your team would be interested in. You print off copies for your team and hand them round. Yes – you’re not using the article for your own personal research or study but are making multiple copies for your team. You email your colleagues with a link to a useful good practice guide. No – you’re only sending a link rather than the full text of the resource You’re putting together some PowerPoint slides for a presentation and include some images and video clips from a film. Yes – unless you’ve got permission or the copyright statement says you can freely use these images and video, you should avoid using them in your slides. You write a summary of a range of articles you’ve read and email this round your team. You include citations in the text and a reference list at the end. No – you’re free to summarise resources in your own words and you’ve acknowledged the sources used. You find a relevant e-book and upload this to your organisation’s intranet. Yes – sharing this e-book widely means that you’re not using it for your own personal study.
Activity 2 1. A citation is… a) an alphabetical list of all sources used that appears at the end of a document. b) an acknowledgement of a source that appears in the text of a document. c) a date that shows when a document was written. 2. References are… a) an alphabetical list of all sources used that appears at the end of a document. b) an acknowledgement of a source that appears in the text of a document. c) a date that shows when a document was written. 3. Copyright… a) means you can’t copy any part of a document. b) gives authors certain rights to control the use of their creations, including making copies and issuing or communicating copies to the public. c) means you can make copies of a document and distribute to your colleagues. 4. Plagiarism… a) gives authors certain rights to control the use of their creations, including making copies and issuing or communicating copies to the public. b) is when you make multiple copies of a document. c) is when you pass off someone else’s work as your own.
References Forester, D. & Harwin, J. (2004). Social work and parental substance misuse. In Phillips, R. (Ed), Children exposed to parental substance misuse: Implications for family placement. London: BAAF; 115-131. Irwin, L.G. & Johnson, J. (2005). Interviewing Young Children: Explicating Our Practices and Dilemmas. Qualitative Health Research 15(6); 821-831. Templeton, L., Zohhadi, S., Galvani, S. & Velleman, R. (2006). Looking Beyond Risk: Parental Substance Misuse Scoping Study. Scottish Executive.
Further reading Information Skills for Researchers: Copyright: http://www.open.ac.uk/infoskills- researchers/copyright.htm http://www.open.ac.uk/infoskills- researchers/copyright.htm Synthesis of Information: http://www.big6.com/2007/09/30/big6-stage-5- synthesis-of-information/ http://www.big6.com/2007/09/30/big6-stage-5- synthesis-of-information/ Wikipedia: Mind Maps: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map Wikipedia: Brainstorming: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorming http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorming The Publishers Association Guidelines 2008: http://www.publishers.org.uk/en/home/copyright /copyright_guidelines/ http://www.publishers.org.uk/en/home/copyright /copyright_guidelines/ Citing Your Sources: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/instruct/guides/citat ions.html http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/instruct/guides/citat ions.html Avoiding Plagiarism: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/ 01/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/ 01/ Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/ 01/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/ 01/ Finding information in health and lifestyle: organizing your information: http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view. php?id=189700 http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view. php?id=189700 Finding information in health and lifestyle: copyright: http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view. php?id=189710 http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view. php?id=189710
Copyright & Credits (c) 2009 Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services except where indicated otherwise. This work is based on and derived from Better informed for better health and better care. NHS Education Scotland, 2009 (http://www.infoliteracy.scot.nhs.uk/information-literacy-framework.aspx). CC-BY-NC. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 2.5 UK : Scotland License. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/scotland/. This means that, unless indicated otherwise, you may freely copy and adapt this work provided you acknowledge IRISS as the source. Specifically: * The Information Literacy Cycle diagram may be copied but may not be modified without permission from NHS Education Scotland [contact: Eilean.Craig@nes.scot.nhs.uk] * The article reproduced with the permission of the Press Association may not be included in any derivative work.http://www.infoliteracy.scot.nhs.uk/information-literacy-framework.aspx http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/scotland/Eilean.Craig@nes.scot.nhs.uk