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Visual Attention and Emotion The Distractor Devaluation Effect in Online Advertising Despina Panagiotidou 1, Dr. Ana B. Vivas 2 1 South-East European Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Visual Attention and Emotion The Distractor Devaluation Effect in Online Advertising Despina Panagiotidou 1, Dr. Ana B. Vivas 2 1 South-East European Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Visual Attention and Emotion The Distractor Devaluation Effect in Online Advertising Despina Panagiotidou 1, Dr. Ana B. Vivas 2 1 South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) 2 City College, International Faculty of the University of Sheffield

2 Cognitive Systems of Goal-Directed Behaviour Selective Attention Emotion Current/future Goal

3 Cognitive Systems of Goal-Directed Behaviour Visual Attention  Restricted capacity   Facilitation of target input   Inhibition of distracting information Emotion  Evaluation in terms of current/future goals

4 Affective Control of Attention Emotional environmental stimuli  Negative and threatening (e.g., facial expressions)  Capture and maintain attention  Disrupt performance

5 Reciprocal Interaction of Attention & Emotion Neurophysiological/neuroimaging data  Activation of mutual brain structures during attention-emotion tasks

6 Attentional Influences on Emotion Prior attention state determines ensuing affective evaluations (Raymond et al., 2003)  Distracting stimuli are more devalued than target and novel  2-item visual localization & evaluation tasks

7 Attentional Influences on Emotion The Distractor Devaluation effect (DD) of attention  Inhibition of distractors Decreased perceptual & emotional saliency encoded with distractor representation Prevents reorientation of attention Prioritization of immediate/future task 

8 Attentional Influences on Emotion Generalization of DD Raymond & colleagues (2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009)  Object- & location-based inhibition  Feature-based inhibition  Response inhibition  DD with meaningful stimuli (i.e., faces) – forming first impressions under attentional load  ERP evidence – direct link between selective inhibition & devaluation of distractors

9 DD vs. Mere Exposure –Implications for Advertising Mere exposure (Bornstein, 1989; Zajong, 2001)  Repeated exposure to a stimulus preference enhancement  Embraced by the advertising industry Theoretical explanations  Perceptual fluency (Reber et al., 1998)  Classical conditioning (Zajong, 2001)

10 DD vs. Mere Exposure – Implications for Advertising DD findings contradict mere exposure  Exposure to distracting information under attentional load Devaluation of presented input In our lab  Higher exposure frequency Stronger inhibition Greater devaluation

11 Implications for Online Advertising Pop-up advertisements Users’ appraisals   Singletons – Capture attention  Negative affect –  Intrusive – distracting annoying  Usually unsafe  Blocking software

12 Implications for Online Advertising Pop-up ads  Potential example of DD in virtual environments  Interfere with current/future goal of user  Inhibited devalued Fail to fulfill their initial purpose?  Emotionally disturb the user rather than increase preference  Caution: Negative affect does not necessarily result in decreased online sales – scarce evidence

13 Affective Computing & DD HCI  Triggers substantive emotions ( Reeves &Nass, 1996; Scheirer et al., 2002)  Pop-up ads – form of HCI engendering negative affect  DD findings – explanation of users’ specific emotional states in virtual environments under attentional load

14 Potential Research Directions Understudied questions  Is the devaluation of Pop-up ads actually emotional?  Is it a function of attentional inhibition alone, or does the insecurity associated with pop-up ads also play a role?  How long does devaluation of pop-ups take to develop?  Which is it’s time course?

15 Potential Research Directions Suggested research methods & operational tools  Field studies & lab experiments – naïve and experienced samples of internet users   Traditional experimental tools of cognitive psychology combined with neurophysiological measures of emotion (Bamidis et al., 2004, 2007)    Manipulation of pop-up ads’ content –accompanying malicious software present/absent   Manipulation of the user’s level of attentional load

16 References Bamidis, P.D., Luneski, A., Vivas, A., Papadelis, C., Maglaveras, N., Pappas, C.: Multi-channel Physiological Sensing of Human Emotion: Insights into Emotion-Aware Computing Using Affective Protocols, Avatars and Emotion Specifications. Stud Health Technol Inform. 129, pp (2007) Bamidis, P.D., Papadelis, C., Koutridou-Papadeli, C., Pappas, C., Vivas, A.: Affective Computing in the Era of Contemporary Neurophysiology and Health Informatics. Interacting with Computers, 16, pp. 715—721 (2004) Bornstein, R.F., D’Agostino, P.R.: Stimulus Recognition and the Mere Exposure Effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, pp (1992) Fenske, M., & Raymond, J.E.: Affective Influences of Selective Attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, pp (2006) Fenske, M.J., Raymond, J.E., Kessler, K., Westoby, N., Tipper, S.P.: Attentional Inhibition has Social-Emotional Consequences for Unfamiliar Faces. Psychological Science, 16, pp (2005) Fenske, M.J., Raymond, J.E., Kunar, M.A.: The Affective Consequences of Visual Attention in Preview Search. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, pp. 1055—1061 (2004) Goolsby, B.A., Shapiro, K.L., Silvert, L., Fragopanagos, N., Taylor, J., Eimer, M., Nobre, A.C., Raymond, J.E.: Feature Based Inhibition Underlies the Affective Consequences of Attention. Visual Cognition, 17, pp (2009) Kiss, M., Goolsby, B.A., Raymond, J.E., Shapiro, K.L., Silvert, L., Nobre, A.C., Fragopanagos, N., Taylor, J.G., Eimer, M.: Efficient Attentional Selection Predicts Distractor Devaluation: Event-Related Potential Evidence for a Direct Link Between Attention and Emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, pp (2007) Kiss, M., Raymond, J.E., Westoby, N., Nobre, A., Eimer, M.: Response Inhibition is Linked to Emotional Devaluation: Behavioural and Evidence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2, pp. 1—9 (2008) Raymond, J.E., Fenske, M.J, Tavassoli, N.T.: Selective Attention Determines Emotional Responses to Novel Visual Stimuli. Psychological Science, 14, pp (2003)

17 References Raymond, J.E., Fenske, M.J., Westoby, N.: Emotional Devaluation of Distracting Patterns and Faces: A Consequence of Attentional Inhibition During Visual Search? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, pp (2005) Reber, R., Winkielman, P., Schwartz, N.: Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Affective Judgments. Psychological Science, 9, pp (1998) Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press, New York (1996) Scheirer, J., Fernades, R., Klein, J., Picard, R.W.: Frustrating the User on Purpose: A Step Toward Building an Affective Computer. Interacting with Computers. 14, pp. 93—118 (2002) Zajong, R.B.: Mere Exposure: a Gateway to the Subliminal. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, pp (2001)

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