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Twenty Years of MALL Project Implementation: A Meta-analysis of Learning Outcomes Jack Burston Honorary Research Fellow Cyprus University of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Twenty Years of MALL Project Implementation: A Meta-analysis of Learning Outcomes Jack Burston Honorary Research Fellow Cyprus University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Twenty Years of MALL Project Implementation: A Meta-analysis of Learning Outcomes Jack Burston Honorary Research Fellow Cyprus University of Technology CALICO 2014

2 MALL Learning Outcomes: Few statistically reliable measures of learning outcomes Over 40% of MALL publications unrelated to language learning applications Pervasive methodological shortcomings

3 MALL Research Problems Sample size and treatment duration Figure 1: MALL Project Duration

4 MALL Research Problems Sample size and treatment duration Figure 2: MALL Student Numbers

5 MALL Research Problems Minimal requirements for statistical analysis: 4 weeks duration (20 class days) 10 experimental subjects = 109 MALL studies

6 MALL Research Problems Lack of quantifiable data: 74 studies contain no quantitative learning outcome data = 35 MALL studies with objective learning outcomes from implementations that lasted at least a month and involved ten or more experimental subjects

7 MALL Research Problems Research design shortcomings –Student usage of mobile devices not tracked (3) –Inadequate description of the control group (3) –Uncontrolled variables (4) –Confounding variables (3) –Inadequate statistical analysis (3) = 19 valid research studies

8 VALID MALL Studies: General Characteristics Figure 3: General Characteristics of MALL Studies

9 VALID MALL Studies: Duration of Study Figure 4: Duration of Study

10 VALID MALL Studies: Group Size Figure 5: Group Size

11 VALID MALL Studies: Year of Study Figure 6: Year of Study

12 VALID MALL Studies: Research Findings Vocabulary Acquisition: 11/19 L2 English 8/11 SMS/MMS on basic mobile phones 3/11 PDAs and smartphones

13 VALID MALL Studies: Research Findings 5/11 = Positive MALL advantage 3 SMS (Iran) 2 MMS (Turkey, Taiwan) 3/11 SMS Mixed results 2 Delayed post-tests contradict initial results (China, Iran) 1 No significant difference (Iran)

14 VALID MALL Studies: Research Findings 3/11 Non SMS/MMS projects 2 PDA-based projects positive results (Taiwan) 1 Smartphone negative results (Japan)

15 VALID MALL Studies: Research Findings Reading Competency: 4/19 All PDA-based All positive MALL results 2 L1 Spanish (Chile) 2 L2 English (Taiwan)

16 VALID MALL Studies: Research Findings Listening/Speaking Skills: 3/19 Mobile devices used as audio recording tools All positive MALL results L2 English (Taiwan) L2 Indonesian (Australia) L2 English (Cyprus)

17 VALID MALL Studies: Research Findings Writing Skills: 1/19 Unspecified mobile device L2 English (Taiwan) Positive results

18 VALID MALL Studies: Conclusion Only 35 MALL studies meet minimal conditions of duration and sample size Only 19 MALL studies provide statistically reliable outcome data 15 Unequivocally positive results (80%): reading, listening, speaking and writing 4 No significant difference: vocabulary

19 MALL Studies: Fundamental Problems Inadequate research design Technocentricity

20 Thank you for your attention! Any questions? MALL Learning Outcomes:

21 Burston, J. (2014). 20 years of MALL project implementation: A meta-analysis of learning outcomes. ReCALL Journal, 27(1), xxx-xxx. (available online) Burston, J. (2014). The reality of MALL project implementations: Still on the fringes. CALICO Journal, 31(1), Burston, J. (2013). Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: A selected annotated bibliography of implementation studies Language Learning & Technology, Special volume on Mobile-Assisted Language Learning, 17(3), 157– 224. MALL Learning Outcomes: Bibliography


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