Presentation on theme: "The Rhythm of Poetry: Syllable - Poetic feet - Meter."— Presentation transcript:
The Rhythm of Poetry: Syllable - Poetic feet - Meter
Syllables English words have clear syllables. We can usually divide words into syllables easily. We can also determine which syllables to emphasize, or “stress” in each word. For example: Angel = AN-gel (not an-GEL) Complete = com-PLETE (not COM-plete)
Scansion (1) the act of scanning, or analyzing poetry in terms of its rhythmic components (2) the graphic representation, indicated by marked accents, feet, etc., of the rhythm of a line or lines of verse –You may have seen scansion marks like the following: The curved lines are “unstressed” syllables while the straight slashes are “stressed”
Poetic Meter Meters are the rhythms within poems. stressed Meters are the arrangement of stressed/ unstressed syllables to occur at apparently equal intervals. Metered verse has prescribed rules as to the number and placement of syllables used per line.
Poetic Foot A poetic foot A poetic foot is a repeated sequence of rhythm comprised of two or more stressed and/or unstressed syllables. Poetic meterpoetic feetPoetic meter is comprised of poetic feet
Five main patterns to poetic feet: 1. Iambic 2. Trochaic 3. Anapestic 4. Dactylic 5. Spondaic
Spondaic Pattern All syllables have equal stress EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE: –Heartbreak –“Out, out…” –"pen-knife," "ad hoc," "heartburn"
The I ambic foot most commonThe iamb = ( 1 unstressed syllable + 1 stressed syllable ) is the most common poetic foot in English verse. iambic foot examples:iambic foot examples: –behold –destroy –the sun (articles such as “the” would be considered unstressed syllables) –and watch (conjunctions such as and would be considered unstressed syllables)
iambic feet Lines containing iambic feet Behold / and watch / the sun / destroy / and grow (5 iambs) When I / do COUNT / the CLOCK / that TELLS / the TIME [Shakespeare’s Sonnet 12] (5 iambs) Shall I / compare /thee to / a sum / mer's day? [Shakespeare’s Sonnet 12] (5 iambs) Come live/ with me/ and be/ my love (4 iambs) (poem by Christopher Marlowe)
Trochaic poem: Trochaic poem: a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's “The Song of Hiawatha” By the / shores of / Gitche / Gumee, By the / shining / Big-Sea /-Water, Stood the / wigwam / of No / komis, Daughter / of the / Moon, No / komis. Dark behind it rose the forest, Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees, Rose the firs with cones upon them; Bright before' it beat the water, Beat the clear and sunny water, Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water.
Anapestic poetry : 2 unstressed syllables + 1 stressed one Limericks contain anapestic meter (in blue) A Limerick by Edward Lear: There was / an Old Man / with a beard, Who said, "It is just / as I feared! Two Owls / and a Hen, Four Larks / and a Wren, Have all / built their nests / in my beard!"
Dactylic poem: 1 stressed + 2 unstressed Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson Half a league, / half a league, Half a league / onward, All in the / valley of / Death Rode the / six hundred. "Forward, the / Light Brigade! Charge for the / guns!" he said: Into the / valley of / Death Rode the / six hundred.
Spondaic Spondaic Poem : 2 equal syllables a serious poem cannot be solely spondaicBecause of this nature of the spondee, a serious poem cannot be solely spondaic. entirely of stressed syllablesIt would be almost impossible to construct a poem entirely of stressed syllables. usually occurs within a poem Therefore, the spondee usually occurs within a poem having another dominant rhythm scheme.
Combinations of Poetic Feet One monometerOne foot per line: monometer Two dimeterTwo feet per line : dimeter Three trimeterThree feet per line : trimeter Four tetrameterFour feet per line : tetrameter Five pentameterFive feet per line : pentameter Six hexameterSix feet per line : hexameter
Type + Number = Meter Types of Poetic Feet I ambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed) Trochaic (1 stressed + 1 unstressed) Anapestic (2 unstressed + 1 stressed) Dactylic (1 stressed + 2 unstressed) Spondaic (all syllables equal) Number of feet per line Monometer Dimeter Trimeter Tetrameter Pentameter Hexameter
Meters & Feet Q: 1 foot per line iambic Q: If a poem had 1 foot per line, and the foot was iambic ( 1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: monometer A: Iambic monometer
Meters & Feet Q: 2 feet per line iambic Q: If a poem had 2 feet per line, and the foot was iambic ( 1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: dimeter A: Iambic dimeter
Meters & Feet Q: 3 feet per line iambic Q: If a poem had 3 feet per line, and the foot was iambic ( 1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: trimeter A: Iambic trimeter
Meters & Feet Q: 4 feet per line iambic Q: If a poem had 4 feet per line, and the foot was iambic ( 1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: tetrameter A: Iambic tetrameter
Meters & Feet Q: 5 feet per line iambic Q: If a poem had 5 feet per line, and the foot was iambic ( 1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? A: pentameter A: Iambic pentameter
Meters & Feet Q: 3 feet per line trochaic Q: If a poem had 3 feet per line, and the foot was trochaic (1 stressed + 1 unstressed ), what type of poem would it be? A: tetrameter A: Trochaic tetrameter
Go ahead… experiment with different metric styles in your own poetry! End of presentation.