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**Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.**

Essentials of Business Statistics: Communicating with Numbers By Sanjiv Jaggia and Alison Kelly Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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**Chapter 9 Learning Objectives**

LO 9.1 Define the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. LO 9.2 Distinguish between Type I and Type II errors. LO 9.3 Conduct a hypothesis test using the p-value approach. LO 9.4 Conduct a hypothesis test using the critical value approach. LO 9.5 Differentiate between the test statistics for the population mean. LO 9.6 Specify the test statistic for the population proportion. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.1 Define the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Hypothesis tests resolve conflicts between two competing opinions (hypotheses). In a hypothesis test, define H0, the null hypothesis, the presumed default state of nature or status quo. HA, the alternative hypothesis, a contradiction of the default state of nature or status quo. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.1 In statistics we use sample information to make inferences regarding the unknown population parameters of interest. We conduct hypothesis tests to determine if sample evidence contradicts H0. On the basis of sample information, we either “Reject the null hypothesis” Sample evidence is inconsistent with H0. “Do not reject the null hypothesis” Sample evidence is not inconsistent with H0. We do not have enough evidence to “accept” H0. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.1 Defining the Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis General guidelines: Null hypothesis, H0, states the status quo. Alternative hypothesis, HA, states whatever we wish to establish (i.e., contests the status quo). Use the following signs in hypothesis tests specify the status quo, contradict H0. Note that H0 always contains the “equality.” H0 = > < HA ≠ Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.1 One-Tailed versus Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests Two-Tailed Test Reject H0 on either side of the hypothesized value of the population parameter. For example: H0: m = m0 versus HA: m ≠ m H0: p = p0 versus HA: p ≠ p0 The “≠” symbol in HA indicates that both tail areas of the distribution will be used to make the decision regarding the rejection of H0. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.1 One-Tailed versus Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests One-Tailed Test Reject H0 only on one side of the hypothesized value of the population parameter. For example: H0: m < m0 versus HA: m > m0 (right-tail test) H0: m > m0 versus HA: m < m0 (left-tail test) Note that the inequality in HA determines which tail area will be used to make the decision regarding the rejection of H0. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.1 Three Steps to Formulate Hypotheses Identify the relevant population parameter of interest (e.g., m or p). Determine whether it is a one- or a two-tailed test. Include some form of the equality sign in H0 and use HA to establish a claim. H0 HA Test Type = ≠ Two-tail > < One-tail, Left-tail One-tail, Right-tail Hypothesis Testing

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**9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing**

LO 9.2 Distinguish between Type I and Type II errors. Type I and Type II Errors Type I Error: Committed when we reject H0 when H0 is actually true. Occurs with probability a, which is chosen a priori. Type II Error: Committed when we do not reject H0 and H0 is actually false. Occurs with probability b. Power of the test = 1b For a given sample size n, a decrease in a will increase b and vice versa. Both a and b decrease as n increases. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.3 Conduct a hypothesis test using the p-value approach. Hypothesis testing enables us to determine whether the sample evidence is inconsistent with what is hypothesized under the null hypothesis (H0). Basic principle: First assume that H0 is true and then determine if sample evidence contradicts this assumption. Two approaches to hypothesis testing: The p-value approach. The critical value approach. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.3 The p-value Approach The value of the test statistic for the hypothesis test of the population mean m when the population standard deviation s is known is computed as where m0 is the hypothesized mean value. p-value: the likelihood of obtaining a sample mean that is at least as extreme as the one derived from the given sample, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.3 The p-value Approach Under the assumption that m = m0, the p-value is the likelihood of observing a sample mean that is at least as extreme as the one derived from the given sample. The calculation of the p-value depends on the specification of the alternative hypothesis: Decision rule: Reject H0 if p-value < a. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.3 Four Step Procedure Using the p-value Approach Step 1. Specify the null and the alternative hypotheses. Step 2. Specify the significance level. Step 3. Calculate the value of the test statistic and the p-value. Step 4. State the conclusion and interpret the results. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.4 Conduct a hypothesis test using the critical value approach. The Critical Value Approach Rejection region: a region of values such that if the test statistic falls into this region, then we reject H0. The location of this region is determined by HA. Critical value: a point that separates the rejection region from the nonrejection region. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.4 The Critical Value Approach The critical value approach specifies a region such that if the value of the test statistic falls into the region, the null hypothesis is rejected. The critical value depends on the alternative hypothesis. Decision Rule: Reject H0 if: z > za for a right-tailed test z < za for a left-tailed test z > za/2 or z < za/2 for a two-tailed test Hypothesis Testing

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**Reject H0 if z > za/2 or z < za/2**

9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known LO 9.4 The Critical Value Approach Determining the critical value(s) depending on the specification of the competing hypotheses. Reject H0 if z > za/2 or z < za/2 Reject H0 if z < za Reject H0 if z > za Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.4 Four Step Procedure Using the Critical Value Approach Step 1. Specify the null and the alternative hypotheses. Step 2. Specify the significance level and find the critical value(s) for the test statistic. Step 3. Calculate the value of the test statistic. Step 4. State the conclusion and interpret the results. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.4 Confidence Intervals and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests Given the significance level a, we can use the sample data to construct a 100(1 a)% confidence interval for the population mean m. Decision Rule Reject H0 if the confidence interval does not contain the value of the hypothesized mean m0. Do not reject H0 if the confidence interval does contain the value of the hypothesized mean m0. Hypothesis Testing

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**9.2 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Known**

LO 9.4 Implementing a Two-Tailed Test Using a Confidence Interval The general specification for a 100(1 a)% confidence interval of the population mean m when the population standard deviation s is known is computed as or Decision rule: Reject H0 if or if Hypothesis Testing

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**9.3 Hypothesis Test of the Population Mean When s Is Unknown**

LO 9.5 Differentiate between the test statistics for the population mean. Test Statistic for m When s is Unknown When the population standard deviation s is unknown, the test statistic for testing the population mean m is assumed to follow the tdf distribution with (n 1) degrees of freedom (df). The value of tdf is computed as: Hypothesis Testing

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**9.4 Hypothesis Test of the Population Proportion**

LO 9.6 Specify the test statistic for the population proportion. Test Statistic for p. can be approximated by a normal distribution if np > 5 and n(1p) > 5. Test statistic for the hypothesis test of the population proportion p is assumed to follow the z distribution: where and p0 is the hypothesized value of the population proportion. Hypothesis Testing

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