Presentation on theme: "Scientific Awakening Recap A directional change in thinking."— Presentation transcript:
Scientific Awakening Recap A directional change in thinking
Scientific Awakening – Steps Merging science and technology –Technology previously independent of science Use of mathematics Use of experimentation and inductive reasoning Science separated from philosophy –Basic ancient truths were questioned –Focus on physics, not ethics and metaphysics History viewed as progressive
ScientistContributions CopernicusChallenged a basic theory GalileoLinked experiments and math BaconScientific Method DescartesTheoretical Science NewtonApplied laws to the universe LavoisierQuantification of experiments Scientific Awakening (Overview)
Earth Moon Mercury Motion of Mercury Ptolemy Model of the Universe
Tycho Brahe’s Model Earth not at center of circles
Copernicus Realized the earth turns on an axis Proposed a solar centered system –Book of Revolutions Problems –Not all epicycles could be eliminated –Common sense seems to contradict 1000 mph wind No sense of spinning –Scriptures seem to contradict
“And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” – Joshua 10:13
“According to the church, propositions which are stated but not rigorously demonstrated, such as the Copernican system itself, were not condemned outright, if they seemed to contradict Holy Scripture; they were merely relegated to the rank of ‘working hypotheses’ with an implied: ‘wait and see; if you bring proof, then, but only then, we shall have to reinterpret Scripture in the light of this necessity.” — Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers, p442
Galileo Study of pendulums –Chandelier in a cathedral Linked science and math with observation Established math as language of science Optic developments –Founded modern astronomy Taught Copernican theory widely as truth Ordered by the church to teach it as a theory - sentenced to house arrest and silence
“Truth cannot be found in the book of Aristotle but in the book of Nature; and the book of Nature is written in the language of mathematics.” - Galileo Galileo
“God is the author of two great books—the book of scripture and the book of nature. These cannot be in conflict; so any apparent contradictions come from fallible human interpretations…Scripture is a book about how to go to heaven; not a book about how heaven goes.” - Galileo Galileo
Francis Bacon Development of scientific method Renè Descartes Basis of French science (theory) Excitement in scientific investigation
Isaac Newton Cambridge — professor of math Principia –Discovery of gravity –Greatest scientific work Discoveries in math and optics –Developed Calculus
Consequences of Scientific Revolution Community of scientists formed –Royal Society –Papers were read and published Scientists subjected to critical audience Science accepted as the preferred method of getting "truth"
Scientific Awakening DisciplinePhysicsMetaphysicalEthics PhilosophyLogicFormsSeek happiness TheologyRevelation Scriptures GodBe obedient ScienceEmpiricismSensory perceptions Inalienable rights AestheticsEmotionsBeauty and symmetry Unity with life
Faith and Empiricism Perfect (Spiritual) Knowledge Scientific (Empirical) Knowledge What is hoped for What is seen Faith
The Scientific Revolution Spreads Scientific Instruments –Scientists develop microscope, barometer, and thermometer –New instruments lead to better observations and new discoveries microscope thermometer simple mercury barometer
The Scientific Revolution Spreads Medicine and the Human Body –Andreas Vesalius improves knowledge of anatomy –Edward Jenner produces world’s first vaccination—for smallpox Andreas Vesalius Edward Jenner
The Scientific Revolution Spreads Discoveries in Chemistry –Robert Boyle argues that matter is made of many different particles –Boyle’s law reveals interaction of volume, temperature, and gas pressure.
Logical Thought Scientific Thought applied to people Like science, people were governed by laws Influenced equality among people and democratic ideas
Impact Today Ideas helped to stimulate people's sense of individualism, and the basic belief in equal rights. This in turn led to the Glorious Revolution is Britain, the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Latin American Revolutions. Some of these revolutions resulted in government based upon the ideas of the Enlightenment such as, Great Britain and the United States.