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Some Opportunities and Obstacles in Cross-Layer and Cross-Component (Power) Management Onur Mutlu NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Some Opportunities and Obstacles in Cross-Layer and Cross-Component (Power) Management Onur Mutlu NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some Opportunities and Obstacles in Cross-Layer and Cross-Component (Power) Management Onur Mutlu NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012

2 What Are These Layers and Components? Well-defined (mostly) interfaces between transformation layers and components/resources create abstractions 2 Microarchitecture ISA Program/Language Algorithm Problem Runtime System (VM, OS, MM) User Logic Circuits Electrons Computation Communication Storage/Memory

3 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Advantages of abstraction layers  Improved productivity at each layer/component No need to worry about decisions made in higher/lower levels  Designer sanity Disadvantages  Overall suboptimal design Uncoordinated decisions contradict each other, degrade efficiency Layers and Components: Pros and Cons 3 Microarchitecture Runtime System (VM, OS, MM)

4 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 An Example: Lack of OS-Architecture Coordination 4 Low OS-level priority High OS-level priority (Core 0) (Core 1) Moscibroda and Mutlu, “Memory performance attacks: Denial of memory service in multi-core systems,” USENIX Security 2007.

5 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Advantages of abstraction layers  Improved productivity at each layer/component No need to worry about decisions made in higher/lower levels  Designer sanity Disadvantages  Overall suboptimal design Uncoordinated decisions contradict each other, degrade efficiency  Waste due to overprovisioning at each level  System-level metrics hard to optimize Application-level QoS, user experience, TCO, total energy, … Minimize energy while satisfying QoS Research question: How do we eliminate disadvantages without sacrificing the advantages of layers? Layers and Components: Pros and Cons 5 Computation Communication Storage/Memory Microarchitecture Runtime System (VM, OS, MM)

6 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Local optimizations relatively easy to think of; local metrics easy to optimize Global optimization much less so We may be lacking unifying principles that span across layers to  Coordinate information flow and policies across layers  Guide/ease the co-design and management of resources within and across layers One General Problem 6

7 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Find and employ cross-cutting (unifying) design and resource management principles  Ensure these principles are conveyed in the interfaces Design and enhance interfaces (driven by principles)  E.g., the application-OS-architecture interface for resource management Develop design tools to enable global optimization  Cross-layer evaluation infrastructures Change mentality  Be open-minded to proposals that co-design multiple layers  Performance- vs energy- vs user-centric design  Provide commensurate focus on important subsystems: memory and interconnect  develop new execution models How Do We Fix The Problem? 7

8 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Interconnect Energy Scaling 8 Chart courtesy of Shekhar Borkar, Intel

9 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Dynamically identify critical/bottleneck tasks (pieces of work) and spend most of the energy on them  Not all instructions are equally important [Fields+ ISCA’01,02]  Not all network packets are equally important [Das+ ISCA’10]  Not all useful cache blocks are equally important [Qureshi+ ISCA’06]  Not all threads are equally important [Bhattacherjee+ ISCA’09]  Not all queries are equally important  Not all applications are equally important Create a criticality interface between layers and components  Application/compiler  OS/runtime  hardware  Enable ways of discovering and expressing task criticality and managing resources based on criticality/slack One Unifying Principle: Criticality/Slack 9

10 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Identify the criticality/slack present in each task Convey criticality information across layers/components Co-design the layers and resources such that they can prioritize tasks based on criticality/slack Manage execution to minimize slack and spend little energy on non-critical tasks Exploiting Criticality/Slack 10 Identify bottleneck threads that cause serialization and dynamically ship them to high-power high-performance cores [Suleman+ ASPLOS’09, Joao+ ASPLOS’12]

11 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Identify critical instructions and execute them in fast pipelines [Fields+ ISCA’02] Identify critical threads and slow down others [Bhattacherjee+ ISCA’09] Identify critical/limiter threads in a parallel application and prioritize them in the memory controller [Ebrahimi+ MICRO’11] Identify latency-sensitive applications/threads and prioritize them in the memory controller [Kim+ MICRO’10] or entire shared memory system [Ebrahimi+ ASPLOS’10] Identify critical interconnect requests from core’s point of view and prioritize them in routers [Das+ ISCA’10] Exploiting Dynamic Criticality: Other Examples 11

12 Thread Cluster Memory Scheduling [Kim+ MICRO’10] 1.Group threads into two clusters 2.Prioritize non-intensive cluster 3.Different policies for each cluster 12 thread Threads in the system thread Non-intensive cluster Intensive cluster thread Memory-non-intensive Memory-intensive Prioritized higher priority higher priority Throughput Fairness TCM, a heterogeneous scheduling policy, provides the best fairness and system throughput

13 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 Consolidate many tasks to maximize efficiency and provide the QoS each task needs  QoS interface across layers Application  OS/runtime  architecture  uarch. Coordinate the management of shared resources across components and layers  Goal: no efficiency loss due to contradictions in policies  Policy co-design (e.g., between cores, interconnect, memory controllers, memory): criticality can again help here Exploit heterogeneity at all layers  Both architectural/microarchitectural and technology heterogeneity can provide large efficiency gains Other Unifying Principles and Research Issues 13

14 NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012 We need to break the layers in education first, to be truly successful  Cross-layer undergraduate courses Fund both within-layer and cross-layer approaches Fund widely many areas – there is likely no silver bullet Role of Education and Funding 14

15 Some Opportunities and Obstacles in Cross-Layer and Cross-Component (Power) Management Onur Mutlu NSF CPOM Workshop, 2/10/2012


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