Presentation on theme: "Presentation of data The main source of collection of data in the medial field: 1.Experiments Data from Physiology, Pharmacolgy and clinical pathology."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation of data The main source of collection of data in the medial field: 1.Experiments Data from Physiology, Pharmacolgy and clinical pathology lab, hospital ward, fundamental research etc 1.Surveys Data of incidence/prevalence of health or disease situation in a community such as incidence of malaria or prevalence of leprosy etc 1.Records Records are maintained as a routine in register or books over along period of time for still birth, death etc. Data are collected from these records.
1.They should be accurate and complete 2.When we make them concise they should not lose their details. 3.They should be simple and meaningful and at the same time they should create interest in the reader. 4.Below the table or picture, few points of explanation may be needed most of the times. 5.They should be helpful in further analysis. In the presentation of data some important points should be kept in mind :
1.Tabulation of data 2.Diagrammatic presentation Methods of presentation of data
Tabulation of data Objectives of tabulation: To clarify the object of investigation. To simplify complex data. To facilitate comparison A statistical table is a systematic organisation of data in columns and rows in accordance with some characteristics. Tabulation is the process of presenting data in tables.
Rules for Tabulation of data Construction of a good statistical table is a specialized art and requires great skill, experience and common sense. The table should be simple and compact All title, subtitle, caption etc should be arrange in a systemic manner. The unit of measurement should be clearly defined in the table. A table should be complete and self-explanatory. A table should be attractive to draw attention of readers. Accurate statistical analysis should be done. Abbreviation should be avoided Big table should be avoided.
Parts of tabulation Table number Title Caption Headings of columns and rows Body of the table Foot-note Row Heading CaptionTotal Col. Heading Row sub heading Body Row sub heading Number & Title of the table
Example: Tabulation of data GroupBlood pressure Systolic BPDiastolic BPMAP Control (n=10) Propranolol treated (n=20) t/p value (upaired t-test) Control vs propranolol 4.23/ / /0.05 Data are presented as mean+SD. Unpaired t-test was done as the test of significance. *p<0.05, **p<0.01. Table 2: Effects of propranolol on blood pressure in human
Types of Tables 1.Simple and complex tables 2.General purpose (reference table) and special purpose tables (eg., record of government). CountryPopulation (in millions) China1350 India1000 USA250 Russia150 Simple table: Population of major countries in the world
Graphical presentation of data Importance of diagrams: They are attractive and impressive. They save time and labour to understand They make data simple. They make comparison easy They provide more information than table A diagram is a visual form for presentation of data. Complicated data through a diagram or graph can easily be understood. It is convincing to the eye and mind.
Types of diagram Line diagram. bar diagram (simple & multiple) Pie diagram Histogram Scatter
Graphical presentation of data Limitations of diagrams: Diagram shows only approximate value. They can not be analysed further All details can not be presented diagrammatically. To draw a table is easy but construction of a diagram is not so easy. If there is wide gap between 2 different measurements, the diagram will not give a meaningful look. eg., 10 and 900 can not be shown in a diagram.