Presentation on theme: "The main source of collection of data in the medial field:"— Presentation transcript:
1The main source of collection of data in the medial field: Presentation of dataThe main source of collection of data in the medial field:ExperimentsData from Physiology, Pharmacolgy and clinical pathology lab, hospital ward, fundamental research etcSurveysData of incidence/prevalence of health or disease situation in a community such as incidence of malaria or prevalence of leprosy etcRecordsRecords are maintained as a routine in register or books over along period of time for still birth, death etc. Data are collected from these records.
2In the presentation of data some important points should be kept in mind : They should be accurate and completeWhen we make them concise they should not lose their details.They should be simple and meaningful and at the same time they should create interest in the reader.Below the table or picture, few points of explanation may be needed most of the times.They should be helpful in further analysis.
3Methods of presentation of data Tabulation of dataDiagrammatic presentation
4Objectives of tabulation: Tabulation of dataA statistical table is a systematic organisation of data in columns and rows in accordance with some characteristics. Tabulation is the process of presenting data in tables.Objectives of tabulation:To clarify the object of investigation.To simplify complex data.To facilitate comparison
5Rules for Tabulation of data Construction of a good statistical table is a specialized art and requires great skill, experience and common sense.The table should be simple and compactAll title, subtitle, caption etc should be arrange in a systemic manner.The unit of measurement should be clearly defined in the table.A table should be complete and self-explanatory.A table should be attractive to draw attention of readers.Accurate statistical analysis should be done.Abbreviation should be avoidedBig table should be avoided.
6Number & Title of the table Row Heading Caption Total Parts of tabulationTable numberTitleCaptionHeadings of columns and rowsBody of the tableFoot-noteNumber & Title of the tableRow HeadingCaptionTotalCol. HeadingRow sub headingBody
7Example: Tabulation of data Table 2: Effects of propranolol on blood pressure in humanGroupBlood pressureSystolic BPDiastolic BPMAPControl (n=10)210+40100+2474+29Propranolol treated (n=20)120+3065+2060+23t/p value (upaired t-test)Control vs propranolol4.23/0.013.12/0.022.13/0.05Data are presented as mean+SD. Unpaired t-test was done as the test of significance. *p<0.05, **p<0.01.
8Simple table: Population of major countries in the world Country Types of TablesSimple and complex tablesGeneral purpose (reference table) and special purpose tables (eg., record of government).Simple table: Population of major countries in the worldCountryPopulation (in millions)China1350India1000USA250Russia150
9Graphical presentation of data A diagram is a visual form for presentation of data. Complicated data through a diagram or graph can easily be understood. It is convincing to the eye and mind.Importance of diagrams:They are attractive and impressive.They save time and labour to understandThey make data simple.They make comparison easyThey provide more information than table
10Types of diagramLine diagram.bar diagram (simple & multiple)Pie diagramHistogramScatter
11Graphical presentation of data Limitations of diagrams:Diagram shows only approximate value.They can not be analysed furtherAll details can not be presented diagrammatically.To draw a table is easy but construction of a diagram is not so easy.If there is wide gap between 2 different measurements, the diagram will not give a meaningful look. eg., 10 and 900 can not be shown in a diagram.