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Cyberstalking By Tanisha White, Samantha Dial, and Keamara Bracy

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1 Cyberstalking By Tanisha White, Samantha Dial, and Keamara Bracy

2 What is Cyberstalking? Cyberstalking is the use of technology to harass or stalk. Cyber stalking is the repeated use of technology to threaten, annoy, mentally harm, a specific individual or group of individuals. Cyber stalking is also used to retrieve information about a specific individual so that the perpetrator may obtain personal gain. The United States government has enacted statutes against cyberstalking, but in some states concrete evidence of bodily harm is required for legal interference. Tanisha White

3 Tools used to Cyberstalk
Technology tools that are commonly used to cyberstalk: Internet- s, MySpace, face book, Twitter, viruses, spyware, hacking, cyber impersonation, chat rooms, spams and scams etc Cell phones- harassing calls, text messages, and phone taps. Hidden cameras – There have been documented case in where the stalker hid cameras to watch their victims. Fax machines- Fax header information has been used by stalkers to retrieve the location of their victims. TTY/TTD- Teletypewriters and Telecommunications devices for the deaf were used in a documented stalking case. Global Positioning- This tool can be used to locate the whereabouts of a moving vehicle. Pagers- Perpetrators can obtain the your pager number harass through page texts. Tanisha White

4 Why do people cyberstalk?
Personal Gain Revenge Mental incompetency Boredom Obsession Self worth Religious crusade Gang affiliation For a reaction Sexual predators Racial discrimination Sexual orientation Superiority Tanisha White

5 Types of cyber stalking
Impersonation- Pretending to be someone else with the hope of damaging their character, reputation, and relationships. Financial compensation- Stealing financial information online for your own personal gain. Hacking- Hacking into someone’s personal computer to gather personal or financial information. Visual intruders- High tech binoculars, telescopes, hidden cameras, and night vision goggles are all tools that can be used by stalkers to visually invade a person’s privacy. Websites- Stalkers use websites as tools to gather information. With this information stalkers can obtain your home and address, the school you and your children attend, your place of work, etc. Phone stalking- Cell phones are the most common phone used for stalkers , but house phones are even more vulnerable to stalking because of phone lines. A stalker can attach devices to your outdoor phone pole and listen in on all of your calls. Tanisha White

6 Spams and Scams There are many forms of online scams that are used to obtain your personal information. The scams may come in the form of account suspensions, lottery winnings, pin/password retrieval, chain letters, PayPal security maintenance, bank information requests ,etc. Tips on avoiding scams Never give scammers a personal bank account that doesn’t have any money in it. They may use the account for illegal purposes. Never fill in personal information into an or a website that you got from a link in the . You will likely find your account broken into and your information has been stolen. If you think it might be a legitimate warning. Always go to the website by manually typing it into your account and then logging in. Never give financial information to a website unless you’re certain that that the site is legitimate. Tanisha White

7 Tips on avoiding scams If you receive an that tells you to send it to everyone in your address book throw it way. If it’s a nice message you think is worth passing along send it to before submitting it. Always log off your account on a public computer. People can use you information instead of their own to receive free things. If something sounds too good to be true always keep in mind that it probably is. If you would like to pursue it anyways always research the site before putting any information in. If unwanted spam persists, visit Tanisha White

8 What to do if you’re being cyberstalked
If you’re under the age of 18 tell you’re parents or another adult that you trust. Victims should give their stalkers a clear written warning that the contact is unwanted. If the stalking persists victims may want to file a complaint with the perpetrator's internet service provider. Victims should collect and save all documents and evidence that the stalker bestows. Victims should start a log and document details that occur within the unwanted contact. Victims should report a complaint to local law enforcement about the harassment. Victims should save copies of their police reports Tanisha White

9 What to do if you’re being cyberstalked
Victims should also document time and dates of harassment as well as how it’s affecting their lives. Victims that are persistently being harassed may want to change their phone number, address, internet service provider. Victims of cyber stalking should consider using encryption software or privacy protection programs. Victims may also want to learn how to use the filtering capabilities of programs to block s from certain addresses. victims should contact online directory listings such as and to request removal from their directory. Victims should never agree to meet with their stalker face to face to try and work things out. Tanisha White

10 Organizations and websites against Cyberstalking
rassment/stalker.html lking.htm Tanisha White

11 Characteristics of cyberstalkers
Anyone can be a stalker. No one is immune to cyber stalkers, but researchers have discovered two types of characteristics shown below that potential victims should be cautious of. Psychopathic Personality Stalker Psychotic Personality Stalker Generally male May be male or female Absence of mental disorder Delusions or delusional fixation Targets familiar victims Usually targets strangers Harassment may be anonymous Attempt to contact the victim Usually some precipitating stressor Absence of precipitating stressor This is a somewhat general and broad classification system on which to examine stalking. The latter category usually implies the presence of some mental disorder, and the individual may not or may not be aware of his actions *http://www.angelfire.com/wizard/cheech0/cyberstalkers.html* Tanisha White

12 The Effects of Cyberstalking
Keamara Bracy

13 The impact of cyberstalking impacts are……
Wide ranging Severe Psychologically traumatic Keamara Bracy

14 Cyberstalking may be intangible, but the effects on victims are very real! O ne victim described her feelings to being stalked by a neighbor as, "It really does get to you on an emotional and psychological level because you know that this person is thinking about you all the time. You know that they're looking out of their window for you O Keamara Bracy

15 Psychological Effects
The effects of cyber-stalking are similar to the effects of traditional stalking because cyber-stalking is an extension of the physical form of stalking. Cyber-stalking is a very threatening and frightening crime and can cause psychological trauma to those who experience it. Keamara Bracy

16 Some of the emotional responses include:
anxiety fear nightmares shock and disbelief helplessness hyper-vigilance changes in eating changes in sleeping patterns high levels of stress feeling of being out of control sense of the loss of personal safety Keamara Bracy

17 Effects…. These effects have the potential to produce a large drain on both criminal justice resources and the health care system, and it is therefore in the best interests of the authorities to take swift action when cases are presented to them. Keamara Bracy

18 Victims experiencing these reactions and many others might consider seeking out support from friends, family and victim service professionals in order to cope with the trauma resulting from cyber stalking. Keamara Bracy

19 How do you know you're being attacked
How do you know you're being attacked? Your computer may "pull" as you're typing-as if it's resisting you. Your mouse may move by itself You may find your security programs disabled or non functional You may be denied access to sites or to your computer itself Your computer may crash suddenly and often Your phones may start sounding weird, with bursts of static followed by sudden cutoff Your phones may echo Keamara Bracy

20 As with all stalking, the greatest trauma is the faceless terror that it brings into a victim's life--24 hours a day, seven days a week. The Internet becomes an electronic curtain behind which the stalker hides while terrorizing the victim at home and work, with friends and neighbors, and with countless people that the victim does not even know…….. Keamara Bracy

21 In cyber stalking the perpetrator could be in  another state, around the corner, or in the next cubicle at work. The stalker would be a former friend or lover, a total stranger met in the chat room, or simply a teenager playing a practical joke. Keamara Bracy

22 It is estimated that there are about 2,00,000 real-life stalkers in United States alone. Roughly one in 1,250 persons is a stalker - and that is a large ratio iowabiz.typepad.com/.../01/22/cyberstalker.jpg Keamara Bracy

23 Cyberstalking LAWS S Dial

24 Cyberstalking Laws Cyberstalking – is the use of the internet or other electronic means to stalk someone. Cyberstalkers are unwelcome intruders, they are no different then stalkers in the physical world. Cyberstalkers can be: Pedophiles Young, Old, Black, White, Tall, Short People with grudges They can be ANYONE! Criminals S Dial

25 Cyberstalking Laws Because the Internet is a recent development Cyberstalking Laws and their implementation are sill in development. The Center for Democracy and Technology is focused on the balance between internet legislation and the rights of a netizen. *netizen -citizen of the internet community S Dial

26 Cyberstalking Laws National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
Organizations that help locate and gather evidence against Cyberstalkers: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Cyberangels Blue Ridge Thunder Local Computer Crime Units S Dial

27 Cyberstalking Laws Federal Cyberstalking Laws
Under Section 18 U.S.C. 875(c) *It is a Federal crime punishable by up to 5 years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000, to transmit any communication in interstate or foreign commerce containing a threat to injure the person of another. Section 875(c) applies to any communication actually transmitted in interstate or foreign commerce - thus it includes threats transmitted in interstate or foreign commerce via the telephone, , beepers, or the Internet. *http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/cyberstalking.htm S Dial

28 Cyberstalking Laws Section 18 U.S.C 875 is an important tool, it is not an all-purpose ant-cyberstalking statute. This section only applies to actual threats * S Dial

29 Cyberstalking Laws Certain forms of Cyberstalking can be prosecuted under Section 47 U.S.C 223: *One provision of this statute makes it a federal crime, punishable by up to two years in prison, to use a telephone or telecommunications device to annoy, abuse, harass, or threaten any person at the called number. *Section 223 applies only to direct communications between the perpetrator and the victim. Thus, it would not reach a cyberstalking situation where a person harasses or terrorizes another person by posting messages on a bulletin board or in a chat room encouraging others to harass or annoy another person. Moreover, Section 223 is only a misdemeanor, punishable by not more than two years in prison. * S Dial

30 Cyberstalking laws in Alabama
Section 13A-11-8 *(b)(1) HARASSING COMMUNICATIONS. A person commits the crime of harassing communications if, with intent to harass or alarm another person, he or she does any of the following: *http://www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/TelecommunicationsInformationTechnology/CyberstalkingLaws/tabi d/13495/Default.aspx S Dial

31 Cyberstalking Laws Section 13A-11-8
*a. Communicates with a person, anonymously or otherwise, by telephone, telegraph, mail, or any other form of written or electronic communication, in a manner likely to harass or cause alarm. (2) Harassing communications is a Class C misdemeanor. *http://www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/TelecommunicationsInformationTechnology/CyberstalkingLaws/tabi d/13495/Default.aspx S Dial

32 Cyberstalking Laws The United States Government is passing laws every year to help prevent online cyberstalking. In 2006 Congress passed a bill stating: *It is a federal crime to "annoy" someone over the Internet. *The law makes it a crime to anonymously "annoy, abuse, threaten or harass" another person over the Internet. *http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=2&sid=e384a c-4892-b cc7cea26%40sessionmgr10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=afh&AN=J0E S Dial

33 Work Cited Cyberstalking Laws
(2009). Cyberstalking. Retrieved from (2009, March 12). State Electronic harassment or "cyberstalking" laws. Retrieved from rmationTechnology/CyberstalkingLaws/tabid/13495/Default. aspx Willing, R. (2009, February 15). Cyberstalking law opens debate on what's annoying. Retrieved from 7fbb9ecc-4d a99f- 912c2de79ccd%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3Qt bGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=afh&AN=J0E S Dial

34 Work Cited cont. age_11 ech/stalkingandtech.html umentID= Tanisha White


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