Presentation on theme: "Services Design Techniques: Derbyshire Business School"— Presentation transcript:
1 Services Design Techniques: Derbyshire Business School Services BlueprintPolina BaranovaDerbyshire Business School
2 Services Definitions ‘Any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another, which is essentiallyintangible and does not result in theownership of anything’ Philip Kotler 2004‘Services can be bought and sold, butcannot be dropped on your foot’(!)Gummesson 1987
3 Services are largely intangible have benefits are perishable (time and place dependent)cannot be stored or transportedare inseparable from the service providerare often inconsistent or variable in qualityespecially personal services eg hairdressingcannot be owned
4 What is a 'Process'?'If you can’t describe what you are doing as a process, you don’t know what you’re doing.'W E Deming'… a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end.'The New OXFORD Dictionary of ENGLISH (1998)
5 Volume (Number of customers processed per day) Process Types in Services, Silvestro et al 1992HighPeopleContact timeCustomisationDiscretionFront Office OrientatedVolume (Number of customers processed per day)ProfessionalService ShopsMassLowHighMediumPeople/EquipmentContact timeCustomisationDiscretionFront Office/Back OfficeOrientatedVarietyEquipmentContact timeCustomisationDiscretionBack OfficeOrientatedLow
6 Definition of a service ‘process’ ‘The actual procedures, mechanisms, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered – the service delivery and operating systems’(Zeithaml, Bitner & Gremler, 2006)
7 Process mapping: Flow Charting Actually map what tasks are happening to determine the flow of the processOperation, Task or activityMovement – people, materials, informationInspectionDelay or pause in the processStorage
8 Flow Chart Receptionist fills out work order x Work order placed in ‘waiting job’ box xJob picked up by Operator and read xJob taken to copying machine xOperator waits for his turn on machine xOperator loads paper xOperator sets machine xOperator performs the copying xOperator inspects the copying xJob taken to Cashier xJob waits its turn for processing xCashier raises Invoice xCashier takes payment xCashier packages the job xFlow Chart
10 Blueprinting Design of the services More sophisticated version of flowcharting:Flowcharting – existing processes;Blueprinting – grater detail of service design from the customer point of view:Main Stages in customer journey through the service process;Definition of standards for each front-stage activity;Physical and other evidence of front-stage activity;Principal front-stage participants;Line of visibility;Back-stage actions;Support processes involving other service personnel;Support services involving information technology.
11 Blueprinting Principle functions Timing and sequencing A visual representation of a service process showing:Principle functionsTiming and sequencingParticipants involved“Line of visibility”Tolerance levelsFeedback loops
12 Developing a Blueprint Identify key activities in creating and delivering serviceDefine “big picture” before “drilling down” to obtain a higher level of detailDistinguish between “front stage” and “back stage”Clarify interactions between customers and staff, and support by backstage activities and systemsIdentify potential fail points; take preventive measures; prepare contingencyDevelop standards for execution of each activity— times for task completion, maximum wait times, and scripts to guide interactions between employees and customers
13 Advantages of Blueprinting Blueprint differentiates between what customers experience “front stage and the activities of employees and support process “backstage”;Blueprint shows how customers and employees interact;Blueprint highlights possible fail points in the process;It highlights the areas of excessive wait;More in-depth analysis of service encounter – crucial stage of service process redesign.
14 Identifying Fail Points High risk areas in service delivery where things could go wrong;Errors include:Treatment errors—human failures during contact with customere.g. lack of courteous or professional behavior, failure to acknowledge, listen to, or react appropriately to the customerAreas of excessive wait – could annoy customers and lead to negative customer experienceTangible errors—failures in physical elements of servicee.g. noise pollution, improper standards for cleaning of facilities and uniforms, equipment breakdownAim of fail-safe procedures is to prevent errorsAreas of wait – reducing an opportunity for excessive waitFFW