Egypt: Invasion by Napoleon 1798 – French invade Egypt to annoy Great Britain
Egypt: part of the Ottoman Empire…but not for long. Which Muhammad Ali will WIN?! SCORE: Old Men: 2 Boxers: 0
Muhammad Ali Takes Control Nationalism spikes – Egypt realizes their weakness Power vacuum after Napoleon’s defeat Muhammad Ali – Ottoman military commander Consolidated power for himself
Egypt: Wounded Pride How to prevent loss of power to Europe? –Make use of European techniques –Peasants produce cotton for export to pay for massive overhaul My scary eyes will achieve modern- ization for Egypt!
Reforms of Ali… it’s not all laying around in your slippers Westernize military Western-style schools (military, medical) Educated Egyptians replace old ruling elites First newspaper in Islamic world (1824) Factories
Things Fall Apart 1870s, cotton market collapses Lots of debt British and French occupy Egypt
Ottoman Empire: “The Sick Man of Europe” Problems: –Janissaries; tax farmers corrupt) –Russia! –Revolts (Balkan and Greek) 1820s Evidence of nationalism –Young Ottomans – nationalist group; wanted constitutional gov’t
Tanzimat Reforms = 1839: Westernize military, education, bureaucracy Dissolve Janissaries; reduce religious leaders’ & Shari’a law’s power BUT majority remain tied to Islamic roots; women still subjugated
Symbol of Reform? Not THAT Fez… OR that Fez… Brimless Fez
Ottoman Empire: Big Picture “Ruled” by Sultan in Istanbul, but in reality had become decentralized and had lots of little independent rulers Autocratic & agricultural (peasant labor) Multi-ethnic, linguistic, & religious empire Slow to industrialize Attempted top-down reforms but hesitant b/c fear of political unrest Continued efforts in the face of European superiority
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