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Military of the United Kingdom

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1 Military of the United Kingdom
CHAPTER FIVE Military of the United Kingdom

2 Famous Quotation I have nothing to offer but blood, toil tears and sweat. — Winston Churchill, British Politician

3 New words parliament: v. the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country 议会;国会 — Which party does your Member of Parliament belong to? 你那区的国会议员属于哪一个政党? superiority: n. the state or quality of being better than others 优越(性);优势 — The goal was power superiority at all costs. 目标是不惜任何代价的力量优势。

4 New words deploy: v. to use something effectively 有效地利用;调动
— He warned them not to hold on to this new capital, but to deploy it. 他警告他们不要手持这一新资金,而是使用这一资金。 regimental: adj. connected with a particular regiment of soldiers 团的;团队的 — A rider came pounding up with an order from the regimental commander. 一个骑马的人带著团长的命令蹄声嗒嗒 飞驰而来。

5 New words abolition: n. the ending of a law, a system or an institution (法律、制度等的)废除,废止 — Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes. 废除土地形式的财产,土地的所有出租用于公共目的。 cavalry: n. (in the past) the part of the army that fought on horses(旧时的)骑兵;装甲兵 — The cavalry is many superiors in mobility to the infantry. 骑兵在机动性方面比步兵优越得多。

6 New words brigades: n. a military unit that is typically composed of two to five regiments or battalions 旅 —The last of these surge brigades came home this month, he said. 布什总统说:“这些增援部队的最后几个旅于7月回国。 evacuation: n. to send them to a place of safety 撤退 — A mass evacuation of New Orleans is on, with officials telling residents to leave. 新奥尔良大量的撤离工作在政府的建议下已经开始了。

7 New words eclipse: v. a loss of importance, power, etc.(重要性、权势等的)丧失
— During the seventies, her acting career was in eclipse. 在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。 dismantlement: n. the act of taking something apart 拆除,拆卸 — All construction, dismantlement and reinstatement works shall be completed before May 2006. 所有建造、拆卸及修复工程均须在二零零六年五月前完成。

8 New words catalyst: n. a person or thing that causes a change 促使变化的人;引发变化的因素 — Competition is the catalyst for social development and an impetus to mankind civilization. “竞争是社会发展的催化剂”,它是促进人类文明的动力。 admiral: n. an officer of very high rank in the navy 海军将官;海军上将;舰队司令 — The admiral felt very annoy about his son in drug habit. 那位海军上将因儿子染上毒瘾而十分苦恼。

9 New words maneuver: n. a military training exercise 军事演习
— You should leave enough maneuver space in your plan! 你的计划当中应当留有足够的机动空间。 adjutant: n. an army officer who does office work and helps other officers 副官 — A minute later an adjutant arrived with the same message. 过了一分钟,副官捎着同样的命令走来了。

10 New words barrack: v. to shout encouragement to a person or team that you support 给(所支持的人或队)加油;喝彩助威 — The battalion formed up by company on the barrack square. 全营以连为单位在军营广场上列队。 clamor: v. utter or proclaim insistently and noisily涌入 — In the face of widespread public clamor local residents questioned why the silence? 面对质疑房价虚高舆论声浪地方政府为何缄默?

11 Military

12 Military Key points 1. Overview 2. History 2.1 Origin
2.2 Seven Years War 2.3 Napoleonic Wars 2.4 World War I ( )

13 Key Points 2.5 World War II (1939-1945)
2.6 End of the Empire and Cold War ( ) 2.7 British De-colonialization and the British Army 3. Structure 3.1 Command Organization 3.2 Naval Service

14 Key Points 3.3 British Army 3.4 Royal Air Force 4. Equipment
5. Uniforms

15 1. Overview Known as His/Her Majesty’s Armed Forces or
the British Armed Forces contains a navy, an army, and an air force have the fourth highest declared expenditure

16 1. Overview The Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, HM Queen Elizabeth II the armed forces are subordinate to the crown, but can only be maintained in peace time by parliament’s continuing consent

17 1. Overview The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence 国防部国务委员会

18 1. Overview The British Armed Forces are charged with
protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories promoting Britain’s wider security interests and supporting international peacekeeping efforts The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, promoting Britain’s wider security interests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts.

19 1. Overview They are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations. The UK is also the party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements NATO 全称为North Atlantic Treaty Organization,北大西洋公约组织 Five Power Defence Arrangements五国联防(或FPDA),是英国、澳大利亚、新西兰、马来西亚和新加坡在1971年签订的多方协议

20 2. History 2.1 Origin beginning in 1707
the armed forces of England +Scotland = the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain The British Empire reached its peak in the 1920s The current structure of defense management was set in place in 1964

21 2.2 Seven Years War took part from 1755 to 1763
“the first true world war” Britain VS. France started in North America— the French and Indian War British armed force was untrained and defeated first, but won eventually.

22 2.2 Seven Years War The death of General Wolfe after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, in which Britain defeated the French to take Canada

23 2.3 Napoleonic Wars experienced a time of rapid change, from small to BIG The British infantry was “the only military force not to suffer a major reverse at the hands of Napoleonic France.” After the war, from BIG to small

24 2.4 World War I ( ) Reasons? increasing demands of imperial expansion + inefficiencies highlighted during the Crimean War the Cardwell and Childers Reforms of the late 19th century The Esher Report in 1904, recommended radical reform of the British Army The Haldane Reforms in 1907, created an expeditionary force of seven divisions

25 2.4 World War I (1914-1918) three distinct British Armies:
First: the small volunteer force of 400,000 soldiers Second: Kitchener’s Army, formed from the volunteers in 1914–1915 The ‘third’ was formed after the introduction of conscription in January 1916

26 2.4 World War I ( ) the introduction of new weapons and equipment: the improved and lighter Vickers and Lewis machine guns the Brodie helmet was supplied for better personnel protection against shrapnel the Mark I tank was invented to try and end the stalemate of trench warfare

27 2.5 World War II ( ) During early years of the war, the army suffered defeat in almost every theatre it deployed. From 1943, the army’s fortunes turned and it hardly suffered a strategic defeat.

28 2.5 World War II (1939-1945) new armies had to be formed
and eventually army groups were created to control even larger formations. In command of these new armies, eight Generals would be promoted to Field Marshall rank. The army commanders not only had to manage the new armies, but also a new type of soldier in formations that had been created for special service, which included the Special Air Service, Army Commandos and the Parachute Regiment.

29 2.6 End of the Empire and Cold War (1945-1990)
The United Nations (UN) was formed on 24 October 1945, with Britain one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council

30 2.6 End of the Empire and Cold War (1945-1990)
the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), was established on 4 April 1949 with Britain one of its founding members The creation of NATO signified the beginning of the “Cold War” between the ideologically divided “Western Allies” and the Eastern Communist powers, controlled by the Soviet Union

31 2.6 End of the Empire and Cold War (1945-1990)
The British Army was beginning to demobilize shortly after the end of the war More reforms of the armed forces took place with the 1957 Defence White Paper, which saw further reductions implemented

32 2.6 End of the Empire and Cold War (1945-1990)
The Government realized that Britain was no longer a global superpower and decided to withdraw from most of its commitments in the world, limiting the armed forces to concentrating on NATO, with an increased reliance upon nuclear weapons.

33 2.7 British De-colonialization and the British Army
The latter part of the 1940s saw the British state begin to withdraw from the Empire The first colony the British withdrew from was India The British Army has also played an increasingly prominent role in peacekeeping operation British forces contributed as part of UNPROFOR

34 2.7 British De-colonialization and the British Army
The early 21st century saw the world descend into the War on Terrorism The British later took part in the invasion of Iraq in 2003 The Army played a more significant role in Iraq than Afghanistan deploying a substantial force centered around 1 (UK) Armored Division with, again, around 28,000 troops.

35 3. Structure 3.1 Command Organization
Queen Elizabeth II, is nominally the Commander-in-Chief The Ministry of Defence is the Government department and highest level of military headquarters The department is controlled by the Secretary of State for Defence

36 3.1 Command Organization three deputy appointments of MoD:
Minister of State for the Armed Forces国务部长 Minister for Defense Procurement 国防采购部长 Minister for Veterans’ Affairs 退伍军人事务部长

37 3.1 Command Organization The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the Armed Forces The three services have their own respective professional chiefs: the First Sea Lord the Chief of the General Staff the Chief of the Air Staff

38 3.2 Naval Service consists of the Royal Navy and the Royal Marines
the “Senior Service” the oldest service within the British Armed Forces A submarine service has existed within the Royal Navy for over 100-years

39 3.2.2 Royal Marines Consisting of a single maneuver brigade and various independent units, the Royal Marines specialize in amphibious, arctic, and mountain warfare

40 3.3 British Army The regular British Army had a trained strength of 98,500 and total strength of 109,700 in October 2008 The British Army is undergoing a restructuring program which is mentioned in the 2003 defense white paper, Delivering Security in a Changing World

41 3.3 British Army The army consists of three TLBs (Top Level Budget):
United Kingdom Land Command, HQ Adjutant-General, and HQ Northern Ireland

42 3.4 Royal Air Force Consisting of both fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, the Royal Air Force has a large operational fleet that fulfills various roles. Frontline aircraft are controlled by Air Command, which is organized into three groups defined by function: 1 Group (Air Combat) and 2 Group (Air Support). Training aircraft and ground facilities are organized into 22 Group

43 3.4 Royal Air Force Deployable formations consist of Expeditionary Air Wings and squadrons – the basic unit of the Air Force. Independent flights are deployed to facilities in Afghanistan, the Falkland Islands, Iraq, and the United States.

44 4. Equipment Weapons 1 x L85A2 1 x L85A2 with UGL
1 x Mini light machine gun 1 x L86A2 LSW 1 x 84mm Antitank Weapon 1 x Light Anti Structure Munitions 4 x White Phosphorus smoke grenade 8 x high explosive grenades 4 x Signaling smoke grenades

45 4. Equipment Communications Equipment 4 x Personal Role Radio
1 x Bowman secure VHF Radio

46 5. Uniforms Its signature color had become standardized as red
except for the Royal Horse Guards and Royal Artillery who wore dark blue there are officially fifteen different grades The British army numbers its uniforms for ease of instruction Fourteen ‘orders’ + Full dress

47 5. Uniforms Full Dress the most elaborate order worn by the British Army red coats were only authorized for wear by regimental bands and in mess dress or on certain limited social or ceremonial occasions

48 5. Uniforms No. 1: Temperate ceremonial uniform
is only worn on ceremonial occasions, and, in some regiments, by the duty officer No.2: Service dress (temperate parade uniform) this uniform is worn for most formal duties by all units

49 5. Uniforms No.3: Warm Weather Ceremonial Uniform
No.3 dress is the warm weather equivalent of No. 1 dress worn in specified overseas stations. No.4: Warm Weather Service Dress (officers only) No.4 dress may be worn on formal occasions when not on parade with troops.

50 5. Uniforms No.5: Desert Combat Dress
is issued to soldiers posted to Cyprus and the Middle East No.6: Warm Weather Parade Uniform (bush jacket) No.7: Warm Weather Barrack Dress No.8: Temperate Combat Dress (Left upper: No.5; left lower: No.8)

51 5. Uniforms No.9: Tropical Combat Dress No.10: Temperate Mess Dress
No.11: Warm Weather Mess Dress No.12: Protective Clothing (right: A Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officer in No.9 Dress)

52 5. Uniforms No.13: Temperate Barrack Dress No.14: Shirt Sleeve Order
No.15: Blue Patrols It is an undress uniform worn on semi-formal occasions by officers and Regimental Sergeants Major of the Royal Regiment of Scotland

53 6. Recruitment The British Army has traditionally relied upon volunteer recruits, the only exceptions during the latter part of the First World War, the Second World War and only once during peace time, when conscription was enacted

54 6.1 First World War the army which the Kaiser had referred to as a “contemptible little army” would need thousands more recruits Young Britons answered the call, for King and Country, and voluntarily joined the British Army

55 6.2 Second World War The pre-war army was an all-volunteer army
a higher proportion of army recruits were said to be dull and backwards The Local Defense Volunteers was formed early in 1940

56 6.3 Present Day The Army mainly recruits within the United Kingdom, and normally has a recruitment target of around 25,000 soldiers per year The minimum recruitment age is 16 years The normal term of engagement is 22 years

57 6.3 Present Day In 2008 Commonwealth origin volunteers comprised approximately 6.7% of the Army’s total strength The Ministry of Defence is now considering capping the number of recruits from Commonwealth countries

58 6.3 Present Day Below left: One of the most famous recruiting posters of the British Army; from World War I featuring Kitchener. Below right: 21st century billboard recruiting poster

59 59 Joyful Moment Your duties will be the same
A retired four-star general ran into his former orderly, also retired, in a Manhattan bar and spent the rest of the evening persuading him to come to work for him as his valet. “Your duties will be exactly the same as they were in the army,” the general said. “Nothing to it— you’ll catch on again fast.” Next morning promptly at eight o’clock, the ex-orderly entered the ex-general’s bedroom, pulled open the drapes, gave the general a gentle shake, strode around the other side of the bed, spanked his employer’s wife on her bottom and said, “OK, sweetheart, it’s time back to the village for you.”

60 60. Mr. Positive 1. Faith is taking the first step even when you don’t see the whole staircase. 2. Nobody has ever measured, not even poets, how much the heart can hold.

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