Presentation on theme: "Imperialism Nationalism Europe was competing for territories around the world Germany wanted to beat Britain and France and imperialize more territory."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism Nationalism Europe was competing for territories around the world Germany wanted to beat Britain and France and imperialize more territory Countries became extremely Nationalistic and were using propaganda to make their people support their country Germany was teaching nothing but German pride to their people and they believed they were the best nation in the world and should be the most powerful
Militarism Alliances Germany began to rapidly build its military Other European countries began to do the same so they could not be attacked by Germany With so many countries having a strong military it became a dangerous and tense situation in Europe When Germany allied with Austria-Hungary and the Turkish Empire France got worried To combat this France allied with Russia The problem with alliances is that once your ‘friend’ gets involved in a war you are obligated to get involved as well.
French unhappiness At the loss of Alsace Lorraine Arms race between Germany and France Naval rivalry between Britain and Germany Austria and Russia Competing for Influence in S.E. Europe Alliance Systems In existence German attempts to Gain colonies and Annoy and frighten France, Britain and Russia Assassination at Sarajevo Sparked off World War I
June 28 1914 Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. It is a hotbed of Slav nationalism and not the best time for his visit Seal of the Black Hand group But trouble was looming for this visit….. War Video And then the stage was set…..
“Black Hand” terrorists attack the Archduke Bomb attempt fails in morning to kill Archduke but they decide to continue their tour Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon. Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists. That Day!
“Germany must have its place in the sun” “The world belongs to the strong.” Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy Aggressive foreign policy Determined to make Germany a top nation. Distrusted by other powers Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking” Count Berchtold During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia What was really going on?
Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum. Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum. In the mean time, Russia mobilizes her troops to support Serbia and looks to France (their ally) to support them Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down and offers Austria Hungary a “blank check”. When Russia refuses, Germany declares war on Russia
World War is Declared Why Britain got involved… Britain had Ententes with France and Russia. Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians were given impression Britain would fight. UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium. Germany had sent word to the Belgium king that they will be coming through their country Belgium’s response “We are a country not a road” Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports. They did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August 4 1914 Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry going on in Berlin”
Battles Turn to Stalemate The Battles of the Marne, 1914, 1918 The Battle of Verdun, 1916 The Battles of Ypres, 1914, 1915, 1917 Germans followed the Schlieffen Plan and decided to attack Belgium and head straight into Paris then when France fell all forces would head to Russia Belgium refugees fled their country and the French and British could not save the country Very quickly both sides were in a embittered fight in the trench lines that went from a war to a stalemate (no side winning or losing any territory) The slaughter was astronomical numbers like 60,000 dead in one day
Opposition to the Allies and the War Many Americans still had ties to their homelands and were not immediately taking the Allies side Ex: Germans and Irish Some were pacifists and did not support the war at all Ex: Jane Addams and William Jennings Bryan Allies are the “lesser of two evils” Germans were the “vicious Huns” who attacked Belgium and were the “bullies of Europe” Britain had also launched a propaganda campaign in America against the Germans America had strong economic ties to Britain and had imposed a blockade against Germany to make it difficult for the US to trade with them Rather than fight the blockade we continued to trade with Britain The blockade did not allow any supplies into Germany which killed 750,000 Germans from starvation “Remain impartial in thought As well as deed”
Neutrality is Tested U-Boat the US’s enemy The U Boat was the German “secret weapon” to WWI The US was seen as an enemy for their continual trade with Britain during the the blockade Germans created their own blockade to the British ports and announced any ship heading to England would be “sunk on sight” Germans sank the British Lusitania in 1915 killing 2,000 people (128 of them American) Wilson demanded Central Powers cease and desist—they eventually agreed When it was found that merchant ships were armed to sink U-boats Germans announced attack without warning pledge Sank the Sussex but relented when they realized they can not match the British navy
Let’s Stop and think… Should the US be entering the war now (in your opinion)? Why or Why not? What more would have to happen to drag the US into war? Do you think neutrality was financially beneficial to the United States? How?
From Neutrality to War 1916 Campaign: “He Kept Us Out Of War” Wilson ran against Charles Evan Hughes and ran under a non interventionist campaign Wilson found many Americans still believed we could stay out of war and needed to remain isolationist in order to win the election It was a rollercoaster election and Hughes thought he won when he went to bed that night Wilson won by a narrow margin Neutrality Collapses U.S. exports to Europe rose from $1.479 billion dollars in 1913 to $4.062 billion in 1917 the US businesses had benefited greatly but England was also borrowing money from the US to pay for the war. There was a fear Britain could not pay the loans back. There was no justification to go to war that would rally public support for the war Wilson introduced his 14 Points in January 1917 to Congress At the same time the German’s tried an all out assault on France and unrestricted submarine warfare on American ships Then the final straw……………….
What does it say??? The notes was intercepted by British agents and given to the US as proof of German intentions It suggested an alliance between Mexico and Germany (remember they don’t like the US too much right now) and in return Germany would support Mexico to get back all territories lost to America (Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona) As an added bonus Russia overthrew their Czar and replaced it with a republican government so the US could justify going to war with all countries following democratic principles Wilson announced a declaration of war on April 2, 1917