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Unit 2 Text 1 Space Invaders.

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1 Unit 2 Text 1 Space Invaders

2 Preview the text Listen to the Text of “Space Invader”, & try to find the author’s view concerning: personal space for himself examples of “space invasion” causes attribute to “space invasion” factors related to “space invasion”

3 Prereading Questions:
What is “personal space”? What is your personal space? Does your personal space change? Why or why not?

4 What is personal space? “Imaginary bubble” that surrounds a person which allows them to feel comfortable or uncomfortable. Personal space is our “individual boundary or territory.” Moving into someone's personal space can be viewed as a violation. Personal space is more psychological than physical. It depends more on our inner space than the space outside us. This space varies across individuals according to factors such as age, gender, personality, status, and culture.

5 4 Zones of personal space
Intimate distance: (0-18 inches ) between close friends, family members; show affection, give comfort or protect Personal distance: (1/½-4 feet) most conversations Social distance: (4-12 feet) less personal situations, in business, workplace Public distance: (>12 feet) lectures, churches, public gatherings --- T. E. Hall. (1966). The hidden dimension. Doubleday & Company, Inc.

6 Shared Space Elevators, buses, theaters, and many other similar “shared places” tend to reduce personal space. People who routinely find themselves in such situations tend to have smaller personal space and more tolerance for “space invasion” than those who are unused to crowding.

7 How would you feel if you were in any of these situations?






13 We need personal space to feel comfortable

14 But there are always “Space Invaders”

15 Why do they do that?

16 If you get on this subway, where would you sit?

17 If you have to go to the further end of the supermarket, how would you get over there?

18 What do you notice from this photo?


20 Unit 2 Space Invaders By Richard Stengel

21 About the Author Richard Stengel, Managing Editor of Time magazine, and a long-time writer and editor of the magazine As a senior writer and essayist, Stengel has written for The New Yorker, The New Republic and The New York Times. He's been a frequent television commentator on CNN and MSNBC. Stengel has written several books, including January sun: One day, three lives; A South African town and You're too kind: A brief history of flattery.

22 Reading Tasks Individual:
- Try to find out the main idea of each of the 9 paragraphs. - And try to locate the Topic Sentence in each paragraph. In pairs: - Try to decide how the text is structured.

23 Text Structure 4 Parts: Part 1: (ph.1-2) using personal experience to introduce “personal space” Part 2: (ph.3) examples of space violation Part 3: (ph.4-8) causes of space violation Part 4: (ph.9) “chain reaction” & decision to expand personal space

24 Part 1 Questions: How did the author describe the violation of personal space that happened in a bank?

25 Language Works snake (v.): to move like a snake; to go in a particular direction in long twisting curves: The road snaked away into the distance. The train snaked its way through the mountain.

26 inch: v. move very slowly and carefully in the specified direction
inch sth forward, past, through, etc. e.g. inch the van forward He inched his way through the narrow passage. sidle: v. walk in a timid manner, especially sideways or obliquely Sidle up /over to sb/sth; sidle along, past, away, etc. e.g. A man sidled up to me and asked if I wanted a ticket for the match.

27 shuffle: a. walk by dragging one’s feet along or without lifting them fully from the ground
e.g. The prisoners shuffled along the corridor and into their cells. 囚犯们拖着脚步沿着走廊走进牢房。 b. change one’s position or move one’s feet about while standing or sitting, because of nervousness, boredom, etc. e.g. The audience began to shuffle impatiently. c. slide playing-cards over one another to change order洗牌 d. behave as if one is being dishonest, or avoiding responsibility, etc; avoid being definite e.g. Don’t shuffle: give us a clear answer. 别躲躲闪闪的:给我们一个明确的答复。 Shuffle sth off (onto sb); shuffle out of sth avoid doing what one ought to do e.g. He tries to shuffle his work off onto others. 他想把工作推给别人

28 Verbs for different kinds of “walk”:
1. stagger The drunkard staggered from the coffee shop and clung to a lamp-post. 2. plod The hitch-hikers reached the town after a long walk and plodded wearily to the hotel. 3. pace The man whose wife was expecting the first baby was pacing nervously up and down the hospital corridor. 4. stride The manager strode into the office and asked who was late for work. 5. strut The cock is strutting up and down the farmyard. 6. ramble After dinner, I went rambling in the park. 7. lurk The thief has been lurking in a corner for his unsuspecting victims. 8.creep Not wishing to be noticed, the boy crept downstairs.

29 9. stroll At the weekend, Tom and his friends went strolling in the town stumble In her hurry, the maid stumbled and fell flat on the floor trudge The farmer trudged home with his hoe lurch The car lurched forward across the grass limp With one leg hurt, John limped home prowl Beasts come out to prowl after their prey at night crawl Before babies can walk, they crawl march The victorious army marched into the conquered city rush The pedestrians rushed here and there in the rain.

30 scribble: v.write or draw carelessly or hurriedly
e.g. The child scribbled all over the wall. n. very fast or careless handwriting e.g. I can’t read this scribble. Scribbler a. person who scribbles b. untalented author, journalist, etc. quaint: adj. attractively unusual or old-fashioned e.g. quaint little cottages on the village green 在村中草地上的古朴的小房子

31 Distinguish: a. peculiar: implies a marked distinctiveness e.g. problems peculiar to inner-city areas b. odd/strange/weird: applies to a possibly fantastic departure from the regular or expected e.g. an odd sense of humor c. queer: suggests a dubious sometimes sinister oddness e.g. puzzled by the queer happenings since her arrival d. quaint: suggests an old-fashioned but pleasant oddness e.g. a quaint old house e. eccentric: suggests a divergence(分歧) from the usual or normal especially in behavior e.g. The old gentleman, who lived alone all his life, was said to have some eccentric habits.

32 gratifying: giving pleasure or satisfaction
Distinguish: gratifying: implies mental pleasure arising usually from a satisfying of one’s hopes, desires, conscience, or vanity e.g. a gratifying sense of accomplishment pleasant: stresses a quality inherent in an object e.g. a pleasant evening pleasing: close to pleasant, stresses the effect that something has on one e.g. a pleasing arrangement of colors agreeable: applies to what is in accord with one’s taste or liking e.g. an agreeable companion

33 intuitive: adj.using or based on what one feels to be true even without conscious reasoning
e.g. intuitive knowledge 凭直觉知道 ; an intuitive feeling about sb 对某人的直觉 n. intuition know sth by intuition penetrate: vi.succeed in forcing a way through something e.g. Our troops have penetrated into enemy territory. 我们的部队已经深入到敌战区。 n. penetration market penetration

34 Part 2 Ring n. a particular quality that words, sounds, etc. have:
Her voice had a triumphant ring. His request has a ring of urgency about it. There was a ring of sincerity in his apology.

35 wedge: vt.force into a narrow space
e.g. Open the door and wedge it with a pad of newspaper. 打开门,用一叠报纸把门抵住。 I was tightly wedged between two other passengers, and I couldn’t get off the bus. 我被紧夹在两个乘客之间,不能下车。 zigzag: vi.move forward by going at an angle first to one side then to the other e.g. The narrow path zigzags up the hill. 这条狭窄的小径曲曲折折地向小山上伸延。 adj. a zigzag road, course, flash of lightening

36 e.g. The young people jostled against an old lady on the crowded bus.
jostle: vi. push, elbow, or bump against someone roughly, typically in a crowd jostle against sb e.g. The young people jostled against an old lady on the crowded bus. 那些年轻人在拥挤的公交车上推推搡搡挤着了一位老太太。 fidgety adj. impatient or uneasy e.g. Traveling in planes makes me fidgety v. fidget (make small restless movements, thus annoying other people) It’s bad manners to fidget about at the table. 在餐桌前不停摆弄餐具玩是不雅的。 n. fidgets (pl.) I always get fidgets during long meetings.

37 Part 3 allure: n. powerfully attract; tempt
e.g. Many settlers were allured by promises of easy wealth. 很多安家落户的人都受到了轻易发财的指望的诱惑。 alluring Adj. an alluring smile infuse: vt. soak (tea, herbs, etc.) in liquid to extract flavor or healing properties 泡茶、浸药 infuse…into/with: fill sb with (a quality) e.g. His speech infused the audience with courage. 他的演讲使听众充满了勇气。

38 keep to oneself: remain private; avoid meeting other people
e.g. She doesn’t go out much; she likes to keep to herself. 她不太出门,不喜欢与人交往。 I’d be grateful if you kept this information to yourself. tread: v. set one’s foot down; walk or step e.g. explorers going where no man had trod before 前往杳无人迹之处的勘探者 tread on sb’s toes: offend or annoy sb e.g. I don’t want to tread on anyone’s toes. tread on sb’s heels: follow sb closely

39 trespass: v. enter sb’s land or property without permission
e.g No trespassing. He sued his neighbor for trespassing. 他控告邻居擅闯他的地界。 grant: v. agree to give or allow e.g. The minister granted journalists an interview. 部长答应接见记者。 take sb/sth for granted: be so familiar with sb/sth that one on longer appreciates his/its full value e.g. He never praises his wife; he just takes her for granted. take it for granted: assume sth to be true e.g I take if for granted that you will like it.

40 stake a/one’s claim to: make a claim
stake: v. a. be assertive in defining or defending a position or policy stake a/one’s claim to: make a claim e.g. Several clubs have already staked their claim to this outstanding young footballer. 有几个足球俱乐部表示这个年轻的足球健将将是他们的人。 b. gamble or risk (money, one’s hopes, life etc.) on sth. e.g. I’d stake my life on it. annex: v. take control and possession of (land, a small country, etc. ) especially by force; take without permission. e.g. There are examples of people occupying public squares and annexing the pavement next to their lands. 有些人擅自占用他们土地旁边的公共场地和人行道。

41 Part 4 genome: the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism The Human Genome Project 人类基因工程 gene: a dominant/recessive gene 显性/隐性基因 adj. genetic information adv. genetically determined

42 be proportional to: increase or decrease at the same rate as the other thing increases or decreases
e.g. The output should be proportional to the input. be in proportion to: relative to sth e.g. Payment will be in proportion to actual work done rather than the time spent. 报酬将与工作量而不是花费的时间成比例。 in proportion: in correct relation to other things e.g. Her features are in proportion. 她五官端正。 See things in proportion. 看问题恰如其分。

43 contract: v. become smaller or shorter
e.g. Metals contract as they get cooler. n. contraction of a muscle antonym: expand Distinguish: Shrink: implies a contracting or a loss of material and stresses a falling short of original dimensions e.g. the sweater will shrink if washed improperly.

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