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Life in British Canada. Urbanization Urbanization – The trend to move from the farm into cities and towns Why ? Employment Get off the farm Immigrants.

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Presentation on theme: "Life in British Canada. Urbanization Urbanization – The trend to move from the farm into cities and towns Why ? Employment Get off the farm Immigrants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life in British Canada

2 Urbanization Urbanization – The trend to move from the farm into cities and towns Why ? Employment Get off the farm Immigrants moved to where relatives were Excitement Something to do Friends had moved

3 Urbanization Especially in the West – the Prairies Opportunities for growth business to support farmers Eastern cities well settled Few opportunities no ‘excitement’ Where ?

4 Urbanization Problems in fast-growing cities Lack of Facilities Roads, sewers, water, etc Creation of Slums Poor or inadequate housing Poor health care Unsanitary conditions But - affordable Much poverty

5 Urbanization Problems Try to ‘escape reality’ – bad working conditions Alcohol cheap and easy to get Usually men Paid in cash – drink the pay on the way home No food, no rent Family neglect, physical and mental abuse Alcoholism

6 Urbanization Problems Prohibition To stop the manufacture, sale and consumption of alcohol Movement by women and ministers Women were not taken seriously They could not vote Women demanded Suffrage – the right to vote Alcoholism

7 Urbanization Roman Catholic Church in Quebec Feared that movement of farmers to cities would damage the French traditions “Paid” farmers to remain on the land To cultivate crops and maintain culture and tradition Feared that ‘citification’ would cause people to turn away from the Church

8 Urbanization Technological Advances Electricity Offices and factories Streetcars High rise buildings – elevators Wireless telegraph – radio transmission Telephone Automobiles – mass production Air travel

9 Urbanization Working Conditions Poor working conditions Dirty, dangerous factories Low wages Few safety precautions Long hours Low pay Weak or no unions or worker organizations

10 Urbanization Working Conditions (Children) Farm children must help with all farm work City children often had to work to help support the family Few and weak child labour laws Long hours with very low pay (much lower than adults) Very strict discipline – whippings

11 Urbanization Entertainment Still mostly local and Church oriented Family picnics and outings Little travel for entertainment City people (Toronto) could go to movies by streetcar Spectator sports becoming important Especially baseball and hockey Brantford Red Sox would have 5000 spectators

12 Urbanization Education Mandatory to age 14 by 1914 Became more academic Mostly British literature (for a ‘British’ nation) Some Canadian writers Pauline Johnson (poet) Lucy Maud Montgomery (Anne of Green Gables) Stephen Leacock (Humour) Canadian artists Group of Seven – unique Canadian style

13 Franklin Carmichael “Bay of Islands”

14 Tom Thomson “Early Spring”

15 Lawren Harris “Maligne Lake”

16 Emily Carr “Totem Poles”

17 Canada in the British Empire Canada was the senior member of the British Empire Britain imported natural resources from the colonies and sold manufactured goods back to the colonies British Navy was world’s largest (to protect the colonies) British Empire like a large family Each member has responsibilities Senior member – more is expected Loyalty is owed because Britain created the country

18 Canada in the British Empire The South African War – The Boer War Settled by the Dutch - Their descendants were the Boers Britain had some territories, especially Cape Town Discovery of gold and diamonds Boers wanted their homeland territory British wanted more ‘British territory’, - greed for riches War began in 1899

19 Canada in the British Empire The South African War – The Boer War English Canada Wide support Loyalty to Britain “thanks for all Britain has done” War went badly for Britain - Boers used guerilla tactics (small groups attack and run) - Britain asked for help from the Empire French Canada Felt “why fight Britain’s Imperialistic war” Boers are fighting for language and culture, same as us

20 Canada in the British Empire The South African War – The Boer War Laurier had to act – but not annoy either English or French Compromise – 1000 volunteers, under British command English Canada felt Laurier had not done enough to help Britain Should have sent more troops, and under Canadian control French Canada felt Britain had no right to try to defeat a small army trying to protect its way of life

21 Canada in the British Empire Alaska Boundary Dispute Gold discovered in 1890’s - Boundary in dispute Britain responsible for Canadian foreign affairs Britain voted with U.S. – Colonial concerns of little importance to Britain Why? Britain’s bad loss in Boer War – decrease in world prestige Britain needed to trade with U.S. – world’s largest trading nation U.S. policy of Manifest Destiny AND the US Civil War US would go to war to get what they want Britain upset with Canada since not enough help in Boer War

22 Canada in the British Empire The Naval Problem All members of the British Empire protected by Britain in the event of war British Navy largest and strongest in the world British built largest, fastest battleship – The Dreadnought To maintain superiority Germany started to build same type of ships Britain wanted colonies to help pay for the ships – loyalty and protection

23 Canada in the British Empire The Naval Problem Britain wanted funding from all colonies English Canada demanded immediate donation of funds loyalty to Britain, thanks for everything ever done French Canada refused why pay to attack Germany and not defend Canada Created a problem between French and English Laurier proposed small Canadian Navy to protect Canada – but could be used by Britain if necessary Canada bought 2 used British ships

24 Reciprocity Economic Prosperity Immigration increased population on the Prairies improved economics because of good wheat crops World market for grain increased Much farm equipment bought from Eastern Canada Prosperity in Central Canada High preferential tariffs Tax on foreign goods Raised prices in the West (forced to buy from Central Canada) g

25 Reciprocity Tariffs Tax on imported goods Protects the local economy as foreign goods now more expensive Advantages Creates booming economy for manufacturers Disadvantages Raises price of manufactured goods to farmers Farmers MUST buy from Canadian firms Prairie farmers learn to dislike the East

26 Reciprocity the term used to describe the concept of Free Trade with the United States Free Trade - trade of goods and services between countries with no tariff or tax barriers Prairie farmers could buy cheaper, better quality US products Eastern manufacturers must improve quality and lower prices Canadians could have a wider choice of products U.S. firms could gain access to the growing Canadian market

27 The 1911 Election Many people thought Reciprocity would win election for Laurier (Liberal) Greater prosperity for the country Conservative (Borden) policies Huge U.S. companies would undersell Canadian firms U.S. branch plants in Canada would close Bankruptcy for Canadian firms Reciprocity would be disloyal to Britain Talk of free trade within the British Empire U.S. policy of Manifest Destiny

28 The 1911 Election Laurier Loses the Election Central Canadian manufacturers promoted ‘pro-Empire’ Warned that Reciprocity would mean job losses Quebec (had always voted Liberal) French Nationalists joined with manufacturers warned voters that the U.S. would take over Canada economically and then politically and then assimilate Quebec Possible loss of French culture cost Laurier many votes

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