Presentation on theme: "College English Book 2 Unit 7. Part I Background Information Part I Background Information Part II Text & Listening Part III New Words & Expressions Part."— Presentation transcript:
Part I Background Information Part I Background Information Part II Text & Listening Part III New Words & Expressions Part IV Supplement Unit 7
Part I Background Information About the Author About the Author About the Author Structure of a House Structure of a House Structure of a House Gun’s Components Gun’s Components Gun’s Components American Criminal Issues American Criminal Issues American Criminal Issues Crime in Other Countries Crime in Other Countries Crime in Other Countries
About the Author ----Ruth Reichl American novelist and artist The author of many best-sellers Chef in Berkeley during the 1970s' California food revolution Editor in chief of Gourmet - a post held since 1999 One of the most significant culinary personalities of the last 30 years. She wrote three memoirs, including the 2006 Garlic and Sapphires: The Secret Life of a Critic in Disguise, which talks about her six years as food critic of the New York Times. She is also the editor of The Modern Library Food Series and all of the Gourmet books.
3) What impact do handguns have on America's crime problem? The U.S. has the most heavily armed citizenry in the world. It is estimated that some 223 million guns are available to the general public, and that roughly 135,000 children carry guns to school each day. Each year, the FBI receives about 274,000 reports of stolen guns.
Guns are used defensively about 65,000 times each year; more than 800,000 crimes are committed with guns. Gun deaths in the U.S. number about 40,000 each year -- more than 100 deaths every day.
4) What impact have mandatory minimum sentences and "truth in sentencing" laws had on the justice system? a. Prison overcrowding has been exacerbated. b. The prison population is also aging. c. The effect of these new sentencing laws -- aimed at ensuring that more of those who are arrested are sent to prison, receive longer sentences, and serve greater portions of those sentences -- have significant short- and long- term cost implications.
Crime in Other Countries Recorded robbery in England and Wales, 1990-2002
Robbery rates are climbing in Australia but falling in the US
Part II Text & Listening Text New Words Phrases & Expressions Proper Names
In this article the author describes what happened to her one night and her feelings about it. There's Only Luck There's Only Luck ----Ruth Reichl My mind went numb when I saw the gun pointing against the car window as we pulled out of the garage: This can't be happening to me. Then I felt the gun, cold, against my head, and I heard my friend Jeremy saying, "What do you want? Take my wallet," but at the time I thought of nothing. I remember being vaguely annoyed when the gunman pulled me from the car by the hair. I remember the walk to the house - Jeremy, me, the two men with two guns. I remember the fear and anger in the gunmen's voices because Jeremy was being slow, and I remember wondering why he was being slow. I did not realize that Jeremy had thrown the keys into the shrubbery. But I remember that sound of the gun hitting Jeremy's head and the feeling as the man who had hold of my hair released me. And I remember the split second when I realized he was looking at Jeremy, and I remember wondering how far I could run before he pulled the trigger. But I was already running, and upon reaching the car across the street, I didn't crouch behind it but screamed instead.
I remember thinking there was something absurdly melodramatic about screaming "Help, help!" at eight o'clock on a Tuesday evening in December and changing my plea to the more specific "Help, let me in, please let me in!" But the houses were cold, closed, unfriendly, and I ran on until I heard Jeremy's screams behind me announcing that our attackers had fled. The neighbors who had not opened their doors to us came out with baseball bats and helped Jeremy find his glasses and keys. In a group they were very brave. We waited for the cops to come until someone said to someone else that the noodles were getting cold, and I said politely, "Please go and eat. We're O.K." I was happy to see them go. They had been talking of stiffer sentences for criminals, of bringing back the death penalty and how the President is going to clean up the country. I was thinking, they could be saying all of this over my dead body, and I still feel that stiffer sentences wouldn't change a thing. In a rush all the rage I should have felt for my attackers was directed against these contented people standing in front of their warm, cozy homes talking about all the guns they were going to buy. What good would guns have been to Jeremy and me? People all over the neighborhood had called to report our screams, and the police turned out in force twenty minutes later. They were ill-tempered about what was, to them, much ado about nothing. After all, Jeremy was hardly hurt, and we were hopeless when it came to identification. "Typical," said one cop when we couldn't even agree on how tall the men were. Both of us were able to describe the guns in horrifying detail, but the two policemen who stayed to make the report didn't think that would be much help.
The cops were matter-of-fact about the whole thing. The thin one said, "That was a stupid thing to do, throwing away the keys. When a man has a gun against your head you do what you're told." Jeremy looked properly sheepish. Then the fat cop came up and the thin one went to look around the outside of the house. "That was the best thing you could have done, throwing away the keys," he said. "If you had gone into the house with them…" His voice trailed off. "They would have hurt her" - he jerked his head toward me - "and killed you both." Jeremy looked happier. "Look," said the fat cop kindly, "there's no right of wrong in the situation. There's just luck." All that sleepless night I replayed the moment those black gloves came up to the car window. How long did the whole thing last? Three minutes, five, eight? No matter how many hours of my life I may spend reliving it, I know there is no way to prepare for the next time - no intelligent response to a gun. The fat cop was right: There's only luck. The next time I might end up dead. And I'm sure there will be a next time. It can happen anywhere, anytime, to anyone. Security is an illusion; there is no safety in locks or in guns. Guns make some people feel safe and some people feel strong, but they're fooling themselves.
NEW WORDS numb n. having lost the power of feeling or moving 没感觉的，麻木的 garage n. building in which a car is kept 汽车库 wallet n. leather pocket-case for paper money, cards, etc. 皮夹 vaguely ad. not clearly 模糊地 vague a. annoy vt. make rather angry 使恼怒 gunman n. a man armed with a gun, esp. a criminal or terrorist 持枪歹徒 Shrubbery n. low bushes forming a mass or group 灌木丛 release vt. set free 松开；释放 split vt. divide into parts 劈开 split second very brief moment of time; instant 瞬间，一刹那 trigger n. 扳机 crouch vi. lower the body to the ground 蹲伏 absurdly ad. foolishly; ridiculously 愚蠢地，荒唐可笑地 absurd a. melodramatic a. exciting in effect, often too much so to be thought real 感情夸张；闹剧 式的 plea n. asking for sth. with strong feelings 恳求 specific a. definite; not general 明确的；具体的 flee v. run away (from) 逃走；逃离 baseball n. 棒球（运动） bat n. 球棒，球拍
cop n. (informal) policeman noodle n. (usu. pl.) 面条 stiff a. severe 严厉 criminal n. someone who has broken the law 罪犯 penalty n. punishment 惩罚 rage n. great anger 狂怒 contented a. satisfied; happy 满足的 last vi. go on cozy a. warm and comfortable 暖和舒适的 ill-tempered a. (often) angry or annoyed 脾气坏的；易怒的 ado n. trouble and excitement 忙乱 hopeless a. giving no cause for hope; very bad or unskilled 没有希望的；无能的 identification n. 鉴别 identify vt. horrify vt. frighten; shock very much 使恐怖；使震惊 detail n. small, particular fact 细节 matter-of-fact a. concerned with the facts; practical 注重事实的；讲究实际的 sheepish a. foolish or embarrassed by awareness of a fault 局促不安的 trail vi. grow gradually weaker, dimmer, etc. jerk vt. pull or lift suddenly 猛拉；猛抬 replay vt. play (match, recording, etc.) over again 重放 glove n. 手套 relive vt. experience again, esp. in the imagination intelligent a. clever; rational 聪明的；明智的 response n. action done in answer; answer 反应；回答 respond vi. security n. safety, freedom from danger or fear 安全，平安 secure a. illusion n. false perception; (the seeing of) sth. that does not really exist 错觉 ; 幻觉
PHRASES & EXPRESSIONS pull out (of): move out (of) （车，船等）驶出 have (get, catch): hold of 抓住 bring back: restore, reintroduce 恢复 clean up: clean thoroughly and remove anything unwanted 彻底打扫；整肃 turn out: appear; come or go out to see or do sth. 出来，出动 in force: in large numbers 大批地，人数众多地 much ado about nothing: a lot of unnecessary explaining, of excitement about things not serious or unimportant 无事生非；小题大作 come to: reach (a particular point) in explaining, etc. 谈到（某一点） agree on: have the same opinion on in detail: giving a lot of facts 详细地 trail off: (voice, etc.) become gradually weaker and fade into silence （声音等） 逐渐变弱 no way: 不可能 prepare for: get ready for end up: 结束，告终 PROPER NAMES Ruth Reichl 露丝. 赖克尔 Jeremy 杰里米 ( 男子名 )
Part III New Words and Expressions 1. My mind went numb when I...: I lost all my senses or the power to think when I... go: (used as linking verb) become; get to be Examples: --Father went red with anger. -- The milk has gone sour. -- You see. my hair has gone gray. numb: having lost the power of feeling or moving Examples: -- The mother was numb with grief. -- The little Match Girl's fingers went numb with cold.
2. pull out:2. pull out: leave; move away Examples: -- The train pulled out of the station. -- The driver of the car pulled out from behind the truck.
3. This can't be happening to me.: It's impossible that this is happening to me. (Or: I can't believe this is happening to me. ) (Or: I can't believe this is happening to me. ) Negative deduction about a present event can be expressed by "can't‘ or "couldn't" with the present infinitive of the verb "be". Negative deduction about a present event can be expressed by "can't‘ or "couldn't" with the present infinitive of the verb "be". Examples: --It can't be true. She must be mistaken. --He can't/couldn't be still reading the book. I gave it to him ages ago and it's a quite short book.
4. I remember being vaguely annoyed when...: 4. I remember being vaguely annoyed when...: I remember that I was slightly angry for no definite reason when... vague: not clear in shape or in form; not clearly described. Examples: -- The girl looked up, gave me a vague answer, and went back to the fashion magazine she was reading. --I haven't the vaguest idea who she is. --The mountain peak is seen vaguely in the fog.
annoy: (1) make rather angry Examples: --Julie was annoyed with/at Joanna for applying for the same job. --Julie was annoyed to learn that Joanna had gotten that position. --She was annoyed with her husband because he forgot her birthday. (2) disturb; trouble Examples: --The flies keep annoying me. --We were constantly annoyed by the noise outside.
5. release: 5. release: (I) set free Examples: -- He was released from hospital after a week's treatment. -- it is hard for someone newly released from prison to find a decent job. -- Sometimes death releases a patient from suffering. (2) allow (hews) to be known or published; allow (goods) to be put on sale Examples: -- President Nixon resigned after the Watergate tapes had been released by the press. -- The film star made a personal appearance at the releasing ceremony of her new film. (3) loosen Example~: -- In panic he released the handlebar of his bicycle. --The train gathering speed, he had to release her hand and say goodbye.
6. the split second: 6. the split second: the very brief moment of time split (spilt, split): ( v.) (1) (cause to) divide into parts Examples: -- She split with him after a bitter quarrel. -- The party was split into several small groups. -- Can we split the atom further'? (2) (cause to) break Examples: --My father is out splitting logs. --His pants were split at the seams. (n. ) splitting; tear made by splitting Examples: --He has no wife to sew up the split in the trousers for him, so he asks the landlady for help. -- The split in the party was soon disclosed by the press.
7. I didn't crouch behind it but screamed instead.: Instead of crouching behind it (the car), I screamed. instead: as an alternative or substitute Examples: -- If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead. -- If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead. -- It was too hot for jogging, so we went swimming instead. -- It was too hot for jogging, so we went swimming instead.
8. there was something absurdly melodramatic about screaming, "Help, help!" It seemed somewhat ridiculous and excessively dramatic in a stupid way to scream "Help. help!"
9. specific: (1) detailed and precise Examples: -- His boss left specific instructions/orders as to what he should do next, -- Whal are your specific aims in visiting our university? (2) relating to one particular thing, etc.; not general Examples: --Each painter has his specific style. -- The word can only be used in specific situations.
* Here the "houses " are personified. What the author really means is that the people behind the doors were indifferent to what was happening outside and were reluctant to help. 10. the houses were cold, closed, unfriendly: closed, unfriendly:
11. stiff: (1) severe Examples: --Cheaters (or: Cheats) on the exam received a stiff warning/punishment from the university. -- There should be stiffer penalties for child abusers. (2) not easily bent or changed in shape Examples: -- The principal always keeps a stiff upper lip while at school. -- My legs grew stiff after a long walk. (3) (of manners, behavior) formal; unfriendly Examples: -- Emma was unfavorably impressed by the man who gave her a stiff bow. -- The old lady was quite stiff with her new neighbors. (4) hard to do; difficult Examples: -- They were stiff all over from the stiff climbing. -- The book is stiff reading.
12. bringing back the death penalty: In July. 1972 the US Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment, or the death penalty, was "cruel and unusual punishment". Some states have since done away with capital punishment. Others greatly limit its use. But in July 1976 the Court ruled that capital punishment was constitutional under certain circumstances. States were then free to impose the death penalty according to the Court's guidelines. Many states therefore have brought back the death penalty. The State of California, in which our story sets, abolished capital punishment for a while, but then brought it back some time in the mid-80s.
bring back: restore Examples: -- The fresh air in the mountains would bring back her strength. -- The fresh air in the mountains would bring back her strength. -- The doctor has brought him back to health. -- The doctor has brought him back to health. --Many American citizens are in favor of bringing back capital punishment. --Many American citizens are in favor of bringing back capital punishment. 13. clean up the country: put an end to crime and corruption 13. clean up the country: put an end to crime and corruption
14. rage: 14. rage: great anger Examples: -- The father flew into a rage when he learned his son had tailed again in the math exam. -- Othello killed his wife in a fit of rage. -- She turned her rage on the family cat.
15. contented: 15. contented: satisfied; happy Examples: -- The baby girl slept in her mother's arms with a contented smile. -- He leads a contented life among his four walls of books. -- How can you be contented with such a life?
16. cozy: 16. cozy: warm and comfortable Examples: -- I miss the cozy evenings beside the fireplace. -- The fur coat will keep you cozy in winter.
17. What good would guns have been to Jeremy and me?: 17. What good would guns have been to Jeremy and me?: Even if Jeremy and I had had guns with us, they would not have done any good to us. What good is... ?/What's the good of.,. ?: What is the use of... ? Examples: -- What good is money to a person when he is dying? -- What is the good of explaining the matter to him if he turns a deaf ear to you?
18. the police turned out in force: the police arrived on the scene in large numbers turn out: 18. the police turned out in force: the police arrived on the scene in large numbers turn out: appear; be present Examples: -- The whole city turned out to welcome the Olympic heroes and heroines. -- The weather prevented people from turning out to watch the sports meet.
19.... we were hopeless when it came to identification.: 19.... we were hopeless when it came to identification.:... we were unable to provide any useful information when asked about how old the criminals might be, what they looked like, etc hopeless: feeling no hope, giving or promising no hope Examples: -- Their position is hopeless. -- With scientific progress,,AIDS will stop being a hopeless disease. come to: concern; become a matter about (usually used in the phrase "when it comes to") Examples: -- When it comes to physics I know I'd better shut up. --Joe is not good at sports, but when it comes to arithmetic he is the best in the class.
20. detail: (n.) small, particular fact (n.) small, particular factExamples: --After a cup of hot tea. she was able to tell what had happened in greater detail. --After a cup of hot tea. she was able to tell what had happened in greater detail. --The scientist went over every detail of his paper before publishing it. --The scientist went over every detail of his paper before publishing it. -- I won't go into details in the aspect because you can find all about it ill your textbook. -- I won't go into details in the aspect because you can find all about it ill your textbook. (v.) describe fully (v.) describe fullyExamples: -- Her last romance was fully detailed in the biography. -- Her last romance was fully detailed in the biography. -- She detailed in her letter every piece of furniture in her new apartment. -- She detailed in her letter every piece of furniture in her new apartment.
21. trail off: 21. trail off: become increasingly weaker and fade away eventually Examples: -- Her voice trailed off to a whisper. -- Before the intimidating glare of the headmaster, the young boy's words trailed off into silence.
22. last: 22. last: go on; be enough (for) Examples: -- How long will the rain season last? -- Our water won't last long. We must find a way out of the desert.
23. relive: 23. relive: live through or undergo again Examples: -- She relived the scene of their good-by. -- That was an experience I should not like to relive.
24. no intelligent response to a gun: 24. no intelligent response to a gun: there is no clever reaction to a gun intelligent: clever; wise Examples: -- Some scientists believe that there is intelligent life existing beyond the solar system. --To my disappointment, the intelligent looking girl was unable to give intelligent answers to my questions. response: (1) action done in answer Examples: -- The Government acts quickly in response to inflation. -- The medical student observed closely the response of ailing white rats to specific drugs. (2) Answer Examples: --My letter of complaint brought no response. --His response to his critics was silence.
25. end up:reach a final situation (by doing sth.); finish; come to an end 25. end up: reach a final situation (by doing sth.); finish; come to an endExamples: --Each time she tried to argue with her husband, she ended up crying her eyes out. --Each time she tried to argue with her husband, she ended up crying her eyes out. --If you continue stealing, you will surely end up in prison. --If you continue stealing, you will surely end up in prison.
26. Security is an illusion; there is no safety in locks or in guns.: No one is in fact secure; even if you have locks and guns, you are not safe from danger. Security: safety Examples --It is the duty of the United Nations Security Council to maintain the peace and order in the world. --Children who lack the security of parental care are mentally unstable. --Ancient people had no security from/against natural disasters.
illusion: false perception; sth. that does not really exist Examples --Mental patients frequently have illusions of grandeur. --The mirror in the fitting room gave her an illusion of slimness. --She is under the illusion that a prince of charm will take her away on a white horse.
PART IV How to Survive a Robbery Follow instructions - do exactly what the offender says (no more, no less) Stay calm and quiet Avoid eye contact Do not make sudden movements Remain inside the workplace - do not chase the offender
How to Survive a Robbery Show your hands - if you must move, keep your hands where the offender can see them. Advise the offender what you are doing before you move Do not attack the offender Take mental notes - if it is safe to do so, note as much as you can about the offender (e.g. height, hair and eye color, physical condition, special marks or tattoos)