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Unit 5 Cruelty Text A A Friend in Need Text B A Man of the World.

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1 Unit 5 Cruelty Text A A Friend in Need Text B A Man of the World

2 Part I: Pre-reading tasks Part II: Text A A Friend In Need Part III: Text B A Man of The World Part IV: Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks

3 Part I: Pre-reading tasks (Script for the recording). Is it easy to be hard, easy to be cold towards others? The singer of the song you are about to hear thinks that too many people are cruel and have no feelings. His particular target is those who claim to care about large causes, the poor and underprivileged, at the same time as they are ready to ignore the needs of their friends. From the song, it sounds as if he has one particular friend in mind, a friend---- perhaps a girl?----who seems to care more for social causes than she does for him. But whatever the reason, he complains that too many people find it all too “easy to be cold, easy to say no.” Listen and see whether you agree with him or not. 1. Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over the following questions:

4 Easy to be Hard Three Dog Night How can people be so heartless How can people be so cruel Easy to be hard, easy to be cold How can people have no feelings How can they ignore their friends Easy to be proud, easy to say no Especially people who care about strangers Who care about evil and social injustice Do you only care about bleeding crowd How about a needing friend, I need a friend How can people be so heartless You know I’m hung up on you Easy to be proud, easy to say no

5 Easy to be Hard Especially people who care about strangers Who care about evil and social injustice Do you only care about bleeding crowd How about a needing friend, we all need a friend How can people be so heartless How can people be so cruel Easy to be proud, easy to say no Easy to be cold, easy to say no Com on, easy to give in, easy to say no Easy to be cold, easy to say no Much too easy to say no

6 Questions:  1).Why do some people tend to be heartless and cruel? Were they born that way or did circumstances harden them? (Open)  2).Do some people care too much for people in general and forget the needs of their closest friends? (Open)  3).What is the singer complaining about? (Too many people find it all too easy to be cold, to say no.)  4).Does the song give you any idea of what the stories in this unit will be about? (Open)

7 2. Ranking activity 1) What are the determining forces in shaping human nature? (ask Ss randomly) ----genes, family, parenting, schooling, peers, socioeconomic factors… 2) T chooses five or six determining forces, and then write them down on the blackboard. 3) Ss form groups to rank these forces in descending order of importance. They must also explain why. 4) A few Ss groups report to the class.

8 3. Now let’s move to Text A of this unit:  We will go on to debate the issue of nature vs. nurture in the fifth period, when we do the Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks. Now let’s turn our attention to the text, to see what Maugham has to say about human mature.(1 min)

9 Part II: Text A A Friend In Need 1. Background 2. Text Analysis and Study 3. Language Points 4. post-reading questions 5. translation

10 1.Background: Some people seem easy to understand: their character appears obvious on first meeting. Appearances, however, can be deceptive. Somerset Maugham ( )

11 Somerset Maugham ( ): an English writer considered to be one of the best writers of short stories in the English language. He also wrote plays and novels. His novels and short stories are characterized by great narrative facility, simplicity of style, and a disillusioned and ironic point of view. Maugham was born in Paris and studied medicine at the University of Heidelberg and at Saint Thomas’s Hospital, London.

12 His partially autobiographical novel Of Human Bondage (1915) is generally acknowledged as his masterpiece and is one of the best realistic English novels of the early 20th century. The Moon and Six Pence (1919) is a story of the conflict between the artist and conventional society, based on the life of the French painter Paul Gauguin;

13 other novels are The Painted Veil (1925), Cakes and Ale(1930), Christmas Holiday(1939), The Hour Before the Dawn(1942), The Razor’s Edge(1944), and Cataline: A romance(1948). Among the collections of his short stories are The Trembling of a Leaf(1921), which includes “Miss Thompson,” later dramatized as Rain; Ashenden: or The British Agent(1928); First Person Singular(1931); Ah King(1933); and Quarter(1948).

14 2.Text Analysis and Study 1)Ss look at the title, and then predict what the text is about, or what kinds of plot are possible under such a title. Text A A Friend In Need

15 Text analysis Maugham, the famous British short writer, shows us how powerful contrast is in delineating a person ’ s character. Upon first seeing the title, readers may think: “ Oh, no. Another story about how people helped their friend in need! ” However, when they finish reading it, readers will find it is an entirely different story: Those who appear to be friendly may turn out to be so evil-minded as to be ready to strike a cruel blow at a friend in need.

16 Text analysis Almost the entire Part two is devoted to the description of Edward Burton ’ s kindly appearance and pleasant manners. Neither the “ I ” in the story nor readers could imagine him hurting a fly. Yet in Part Three Burton recounts cold-bloodedly how he destroyed a human life.

17 Text analysis Part One and Part Two are narrated by “I”, who offers his subjective opinion of Burton’s character. Yet in Part Three Burton himself takes over the narration to tell what happened between him and a friend in trouble. He sounds cool and objective; just because of this he is shown to be so vicious and so cold- blooded. When contrasts abound, it is hard for readers to easily predict what will happen next.

18 2) T asked the Ss to skim and scan the whole in 3-4 mins to get the general idea of the text and do exercise 1 Text Organization Parts ParagraphsMain Ideas Part One Para 1 Part Two Paras 2-3 Part Three Paras 4-51

19 Keys to last exercise:  Part one: It is no easy job to judge people, for they aren ’ t always what they appear to be.  Part two: Kind and gentle, Edward Burton, a wealthy merchant, appeared as if he could not bear to hurt a fly.  Part three: As it turned out, Burton was cold-blooded enough to send a friend to certain death.

20 3)Comprehension Questions : 1.Does the narrator think our first impressions of a person are always right? Why or why not? Keys to (1)Keys to (1) 2.What was Edward Burton by profession? How did he look? Keys to (2)Keys to (2) 3.What struck the narrator most about Edward Burton?How does the narrator describe this obvious side to Burton’s character? Keys to (3)Keys to (3) 4.Who was Lenny Burton? How did Edward Burton get to know him? Keys to (4)Keys to (4) 5.What was Edward Burton impression of Lenny? Keys to (5) Keys to (5)

21 3)Comprehension Questions : 6.How did Lenny manage to support himself? Keys to (6) Keys to (6) 7.Why did Lenny call at his namesake’s office one day? Keys to (7)Keys to (7) 8.How did Edward respond to his request? Keys to (8) Keys to (8) 9.How did the response help to show him up in his true colors? keys to (9)keys to (9)

22 3)Comprehension Questions : 10.What idea did Edward think of when Lenny begged again for a job? keys to (10) 11.Why did Lenny hesitate before he agreed to do as he was told to? keys to (11) 12.When Edward set a condition for offering a job, was he aware Lenny would be drowned? How do you know? Keys to (12)

23 Keys to Comprehension Questions:  (1)The narrator think that our first impression are always deceptive, because he found that the longer he know people the more they puzzle him.(L2-5)  (2)He was a merchant.(L7) He was at tiny little fellow, not much more than five feet four in height, and very slender, with white hair, a red face much wrinkled, and blue eyes.(L13-15)

24 Keys to Comprehension Questions:  (3)What struck the narrator most is Burton’s kindness.(L27) The narrator gave a detailed description of Burton’s appearance and manners: There was something very pleasing in his mild blue eyes. His voice was gentle; you could not imagine that he could possibly raise it in anger; his smile was benign…(L27-29)

25 Keys to Comprehension Questions:  (4)Lenny Burton was a namesake of Edward Burton and he should belonged to some very good clubs because he plays bridge very well.(L47-49).Lenny Burton came to see Edward Burton when he went broke.(L67-68)  (5)Edward Burton said that Lenny Burton wasn’t a bad chap and he liked him. Lenny Burton was always well-dressed and smart- looking. He was handsome in a way with curly hair and pink-and-white cheeks.(L56-58)

26 Keys to comprehension questions:  (6)His family sent money to him once a quarter and he made a bit more by card- playing.(L60-62)  (7)Because he had no more money coming from home and he wanted to work.(L69-71) He was down and out. If he couldn’t get something to do he’d have to commit suicide.(L82-84)  (8)Edward refused to help Lenny: “ I’m afraid I can’t do anything for you just yet…”(L76)

27 Keys to Comprehension Questions  (9)Edward laughed at Lenny when Lenny asked help for him. And he also refused Lenny in a satiric way by saying that: “Come back and see me in another thirty-five years, and I’ll see what I can do.” (L75,L76-77)  (10)He wanted Lenny to swim across Kobe.  (11)Because he knew that he wasn’t strong enough to swim such a long distance.(L110)

28 Keys to Comprehension Questions  (12)Yes, Edward must know that Lenny couldn’t made it, because he knew Lenny was not in good condition and he had ruined his constitution by drink and dissipation. The currents round the beacon were more than Lenny could mange. On the other hand, he didn’t get a vacancy in his office at that moment. (L )

29 3. Language Points 1. deceptive: likely to deceive; misleading e.g. Appearances are deceptive.  The newspapers promised not to run deceptive ads in the future.  The company was charged with deceptive advertising for a number of products.  The play is also an observation about the deceptive nature of appearances.  deceptively adv. deceptiveness n.

30 2. for sb.’s (own) part /the part of: as far as sb. is concerned e.g. For my part I prefer living in the country.  Some young students, for their part, can stay up late playing computer games. can stay up late playing computer games. 3. definite : clear; that can’t be doubted e.g. I was wandering round the shop with no very definite aim. very definite aim.  Doctors have found a definite link between smoking and lung cancer. smoking and lung cancer.

31 4.(all) of a piece: the same in all parts; the same as sth. else e.g. The style of the book is all of piece, in both illustrations and text. The essays he completed in the latter part of his life are of a piece with his earlier work. The testimony was all of a piece with the professor’s version of events. all of a piece = all of one piece Other usages of piece master piece 杰作 ; 杰出的事 tear to pieces 撕碎 ; 彻底摧毁 ; 痛斥

32 5. wrinkle: tighten the skin of the face into lines or folds e.g. The woman was forty, but looked fifty. Her cheeks were sunken and her skin was wrinkled and yellow.  The skin on her cheeks and around her eyes was beginning to wrinkle.  My dress wrinkles easily. Other usages: wrinkled her nose in disdain. 皱鼻子以示不屑

33 6. in accordance with: in agreement or harmony with e.g. Students will be criticized or punished if their behavior is not in accordance with school regulations.  Some young people are self-centered, which is not in accordance with Chinese traditional values.  act in accordance with the rules 根据条例行事

34 7.elderly: (adj. & n. )(of) people rather old; past middle age e.g. adj. to be getting elderly 年纪渐老  He was rather elderly with grey hair and clear blue eyes.  Traveling at 97 km/h (60mph), an elderly driver may miss the information he or she needs or may act on the wrong information.  Most of the residents in the old district are the elderly as their offspring have moved to new residential areas.

35 8.evidently: obviously; it appears that e.g. Evidently our living conditions are much better than before. He was evidently upset when he learned that he failed in the final examination. The stranger approached the microphone, evidently intending to speak.

36 9.mild: (of people or their manner) gentle and kind; not severe or harsh e.g. Peter is a mild man, never getting angry easily. She has inherited my husband’s milder nature, I’m glad to say. The weather is mild today ; it is neither hot nor cold. He has too mild a nature to get angry, even if he has good cause. a mild cheese 味不足的奶酪.

37 10.spicy: exciting, esp. because of being slightly indecent; containing or tasting like spice e.g. You can often read spicy stories about film stars in the local newspapers. People from Sichuan province like to eat spicy food. spicy criticism 辛辣的批评 a spicy magazine 淫秽下流的杂志

38 11.something of: to some degree  e.g. It’s something of a disadvantage nowadays if you can’t use a computer.  They haven’t got a loan from the bank, which is something of disappointment. 12.instinct: a tendency that one is born with to behave in a certain way without reasoning or training e.g. It is the mother’s instinct to protect her children.

39  He always knew what time it was, as if by instinct.  I knew by instinct that he had come to deliver bad news.  Birds learn to fly by instinct.  Trust your instincts and do what you think is right. Other usages: act on instinct 凭直觉行动 by instinct 出于本能  have an instinct for 生来就有... 的本能, 生性爱好, instinct with 充满着...; 受... 的鼓舞

40 13.clap: strike(the inner surface of one ’ s hands) together ► e.g. The noise of conversation rose, and the teacher clapped her hands for silence. ► The audience clapped enthusiastically as the singer stepped on to the stage. ► The nursery teacher clapped her hands to attract the children's attention. ► When the singer finished, we clapped ► He clapped his son on the back. c.f. applaud c.f. applaud other usages: clap eyes on 看见 other usages: clap eyes on 看见 ► It's many years since I clapped eyes on him.

41 14.oddly enough: used to say that sth. seems strange or surprising ► e.g. oddly enough = strangely enough ► Children ’ s books, oddly enough, continued to have a big place in retail sales. Oddly enough, some of the students don ’ t know how to log on the internet.

42 15.sip: drink (sth.), taking a very small amount each time (used in the patterns: sip sth. at/from (sth.)) e.g. Jessica sipped her coffee, listening to the music. He sipped at the glass and then put it down. He sipped at the glass and then put it down. He lifted the water bottle to his lips and sipped. He lifted the water bottle to his lips and sipped.

43 a way: to a certain extent but not entirely e.g. I agree with you in a way, but there are still some areas on which I can ’ t see eye to eye with you. It ’ s easier for men to get work in a way. c.f. in a big way 大规模地 ; 豪华地 ; 隆重地 in a great way 大规模地 ; 豪华地 ; 隆重地 in a family way 不拘礼节地, 家常随便地 ; 怀 孕 in a general way 一般说来, 大体上 in a good way 昌盛地, 富裕地 in a hundred and one ways 千方百计地

44 17.with (a) bad/good grace: unwillingly and rudely/willingly and happily e.g. After I talked to him for an hour, he admitted his mistake with bad grace. My mentor accepted my invitation to dinner with good grace. c.f. get into sb. good graces 博得某人的欢心 good graces 好意, 友意 ; 宠爱 have the grace to (do) 有... 的雅量, 有勇气... in sb.'s good /bad graces 受某人照顾 [ 白眼 ] make one's graces 行礼 with an ill grace 勉强地, 不情愿地 with a good grace 高兴地, 欣然地 with an easy grace 态度自若

45  18.stroke: pass the hand gently over (a surface),usu. several times e.g. At the sight of her husband getting off the train, the woman walked forward and embraced him and stroked his white hair. I reached out and stroked the baby ’ s cheek tenderly. Other usages: at the stroke of midnight. 午夜钟声 a stroke of lightning. 一个闪电

46 19.shave: cut(hair) off one ’ s face, etc. with a razor; cut or scrape thin slices from the surface of e.g. In the Qing dynasty men shaved the front of the head and wore the hair ant the back tied in a queue or pigtail.  He washed and shaved, then hurried out of the house. Other usages: shave a meadow. The bus just shaved me by an inch.

47 19.shave: cut (hair) off one ’ s face, etc. with a razor; cut or scrape thin slices from the surface of e.g. In the Qing dynasty men shaved the front of the head and wore the hair and the back tied in a queue or pigtail. He washed and shaved, then hurried out of the house. Other usages: shave a meadow. 修剪草坪 The bus just shaved me by an inch.( 擦过 )

48 20.transparent: allowing light to pass through so that objects behind can be seen clearly e.g. The cup is made of transparent colored plastic. Transparent plastic is often used for packaging foods, enabling the consumer to see the product inside.

49 21.go broke: have no money; go bankrupt e.g. Many multinational companies went broke during the financial crisis, not to speak of small businesses. He invested all his money in stocks; unfortunately he made one wrong choice after another and finally went broke. c.f. go for broke 全力以赴 ; 孤注一掷 go broke 破产 clean broke 身无分文, 一文不名 dead broke 身无分文, 一文不名 stone broke 身无分文, 一文不名 stony broke 身无分文, 一文不名 [USA] flat broke flat-broke 身无分文, 一文不名

50 22.hitherto: (fml) until now; until a particular time e.g. The Hope Project sent money to student’s hitherto unable to afford their tuition fees. The printing press made books available to people hitherto unable to afford them. The printing press made books available to people hitherto unable to afford them. He has hitherto achieved great success in his career. He has hitherto achieved great success in his career.

51 23.stick to: refuse to abandon or change(sth.) e.g. Mike, you just tell the cops what you saw; stick to your story. The old man stuck to jogging every morning although he was eighty years old. The old man stuck to jogging every morning although he was eighty years old.

52 24.trim: v.defeated; make (sth.) neat or smooth by cutting away irregular parts e.g. They were trimmed by 3goals to 2. My friend trimmed my hair last week. My friend trimmed my hair last week. n. in good trim. 状况很好 Grass shears are specially made to trim grass growing in awkward places. Grass shears are specially made to trim grass growing in awkward places.

53 25.down and out: having no money, home, etc. e.g. When he was down and out, none of his friends gave him a helping hand. his friends gave him a helping hand. Shortly after his company was Shortly after his company was declared bankrupt, the manager declared bankrupt, the manager became down and out. became down and out.

54 26.commit: do (sth. illegal or wrong) e.g. It is illegal to commit violations of the copyright. The man was suspected of committing murder. Other usage : To make known the views of (oneself) on an issue: e.g. I never commit myself on such issues. To bind or obligate, as by a pledge: They were committed to follow orders.

55 (all) to pieces: (of a person) have a breakdown; lose control of oneself e.g. I was attracted by the story of a housewife who went to pieces as one disaster followed another. She nearly went to pieces when she heard that her husband was among those buried in the ruins of the World Trade Center.

56 28.insane: (informal) very foolish e.g. an insane laugh; 疯笑; insane babbling. 疯言乱语 an insane asylum. 疯人院 insane jealousy. 疯狂的妒  You would be insane to refuse the invitation to attend the conference.  Your plan to walk through the desert on your own isquite insane.

57 at: be trying to say e.g. I have no idea what you ’ re driving at.  The teacher didn ’ t mention the word “ cheating ” but knew what he was driving at. 精辟地阐明他的观点

58 30.current: continuous flow of water or air in a particular direction e.g. Swimming against the current is energy-consuming. Under normal conditions, the ocean currents of tropical Pacific travel from east to west. I felt a current of cool air blowing in my face.

59 Other usage: current events; current leaders. 时事;现任领导人 current negotiations. 正在进行的谈判 current bills and coins. 流通的支票和货币 current fashions. 流行时尚

60 taken aback: be shocked or surprised e.g. She was taken aback when a man answered the phone. II was taken aback when I found my computer was gone. 32. in bad /good condition: in bad/good health e.g. He is in good condition again after a long holiday. IIn spite of the surgery he is still in bad condition.

61 33. turn up: arrive; make one’s appearance e.g. He didn’t turn up until the end of the examination.  Some students always turn up late for class. 34.funk: (informal) avoid because of fear  e.g. They were given a chance of taking part in the speech contest, but funked it.  He promised to climb the mountain with us, but he funked it at the last moment.  funk a difficulty 逃避困难

62 35.constitution: condition of a person’s body with regarded to health, strength, etc. e.g. A boxer must have a strong constitution. HHaving been ill for several years, he has a particularly fragile constitution. Other usage: 宪法 ; 法规 e.g. According to the American Constitution, Presidential elections are held every four years.

63 This is an unwritten constitution c.f. by constitution 天性,体质上 have a good/poor constitution 体质好[差] agree with/suit sb, 's constitution 适合某人体质[性格] undermine sb.'s constitution ( 因...) 伤害某人身体

64 36.trifle: a thing, a matter or an activity that has little value or trifles. e.g. My daughter always wastes her money on trifles.  The couple often quarreled about some petty trifle connected with the housework. a trifle: slightly, very little, somewhat e.g. George was a trifle awkward with girls but fond of dancing.  She was a trifle breathless after the run.

65 37.candid: not hiding one’s thoughts; frank and honest (followed by about, with) e.g. Let me be absolutely candid with you: your work is not good enough.  Nancy is candid about the problems she is having with Steve. Other usage: a candid snapshot. 一张偷拍的 快照

66 38.rub: move one’s hand, an object, etc. backwards and forwards repeatedly on a surface while pressing e.g. Coat the shoes with polish, then rub hard with a soft cloth to give a shine.  He looked tired and sat rubbing his eyes. Other usage: To irritate; annoy: e.g. His laziness was beginning to rub me.

67 rub elbows or rub shoulders: To mix or socialize closely: e.g. diplomats rubbing elbows with heads of state. rub (one's) hands: To experience or display pleased anticipation, self-satisfaction, or glee. rub (someone's) nose in (Slang) To bring repeatedly and forcefully to another's attention. rub (someone) the wrong way: To annoy; irritate: rub up on: To refresh one's knowledge of: I have to rub up on my French.

68 39.vacancy: unfilled position or post e.g. The company has a vacancy in the accounts department. He didn ’ t want to fill the short-term vacancy in the office. The college has no vacancies for professors.

69 questions (1) Review the text structure and do Exercise 2. Sections ParagraphsMainly about Section 1 Paras4-16 Section 2 Paras17-31 Section 3 Paras32-51

70 Keys: Section one: What Edward knew about Lenny. Section two: How Edward responded to Lenny ’ s request. Section three: How Edward, a “ kind ” entleman, handled a friend in desperate need of help. (2) Answer the following questions about the text: What ’ s the central idea of this text? What do you think of Edward Burton?

71 5 . Translation Translate the following into English, using the words and phrases given below: commit mild down and out insane candid all of a piece for one ’ s own part deceptive

72  就我来说,如果要雇个职员我肯定不会单凭他 的长相就做出决定。外表往往是靠不住的。不 如说吧,要是你凭外表去判断诸如毛姆笔下的 爱德华 海德 伯顿这样的人,你就错了。从外 表和举止来看,伯顿好像是个浑然一体的人。 他个子很小,满头白发,有着一双温和、蔚蓝 的眼睛。他文雅坦率,和蔼可亲,许多人都说 他是个世上最令人尊敬的人。然而,他对需要 他帮助的朋友却很残忍。他侮辱和愚弄山穷水 尽的特纳,让他去做那样的蠢事。更让人吃惊 的是,他对特纳的死全然冷漠无情。毫无疑问, 他是个铁石心肠的家伙。

73 Keys to Translation For my own part, I should certainly hesitate to hire a clerk on his face/appearance alone. Appearances are all too often deceptive. For instance, you might well commit an error in judgment if you went by appearances only with people like Edward Hyde Burton, the character created by Maugham. As far as appearance and manners were concerned, Burton seemed a man all of a piece.

74 Keys to translation HHe was a tiny little fellow with white hair and mild blue eyes. Kind, gentle and candid, he was described by many as one of the most respectable people on earth. Nevertheless, he turned out to be cruel to a friend in need of his help. He insulted and fooled Turner who was down and out and made him commit himself to an insane venture. What was still more surprising was that he was completely indifferent to Turner’s death. Without doubt, Burton was a man with a heart of stone.

75 Part III Text B A Man of The World 1. background 2. keywords exercises 3. comprehension questions

76 1. background  Ernest Hemingway( )  Ernest Hemingway was born on 21st July 1899 in Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago, Illinois. At the age of 17 Hemingway published his first literary work. He died aged 61 in 1961, of self inflicted gun shot wounds. He was a world-renowned US writer of novels and short stories. He created a style of writhing using short, simple sentences, and received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954.


78 Hemingway's Published Works 1923 Three Stories and Ten Poems (Short Stories) 1925 In Our Time (Short Stories) 1926 The Torrents of Spring (Novel) 1926 The Sun Also Rises (Novel) 1927 Men Without Women (Short Stories) 1929 A Farewell to Arms (Novel) 1930 The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories (Short Stories) 1932 Death in the Afternoon (Novel) 1933 Winner take Nothing (Short Stories) 1935 Green Hills of Africa (Novel) 1937 To Have and Have Not (Novel)

79  1940 For Whom the Bell Tolls (Novel)  1942 Men at War (Edited Anthology)  1950 Across the River and into the Trees (Novel)  1952 The Old Man and the Sea (Novel)  The books listed below were published posthumously (After his death)  1962 The Wild Years (Compilation)  1964 A Moveable Feast (Novel)  1967 By-Lines (Journalism for the Toronto Star)  1970 Islands in the Stream (Novel)  1972 The Nick Adams Stories  Poems  1981 Selected Letters

80 A Man of the World A Man of the World is taken from The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway (the Finca Vigia edition, 1987) is taken from The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway (the Finca Vigia edition, 1987) The Old Man and the Sea

81 2. keywords exercises for life mercy handicapped take (one ’ s) revenge pat self-conscious freeze … up revenge bank up scoop good and put a stop to shove slug gouge let … go stomp depend … on adrift lucky

82 1.Special assistance and counseling are available to veterans, migrant workers, youths, older persons, women, and the______. 2.As far as I’m concerned, when you get married it’s______. 3.The semi-final will be a chance for the losing team to______ on the winning team for their earlier defeat. 4.To make a Halloween lantern, you first have to______ out the inside of the pumpkin.

83 5. Upon hearing the diamond necklace he ’ d bought for his bride was just a fake, the young man ______ the floor in anger. 6. Amy won ’ t drink coffee if it ’ s not _______hot. 7. People who are caught drinking and driving can expect little ______ from the courts. 8. Modern agriculture____ heavily ____ technology and on the biological and physical sciences. 9. Peter was ______ that it was only an empty plastic can that knocked him on the head. 10. My teacher ______ me on the back for getting top marks for my English essay.

84 11. It was so cold that the pipes ______ and I thought they were going to burst. 12. He used to smoke in bed when I first got to know him-I soon ______ that. 13. Shortly after stepping onto the surface of the moon, Armstrong ______ up some lunar soil. 14. Secret Service men______ people aside to make way for the President. 15. As she was too shy and ______ to speak in public, Catherine didn ’ t take part in the English speech Contest.

85 16. At the sight of his mother, the little boy ______of his father ’ s hand and ran to her, giving her a hug. 17. He is believed to have been shot by a rival gang in ______ for the shootings last week. 18. Look. Dark clouds are ______ in the distance. We ’ d better stop work and go home. 19. The ship had been ______on unknown seas for two days, and the sailors had used up all their food and water. 20. The big woman ______the pickpocket and he fell against the bar.

86 Keys to Exercises 1. handicapped 2. for life 3. take (their) revenge 4. gouge 5.stomped 6. good and 7. mercy 8. depends…on 9. lucky 10. patted 11. froze up 12. put a stop to 13. scooped 14. shoved 15. self-conscious 16. let go 17. revenge 18. banking up 19. adrift 20. slugged

87 3. comprehension questions 1. What’s the name of the bar in which the story is told? 2. Which bar did Blindy probably prefer to go to, the Index or the Pilot? And why? 3. What did the young man do when he had his first win? 4. What we can infer about Blindy from the text? 5. How was Sawyer after fighting with Blindy? 6. What do you think Blindy’s character is like?

88 Keys to Comprehension Questions: 1. The Pilot 2. Blindy probably prefer to go to the Pilot. Because of machines located in the Pilot. 3. He gave Blindy twenty-five cents. 4. We can inferred that Blindy may not have been clean, but he was nonetheless proud of himself. 5. We can infer that Blindy bit off Sawyer’s nose. 6. Blindy is very proud.

89 Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks Essay Writing Drawing on your debate, write an essay entitled Molding of Character as I See It according to the following outline: 1) Give examples to illustrate what you mean by “internal and external causes” 2) How the two kinds of causes contribute to the molding of a person’s character 3) Your conclusion

90 Model Paper Molding Character  Why are some people kind and generous, others cruel and heartless? Were they born that way or were the differences in character shaped by differences in experience? The care that is taken in educating children shows that we place a lot of faith in good upbringing in the molding of character. Yet,

91 cchildren are clearly born with different temperaments and this will lead them to respond differently to the same treatment. Then again, accidents or disease can bring about changes to the brain that can completely transform a person’s character.

92  Deciding where the balance lies between nature and external causes can be difficult. Take, for example, the case of the man whose character changed from being amiable and law- abiding to being aggressive and antisocial in a matter of a few weeks. On investigation, it was found that the man was suffering from a brain tumor.

93  When this was removed, he returned to his original kindly character.Later the tumor grew once again, and the same slide into antisocial behavior began again. In both cases the tumor was pressing on the part of the brain that controls social behavior and changing the man’s character

94  The response from others was understanding and help. However, where a criminal is born with the same type of brain that the tumor caused, our response is not sympathy and treatment, but condemnation and punishment. Is this logical? Is if fair? (236 words)

95 The End Thank You for Your Attention

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