Presentation on theme: "Inevitable? Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Inevitable?Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?
2 “ I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute in one state” R.W.E.These people hate us, annoy us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves if they dared. They are different people from us, and there is no love between us. Why then continue together?
3 Frederick Grimke’s Views Separation of powers works not bc powers are equally distributed within the government, but bc all branches are responsible to the will of the peopleThe open affirmation of the right to secession would serve to maintain the union, not destroy it.
4 Summary of Major Civil War Battles Western & EasternCampaigns
6 North vs. South in 1861NorthSouthAdvantagesDisadvantages
7 A Call to ActionLincoln’s inaugural address called for restoration and peace; however, he did make a warning that if Confederates fired on any federal property, this would mean war“ an insurrection too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary judicial proceedings75,000 troops provided by the states for 3 months ( or 90 days) of serviceNo African Americans allowed4 other states then seceded, including Virginia – Capital city of the Confederacy
9 The Confederate Seal“With God as our Vindicator”
10 1st Battle of Bull Run– July 21, 1861 • Union General: Irvin McDowell• Conf. General: P.G.T. Beauregard• Neither sides troops adequatelyprepared• Lincoln nor Congress want to hear this – ordersMcDowell to march to Manassas(4 days to march 25 miles• “Picnic Spectators”• North attacked Conf. left flank well at first,forcing South to retreat• Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson• Fighting slows until fresh group of southern troops arrived and counterattacked• Union army retreated --- “Picnic sprint”• Union losses: (up the enlistment period to 2 years)• Conf. losses: 1982
11 The Anaconda Plan & The Battle of the Ironclads The CSS Virginia (Merrimack)Iron plates on a wooden propellerdriven ship Vs.The MonitorAging General Winfield Scott isIrvin McDowell is Replaced byGeorge McClellanThe Battle of Hampton Roads – tieBlockade of South was maintained
12 Ulysses S. Grant’s Early Victories Union achieved great success in west, not the east early on in the warBattles at Ft. Henry and Donelson, Feb.6, 1862 – control Mississippi RiverDefensive forts erected by C along Tenn & Cumberland Rivers (between KY and TN)Engaged his former roommate General Simon Buckner“Unconditional Surrender” Grant
13 The Battle of Shiloh Shiloh – log church Pittsburg Landing April 6-7, 1862U: Grant, 42000C: Albert Sidney Johnston, P.G.T. Beauregard,2 days of fighting1st day: Union army pushed back to Tenn. River2nd day: Surprise counterattack by Union and Beauregard gave order to retreatUnion victory “bloodiest battle in U.S. history thus far”@ casualtiesShiloh – log churchPittsburg Landing
14 The Battle for New Orleans April 25, 1862: Union officer David Farragut led the successful assault on New Orleans – Union’s 1st great victory in 1862Pushed North and captured Natchez, MississippiBy June, only 2 major ports on Miss. River now remain in Confederate handsVicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA
15 Lincoln’s Generals John Pope Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker McClellan AgainIrvin McDowellGeorge MeadeGeorge McClellanAmbrose BurnsideHenry W. HalleckUlysses S. Grant
16 Confederate Generals Albert S. Johnston Stonewall Jackson Joseph JohnstonP.G.T. BeuaregardRobert E. LeeNathan ForestJames LongstreetJeb StuartGeorge Pickett
17 War in the EastThe Peninsular Campaign – McClellan’s attempt to capture Richmond, VAEfficient military leader, but overly cautiousUnion moves troops north to RichApril 1862, lay siege to YorktownMay 1862 Battle of Seven PinesU: McClellan C: Joseph Johnston (Union Vic)Johnston wounded, replaced by Lee as overall head of armyMcClellan asks for more troops rather than marching to Richmond, within his grasp
18 War in East The Seven Day’s Battle (June 25-July 1, 1862) McClellan vs. Lee (Jackson)James Jeb Stuart – cavalry unitMcClellan is pushed back from RichmondU casualties: 16,000 C casualties: 20,000, but Confed. victoryPeninsula Campaign unsuccessful – McClellan is sacked and Halleck appointed War chief of staff; Pope given Field Command
19 War in the East Second Battle of Bull Run – Aug. 30, 1862 U: General Pope C: Lee, Jackson,James LongstreetPope encounters Lee on way to RichmondJackson’s plan with Lee waiting in the wingsHalleck unable to motivate McClellan to reinforce Pope in timely mannerPope pushed all the way back to Washington D.CU CPope is sacked as Field Commander, Halleck is also sacked.McClellan reinstated!
20 Antietam -Sept. 17, 1862, Sharpsburg, MD Lee takes the offensive – 1ast attempt to invade North(hoping for foreign support)U: McClellan (Burnside,C: Lee (Longstreet, 40,000A moment that alters history “the note” – wrapped around pack of cigarLee had divided his army to attack Harpers Ferry“Bloodiest single day battle in all of U.S. military history”10KLee retreats (loses about 25% of his army) but McClellan fails to pursue him
22 A Shift in War GoalsJuly 1862 – Legislation allowing African Americans to serve in Union militaryLincoln concludes changing war to be about slavery would help weaken southern economyJan. 1, 1863 – “Military Order”Read Primary Source Doc.What does it say & do?
23 The Famous 54th Mass Regiment – Ft. Wagner, July 1863 Col. Robert ShawSgt. William Carney - CMHOver 180,000 AA fought in Union Army
25 Battle of Fredericksburg, VA – Dec. 11-13, 1862 New General – Ambrose BurnsideU: 122, C: 72,000Strategy: march his 122,000 soldiers straight toward Richmond, cross Rappahannock River, and engage Lee in an unexpected frontal attackA depressing defeat for the Union1. No element of surprise2. Pontoon bridges come up heavy fire by Confederacy3. Urban Warfare – Confeds. Occupy the town4. 4 foot stone wall fortification on higher ground5. Sharpshooters on higher ground devastate Burnside’s men“The Great slaughter pen” – Burnside ordered men across open plain field on morning of Dec. 13th (6 union assaults are easily repulsed by Lee whose men were defensively positioned behind a 4ft stone wall on Marye’s Heights12,000 for Union vs. 5,000 for Confeds.
27 Battle of Chancellorsville April 30, 1863 – May 4, 1863 General Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker replaces BurnsideUnion: 134,000, Conf: 60,000Known as Lee’s Greatest MasterpieceHooker’s Plan: divide his large army into 3 parts in order to cut off supply lines and attack flanksHooker overly hesitant as wellLee’s Perfect battle: divided his army and attacked Union forces from two sidesJackson’s daring plan – secret 14 mile march through wilderness (about 25,000 men) undergrowth able to catch Hooker’s troops off guard,causing flank to crumble within 15 minutesHooker continued to fall back, hesitant to attackUnion casualties: 17,000 Conf: 13,000The Worst Casualty: Stonewall Jackson