Presentation on theme: "Inevitable? Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?"— Presentation transcript:
Inevitable? Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?
“ I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute in one state” R.W.E. These people hate us, annoy us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves if they dared. They are different people from us, and there is no love between us. Why then continue together?
Frederick Grimke’s Views –Separation of powers works not bc powers are equally distributed within the government, but bc all branches are responsible to the will of the people –The open affirmation of the right to secession would serve to maintain the union, not destroy it.
Summary of Major Civil War Battles Western & Eastern Campaigns
Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860
North vs. South in 1861 NorthSouth Advantages Disadvantages
A Call to Action Lincoln’s inaugural address called for restoration and peace; however, he did make a warning that if Confederates fired on any federal property, this would mean war “ an insurrection too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary judicial proceedings 75,000 troops provided by the states for 3 months ( or 90 days) of service No African Americans allowed 4 other states then seceded, including Virginia – Capital city of the Confederacy
A Northern View of Jeff Davis
The Confederate Seal “With God as our Vindicator”
1 st Battle of Bull Run– July 21, 1861 Union General: Irvin McDowell Conf. General: P.G.T. Beauregard Neither sides troops adequately prepared Lincoln nor Congress want to hear this – orders McDowell to march to Manassas (4 days to march 25 miles “Picnic Spectators” North attacked Conf. left flank well at first, forcing South to retreat Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Fighting slows until fresh group of southern troops arrived and counterattacked Union army retreated --- “Picnic sprint” Union losses: 2896 (up the enlistment period to 2 years) Conf. losses: 1982
The Anaconda Plan & The Battle of the Ironclads Aging General Winfield Scott is Irvin McDowell is Replaced by George McClellan The CSS Virginia (Merrimack) Iron plates on a wooden propeller driven ship Vs.The Monitor The Battle of Hampton Roads – tie Blockade of South was maintained
Ulysses S. Grant’s Early Victories Union achieved great success in west, not the east early on in the war Battles at Ft. Henry and Donelson, Feb.6, 1862 – control Mississippi River –Defensive forts erected by C along Tenn & Cumberland Rivers (between KY and TN) –Engaged his former roommate General Simon Buckner “Unconditional Surrender” Grant
The Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 U: Grant, C: Albert Sidney Johnston, P.G.T. Beauregard, 2 days of fighting –1 st day: Union army pushed back to Tenn. River –2 nd day: Surprise counterattack by Union and Beauregard gave order to retreat Union victory “bloodiest battle in U.S. history thus casualties Shiloh – log church Pittsburg Landing
The Battle for New Orleans April 25, 1862: Union officer David Farragut led the successful assault on New Orleans – Union’s 1 st great victory in 1862 Pushed North and captured Natchez, Mississippi By June, only 2 major ports on Miss. River now remain in Confederate hands –Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Irvin McDowell George McClellan Henry W. Halleck John Pope McClellan Again Ambrose Burnside Joseph Hooker George Meade Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate Generals Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson P.G.T. Beuaregard Albert S. Johnston Joseph Johnston James Longstreet Jeb StuartGeorge Pickett Nathan Forest
War in the East The Peninsular Campaign – McClellan’s attempt to capture Richmond, VA Efficient military leader, but overly cautious Union moves troops north to Rich April 1862, lay siege to Yorktown May 1862 Battle of Seven Pines –U: McClellan C: Joseph Johnston (Union Vic) –Johnston wounded, replaced by Lee as overall head of army –McClellan asks for more troops rather than marching to Richmond, within his grasp
War in East The Seven Day’s Battle (June 25-July 1, 1862) –McClellan vs. Lee (Jackson) –James Jeb Stuart – cavalry unit –McClellan is pushed back from Richmond –U casualties: 16,000 C casualties: 20,000, but Confed. victory –Peninsula Campaign unsuccessful – McClellan is sacked and Halleck appointed War chief of staff; Pope given Field Command
War in the East Second Battle of Bull Run – Aug. 30, U: General Pope C: Lee, Jackson, James Longstreet -Pope encounters Lee on way to Richmond -Jackson’s plan with Lee waiting in the wings -Halleck unable to motivate McClellan to reinforce Pope in timely manner -Pope pushed all the way back to Washington D.C -U C -Pope is sacked as Field Commander, Halleck is also sacked. -McClellan reinstated!
Antietam -Sept. 17, 1862, Sharpsburg, MD Lee takes the offensive – 1ast attempt to invade North –(hoping for foreign support) U: McClellan (Burnside, C: Lee (Longstreet, 40,000 A moment that alters history “the note” – wrapped around pack of cigar Lee had divided his army to attack Harpers Ferry “Bloodiest single day battle in all of U.S. military history” 10K Lee retreats (loses about 25% of his army) but McClellan fails to pursue him
A Shift in War Goals July 1862 – Legislation allowing African Americans to serve in Union military Lincoln concludes changing war to be about slavery would help weaken southern economy Jan. 1, 1863 – “Military Order” Read Primary Source Doc. What does it say & do?
The Famous 54 th Mass Regiment – Ft. Wagner, July 1863 Over 180,000 AA fought in Union Army Col. Robert Shaw Sgt. William Carney - CMH
Battle of Fredericksburg, VA – Dec , 1862 New General – Ambrose Burnside U: 122,000 C: 72,000 Strategy: march his 122,000 soldiers straight toward Richmond, cross Rappahannock River, and engage Lee in an unexpected frontal attack A depressing defeat for the Union 1. No element of surprise 2. Pontoon bridges come up heavy fire by Confederacy 3. Urban Warfare – Confeds. Occupy the town 4. 4 foot stone wall fortification on higher ground 5. Sharpshooters on higher ground devastate Burnside’s men –“The Great slaughter pen” – Burnside ordered men across open plain field on morning of Dec. 13 th (6 union assaults are easily repulsed by Lee whose men were defensively positioned behind a 4ft stone wall on Marye’s Heights –12,000 for Union vs. 5,000 for Confeds.
Battle of Chancellorsville April 30, 1863 – May 4, 1863 General Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker replaces Burnside Union: 134,000, Conf: 60,000 Known as Lee’s Greatest Masterpiece Hooker’s Plan: divide his large army into 3 parts in order to cut off supply lines and attack flanks Hooker overly hesitant as well Lee’s Perfect battle: divided his army and attacked Union forces from two sides –Jackson’s daring plan – secret 14 mile march through wilderness (about 25,000 men) undergrowth able to catch Hooker’s troops off guard, –causing flank to crumble within 15 minutes –Hooker continued to fall back, hesitant to attack Union casualties: 17,000Conf: 13,000 The Worst Casualty: Stonewall Jackson