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Inevitable? Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?

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Presentation on theme: "Inevitable? Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Inevitable? Was there anything Lincoln (or those before him) could have done to settle the sectional conflict peaceably?

2 “ I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute in one state” R.W.E. These people hate us, annoy us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves if they dared. They are different people from us, and there is no love between us. Why then continue together?

3 Frederick Grimke’s Views
Separation of powers works not bc powers are equally distributed within the government, but bc all branches are responsible to the will of the people The open affirmation of the right to secession would serve to maintain the union, not destroy it.

4 Summary of Major Civil War Battles
Western & Eastern Campaigns

5 Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860

6 North vs. South in 1861 North South Advantages Disadvantages

7 A Call to Action Lincoln’s inaugural address called for restoration and peace; however, he did make a warning that if Confederates fired on any federal property, this would mean war “ an insurrection too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary judicial proceedings 75,000 troops provided by the states for 3 months ( or 90 days) of service No African Americans allowed 4 other states then seceded, including Virginia – Capital city of the Confederacy

8 A Northern View of Jeff Davis

9 The Confederate Seal “With God as our Vindicator”

10 1st Battle of Bull Run– July 21, 1861
• Union General: Irvin McDowell • Conf. General: P.G.T. Beauregard • Neither sides troops adequately prepared • Lincoln nor Congress want to hear this – orders McDowell to march to Manassas (4 days to march 25 miles • “Picnic Spectators” • North attacked Conf. left flank well at first, forcing South to retreat • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • Fighting slows until fresh group of southern troops arrived and counterattacked • Union army retreated --- “Picnic sprint” • Union losses: (up the enlistment period to 2 years) • Conf. losses: 1982

11 The Anaconda Plan & The Battle of the Ironclads
The CSS Virginia (Merrimack) Iron plates on a wooden propeller driven ship Vs.The Monitor Aging General Winfield Scott is Irvin McDowell is Replaced by George McClellan The Battle of Hampton Roads – tie Blockade of South was maintained

12 Ulysses S. Grant’s Early Victories
Union achieved great success in west, not the east early on in the war Battles at Ft. Henry and Donelson, Feb.6, 1862 – control Mississippi River Defensive forts erected by C along Tenn & Cumberland Rivers (between KY and TN) Engaged his former roommate General Simon Buckner “Unconditional Surrender” Grant

13 The Battle of Shiloh Shiloh – log church Pittsburg Landing
April 6-7, 1862 U: Grant, 42000 C: Albert Sidney Johnston, P.G.T. Beauregard, 2 days of fighting 1st day: Union army pushed back to Tenn. River 2nd day: Surprise counterattack by Union and Beauregard gave order to retreat Union victory “bloodiest battle in U.S. history thus far” @ casualties Shiloh – log church Pittsburg Landing

14 The Battle for New Orleans
April 25, 1862: Union officer David Farragut led the successful assault on New Orleans – Union’s 1st great victory in 1862 Pushed North and captured Natchez, Mississippi By June, only 2 major ports on Miss. River now remain in Confederate hands Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA

15 Lincoln’s Generals John Pope Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker
McClellan Again Irvin McDowell George Meade George McClellan Ambrose Burnside Henry W. Halleck Ulysses S. Grant

16 Confederate Generals Albert S. Johnston Stonewall Jackson
Joseph Johnston P.G.T. Beuaregard Robert E. Lee Nathan Forest James Longstreet Jeb Stuart George Pickett

17 War in the East The Peninsular Campaign – McClellan’s attempt to capture Richmond, VA Efficient military leader, but overly cautious Union moves troops north to Rich April 1862, lay siege to Yorktown May 1862 Battle of Seven Pines U: McClellan C: Joseph Johnston (Union Vic) Johnston wounded, replaced by Lee as overall head of army McClellan asks for more troops rather than marching to Richmond, within his grasp

18 War in East The Seven Day’s Battle (June 25-July 1, 1862)
McClellan vs. Lee (Jackson) James Jeb Stuart – cavalry unit McClellan is pushed back from Richmond U casualties: 16,000 C casualties: 20,000, but Confed. victory Peninsula Campaign unsuccessful – McClellan is sacked and Halleck appointed War chief of staff; Pope given Field Command

19 War in the East Second Battle of Bull Run – Aug. 30, 1862
U: General Pope C: Lee, Jackson, James Longstreet Pope encounters Lee on way to Richmond Jackson’s plan with Lee waiting in the wings Halleck unable to motivate McClellan to reinforce Pope in timely manner Pope pushed all the way back to Washington D.C U C Pope is sacked as Field Commander, Halleck is also sacked. McClellan reinstated!

20 Antietam -Sept. 17, 1862, Sharpsburg, MD
Lee takes the offensive – 1ast attempt to invade North (hoping for foreign support) U: McClellan (Burnside, C: Lee (Longstreet, 40,000 A moment that alters history “the note” – wrapped around pack of cigar Lee had divided his army to attack Harpers Ferry “Bloodiest single day battle in all of U.S. military history” 10K Lee retreats (loses about 25% of his army) but McClellan fails to pursue him


22 A Shift in War Goals July 1862 – Legislation allowing African Americans to serve in Union military Lincoln concludes changing war to be about slavery would help weaken southern economy Jan. 1, 1863 – “Military Order” Read Primary Source Doc. What does it say & do?

23 The Famous 54th Mass Regiment – Ft. Wagner, July 1863
Col. Robert Shaw Sgt. William Carney - CMH Over 180,000 AA fought in Union Army


25 Battle of Fredericksburg, VA – Dec. 11-13, 1862
New General – Ambrose Burnside U: 122, C: 72,000 Strategy: march his 122,000 soldiers straight toward Richmond, cross Rappahannock River, and engage Lee in an unexpected frontal attack A depressing defeat for the Union 1. No element of surprise 2. Pontoon bridges come up heavy fire by Confederacy 3. Urban Warfare – Confeds. Occupy the town 4. 4 foot stone wall fortification on higher ground 5. Sharpshooters on higher ground devastate Burnside’s men “The Great slaughter pen” – Burnside ordered men across open plain field on morning of Dec. 13th (6 union assaults are easily repulsed by Lee whose men were defensively positioned behind a 4ft stone wall on Marye’s Heights 12,000 for Union vs. 5,000 for Confeds.


27 Battle of Chancellorsville April 30, 1863 – May 4, 1863
General Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker replaces Burnside Union: 134,000, Conf: 60,000 Known as Lee’s Greatest Masterpiece Hooker’s Plan: divide his large army into 3 parts in order to cut off supply lines and attack flanks Hooker overly hesitant as well Lee’s Perfect battle: divided his army and attacked Union forces from two sides Jackson’s daring plan – secret 14 mile march through wilderness (about 25,000 men) undergrowth able to catch Hooker’s troops off guard, causing flank to crumble within 15 minutes Hooker continued to fall back, hesitant to attack Union casualties: 17,000 Conf: 13,000 The Worst Casualty: Stonewall Jackson

28 Dead at Chancellorsville

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