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Unit Eight Cloning. What is cloning? Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. Cloning is the process.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit Eight Cloning. What is cloning? Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. Cloning is the process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit Eight Cloning

2 What is cloning? Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. In genetic engineering, cloning refers to the copying of DNA molecules. In genetic engineering, cloning refers to the copying of DNA molecules.

3 Cloning Milestones 1938 Cloning is envisioned Cloning is envisioned. Hans Spemann Hans Spemann nucleus 细胞核 nucleus 细胞核 1952 First cloning experiment with frogs First cloning experiment with frogs. Robert Briggs and T. J. King Robert Briggs and T. J. King pipette (尤指用于化学实验的)移液管 pipette (尤指用于化学实验的)移液管 did not develop did not develop 1984 First embryo cloning with sheep is reported First embryo cloning with sheep is reported. Steen Willadsen Steen Willadsen

4 1994 First cloning of more advanced embryo cells. Neal First 1996 Dolly the sheep. Dr. Ian Wilmut and his team

5 1997 Polly Polly. a team led by Drs. Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell (U.K.) a team led by Drs. Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell (U.K.) the first sheep with a human gene the first sheep with a human gene

6 2000 a baby bull from a bull that was a clone itself 2000 a baby bull from a bull that was a clone itself Japanese scientists Japanese scientists mammal 哺乳动物 mammal 哺乳动物 2002 the first cloned pet 2002 the first cloned pet a team of scientists at Texas A&M University a team of scientists at Texas A&M University

7 China ’ s Breakthroughs in Cloning 1999 an embryo of a giant panda 1999 an embryo of a giant panda a breakthrough that could save the endangered animal a breakthrough that could save the endangered animal introduced cells of a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white rabbit introduced cells of a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white rabbit 2003 human embryonic stem cells 2003 human embryonic stem cells the first time human embryonic stem cells had been generated via cloning the first time human embryonic stem cells had been generated via cloning

8 Human cloning

9 Human cloning is a very controversial issue and there are many advantages and disadvantages. Human cloning is a very controversial issue and there are many advantages and disadvantages.

10 Major Advantages of human Cloning One advantage would be the issue of talents and that some of them seem to be influenced genetically, such as musical ability. Cloning using the DNA from an adult who is musically talented could result in a cloned child growing up to be equally talented. (continued) One advantage would be the issue of talents and that some of them seem to be influenced genetically, such as musical ability. Cloning using the DNA from an adult who is musically talented could result in a cloned child growing up to be equally talented. (continued)

11 In the case where a husband is sterile and can not produce a child sexually he could contribute a cell from his body and through this type of cloning the wife and husband could both contribute to a cloned child, where the wife would provide the so called factory for raising the baby while the husband would provide the genetic information. This could be a viable option instead of using sperm from another man. A similar situation might be if two women would like to have a child together. They could use this cloning technique instead of going the way of artificial insemination. In the case where a husband is sterile and can not produce a child sexually he could contribute a cell from his body and through this type of cloning the wife and husband could both contribute to a cloned child, where the wife would provide the so called factory for raising the baby while the husband would provide the genetic information. This could be a viable option instead of using sperm from another man. A similar situation might be if two women would like to have a child together. They could use this cloning technique instead of going the way of artificial insemination.

12 Major Disadvantages of Human Cloning there is a high chance that the clone will not be normal. It may have some disorder; either starting at birth or the clone may get a disorder or disease related to the cloning process later in life. there is a high chance that the clone will not be normal. It may have some disorder; either starting at birth or the clone may get a disorder or disease related to the cloning process later in life. There is also the issue of the cells aging. Cells are believed to have a set life span and that using an aged cell of, say an adult human would result in the cloned child starting off with cells already aged, thus having an effect on that child ’ s life span. There is also the issue of the cells aging. Cells are believed to have a set life span and that using an aged cell of, say an adult human would result in the cloned child starting off with cells already aged, thus having an effect on that child ’ s life span.

13 Another problem is that after the technique of using a female egg and a female cell to make a clone there would really be no genetic need for men. Another problem is that after the technique of using a female egg and a female cell to make a clone there would really be no genetic need for men. Another issue is diversity; if cloning is done large scale genetic diversity could be depleted. Diversity is really what the human race is all about, so this could be a disaster. Another issue is diversity; if cloning is done large scale genetic diversity could be depleted. Diversity is really what the human race is all about, so this could be a disaster.

14 A huge case against human cloning is the emotional effects on the clone, for example a cloned child would in effect be a twin of one of his parents which could lead to serious emotional difficulties. A huge case against human cloning is the emotional effects on the clone, for example a cloned child would in effect be a twin of one of his parents which could lead to serious emotional difficulties. There is also the religious side of things. For example, whether or not removing the nucleus is murder or whether or not the cloned human would have a soul. Some religious people believe that the soul enters the body when a sperm fertilizes an egg, but since sperm is not used during the reproductive cloning process there may not be a soul present, which gets into some pretty deep controversy. There is also the religious side of things. For example, whether or not removing the nucleus is murder or whether or not the cloned human would have a soul. Some religious people believe that the soul enters the body when a sperm fertilizes an egg, but since sperm is not used during the reproductive cloning process there may not be a soul present, which gets into some pretty deep controversy.

15 Text A A Clone Is Born

16 Text Organization Part One Part One (Paras 1-2) (Paras 1-2) Dolly the sheep, a clone, was born. Dolly the sheep, a clone, was born.

17 Part Two Part Two (Paras 3-6) (Paras 3-6) Dolly ’ s birth has made cloning a reality and human cloning a possibility. Dolly ’ s birth has made cloning a reality and human cloning a possibility.

18 Part Three Part Three (Paras 7-11) (Paras 7-11) People have to face the ethical problems of human cloning. People have to face the ethical problems of human cloning. This part can be further divided into … This part can be further divided into …

19 Section One (Paras 7-9): Human cloning has given rise to the question of what implications the technology may have for mankind. Section One (Paras 7-9): Human cloning has given rise to the question of what implications the technology may have for mankind. Section Two (Paras 10-11): The making of the atomic bomb had a tremendous impact on scientists. Section Two (Paras 10-11): The making of the atomic bomb had a tremendous impact on scientists.

20 Part Four Part Four (Paras 12-16) (Paras 12-16) Cloning technology could benefit people in more than one way. Cloning technology could benefit people in more than one way.

21 Cultural Notes Narcissus Narcissus Prometheus Prometheus Oppenheimer, (Julius) Robert Oppenheimer, (Julius) Robert Hiroshima Hiroshima Nagasaki Nagasaki

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27 Language Points institute: a society or organization formed to do special work or for a special purpose 一般指学院,院校,研究所,学会 institute: a society or organization formed to do special work or for a special purpose 一般指学院,院校,研究所,学会 institution: a habit, custom etc. that has been in existence for a long time 惯例,制 度,习俗; an organization usually long- established or well respected 社会机构 institution: a habit, custom etc. that has been in existence for a long time 惯例,制 度,习俗; an organization usually long- established or well respected 社会机构

28 Language Points give birth to: produce young; bring about give birth to: produce young; bring about The cat gave birth to five kittens. This issue gave birth to a dispute. for all the world like sth. / sb. /as if: for all the world like sth. / sb. /as if: very much or exactly like someone or something or as if … She carried on with her work for all the world as if nothing had happened.

29 fuse: join sth. or become joined by means of heat fuse: join sth. or become joined by means of heat In her richest work she fuses comedy and tragedy. residence: process of residing; place in which one lives residence: process of residing; place in which one lives Residence among the poor is suggested as a way of understanding their problems. Downing Street is the British Prime Minister ’ s official residence.

30 identical (to / with): exactly alike; the same identical (to / with): exactly alike; the same On Monday, the pupils wear identical school uniforms. cp. identify & indentity identify (with): consider as identical or united We shouldn ’ t identify happiness with wealth. identity: the set of behavioral or personal characteristics This check will be cashed on proof of identity.

31 Language Points raise … as: 把 … 作为 … 提出 raise … as: 把 … 作为 … 提出 raise the issue as a topic for discussion raise the issue as a topic for discussion dismiss … as: 以 … (作为理由)驳回 dismiss … as: 以 … (作为理由)驳回 dismiss the question as irrelevant dismiss the question as irrelevant

32 in principle: as far as basic principles are concerned; in general but not in detail in principle: as far as basic principles are concerned; in general but not in detail Though there is no reason in principle why women cannot be top leaders, they work in reality under men more often than not. They have agreed to the proposal in principle but we still have to negotiate the terms.

33 offensive: upsetting or annoying; disgusting or repulsive offensive: upsetting or annoying; disgusting or repulsive Why did he make such offensive remarks at the meeting? An offensive smell greeted my nose when I opened the door. cp. offend: cause displeasure; violate a rule or law Some music offends, rather than pleases, the ear.

34 Language Points plague: annoy sb., esp. by repeatedly asking questions or making demands 烦扰; causing suffering or discomfort 折磨 plague: annoy sb., esp. by repeatedly asking questions or making demands 烦扰; causing suffering or discomfort 折磨 She plagued me with requests for money. She plagued me with requests for money. His life was plagued by poverty and illness. His life was plagued by poverty and illness.

35 Language Points divorce: [oft pass] to separate a person, an idea, a subject, etc. from sth.; to keep two things apart 使分离;使脱离 divorce: [oft pass] to separate a person, an idea, a subject, etc. from sth.; to keep two things apart 使分离;使脱离 divorce sb./sth. from sth. divorce sb./sth. from sth. They believed that Olympics should be divorced from politics. They believed that Olympics should be divorced from politics. When he was depressed, he felt utterly divorced from reality. When he was depressed, he felt utterly divorced from reality. Many people believe that we can ’ t divorce science from ethical questions. Many people believe that we can ’ t divorce science from ethical questions.

36 compromise: n. giving up of certain demands by each side in a dispute, so that an agreement may be reached which satisfied both; v. settle a dispute by making compromise (on / over) compromise: n. giving up of certain demands by each side in a dispute, so that an agreement may be reached which satisfied both; v. settle a dispute by making compromise (on / over) The NATO countries have finally reached a compromise over whether the US-led multinational troops are justified in launching attacks against Iraq. I want to go Greece, and my wife wants to go to Spain, so we compromise on Italy.

37 let loose: release let loose: release When we escape, shall we let loose other prisoners? Just close your eyes and let loose your imagination. deadly: causing or likely to cause death deadly: causing or likely to cause death deadly weapons cp. deathly: like or suggesting death cp. deathly: like or suggesting death The whole village was shrouded in deathly silence.

38 Language Points chilling: frightening 令人毛骨悚然的; causing to feel cold 使感到寒冷 chilling: frightening 令人毛骨悚然的; causing to feel cold 使感到寒冷 the chilling sound of wolves howling the chilling sound of wolves howling He told me a chilling ghost story. He told me a chilling ghost story. The prospect of the world economy is chilling, considering the current financial meltdown. The prospect of the world economy is chilling, considering the current financial meltdown. Opening the door, I felt a chilling shiver. Opening the door, I felt a chilling shiver.

39 lash out at: make a sudden violent attack on with blows or words lash out at: make a sudden violent attack on with blows or words He lashed out at the ruling party ’ s foreign policies. start out: intend when starting; begin (a journey) start out: intend when starting; begin (a journey) They started out to want a house, but eventually bought a flat. With the help of the Spanish king, he started out his journey across the Atlantic Ocean.

40 Language Points merge: cause two things to come together and combine 合并;融合 merge: cause two things to come together and combine 合并;融合 merge A with B / merge A and B together/into merge A with B / merge A and B together/into In this great melting pot cultures are merged and traditions lost. In this great melting pot cultures are merged and traditions lost. Fudan University was merged with Shanghai Medical University. Fudan University was merged with Shanghai Medical University.


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