3SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATION PART I Conceptual basis of community policingPART II Experience in PakistanPART III Comparison of community policing modelsPART IV Role of women in community policingPART V Impediments in implementationPART VI Group activity
5DEFINING COMMUNITY POLICING “Community policing is a philosophy and an organizational strategy that promotes a new partnership between people and their police. It is based on the premise that both the police and the community must work together as equal partners to identify, prioritize, and solve contemporary problems such as crime, drugs, fear of crime, social and physical disorder, and overall neighborhood decay, with the goal of improving the overall quality of life in the area.”TrojanowiczLike every society is unique in its make up, there is no one definition of community policing. It is not a legal term but a philosophy, therefore it can be and has been defined many ways. Presently two terms are being used: community policing and community oriented policing. These two terms are being envisaged synonymous but in my personal opinion there is a difference of the level of empowerment and participation that is extended to the citizenry. Community policing should denote ‘policing by the community’ (of course with help of the second partner, that is, government or police) and equal partnership between the police and the public. ‘Community oriented policing’ on the other hand means serving the community which is the primary goal of every police service but it does not imply direct involvement of the public in problems solving. The term ‘fear of crime’ is being frequently used in the contemporary literature of criminology which means that despite prevalence of crime people are not disproportionately scared. When people are involved with the police in dealing with crime and causes of crime, they feel less apprehensive because fear of unknown is always greater than the known. In USA and Europe history of community policing dates back at the most to three decades but for us it is not a new concept but reverting back to good old traditions when communities were like mega families; inhabitants of a village or residential block knew each other and informal social controls were in place. With passage of time commercialism and materialism replaced traditions and value system. Rural to urban migration caused social disorganization and money became the sole criterion for nobility. In new housing societies and the sub-urban areas people from various part of the country have started living. Inhabitants do not know even the next door neighbor. Research has proved that increase in social disorganization is directly proportional to incidence of crime.
6BENEFITS OF COMMUNITY POLICING No government funds are requiredEnhances immunity against crime and disorderAssists traditional policingBridges the gap of trustEncourages social interactionsPolice and public share credit and discreditPolice officer feels safe in his area of responsibilityReliable and workable information is availableInculcates sense of responsibility in the publicPolice and the public are accountable to each otherPromotes democratic values in the society
7PUBLIC PARTICIPATION“Once the community is convinced that the new system will help them in achieving better quality of life, they will not hesitate to offer their active cooperation.”HAZRAT ALI
8FOR COMMUNITY POLICING ENVIRONMENTFOR COMMUNITY POLICING“Community policing does not work for every community. Participation appears much more likely in homogeneous, low-crime, middle-class neighborhoods.”(John Ellison)REF: John Ellison “Community Policing Implementation Issues”FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, The FindArticles.com. 26 Sep, 2011
9LIMITATIONS OF TRADITIONAL POLICING It is resource hungry Centralization dampens initiativeExperts make blanket policiesEfficiency measured by statisticsThe warrior imageCustoms and values disconnectCreates a ‘force’ and not a ‘service’The US and THEM environment
10COMMUNITY POLICING Community policing is a philosophy Police + Public + GovernmentChanging mindsets of public and policeSocial work + law enforcementReverting back to good old traditionsReturning the responsibility back
11RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PUBLIC “…the public order depends essentially upon the responsibility of every member of the community within the law to prevent offences and to arrest offenders. The magisterial and police organization is set up to enforce, control and assist this general responsibility.”Police Rules XX1.1
14CRITERIA FOR MEMBERS OF A CPC Non-politicalNon-controversial personalityNo criminal recordHaving impeccable reputationFrom all groups of the communityAble to devote time
15WORKING OF COMMUNITY POLICE COMMITTEESOffice located in a private buildingTen to thirty membersCoordinator and Deputy CoordinatorProceedings of all meetings are documentedStandard registers are maintainedUnion Council, Tehsil and District CommitteesPolice officers attached at UC and Tehsil levelMeetings are convened by the Coordinators
16MANDATE OF COMMITTEES Identification and analysis of problems Advising the police on issuesDispute resolution if both the parties agreeArranging neighborhood watch and securityOnly moral pressure shall be usedSeek help of the local police if use of force requiredLaying information about vice dens and offendersArranging awareness seminars and walksAdvising the citizens on issuesHelping police during occasions like muharram
20SPECIAL POLICE OFFICERS till January 2003 TEHSILNUMBERRahimyar Khan69Sadiqabad402Khanpur64Liaqatpur44Total579
21COMMUNITY POLICING PROGRAMS Seminars and walksSeminars for the policeHuman Rights trainingVisits of educational institutionsInter-religious task forceSchool for special childrenInformation boards on bus-standsCable TV21
22COMMUNITY POLICING PROGRAMS Drug Addicts Rehabilitation CenterPolice Public SchoolCharacter Building SchoolingFree medical camps CenterDisposal of unidentified dead bodiesCitizen Police Liaison CommitteeCrisis Management GroupCommunity Policing Website
25OBJECTIVES"It is not a project aimed at bettering the image of the Police. It is also not a project wherein police duties are performed by the citizens. Rather it is a project to professionally strengthen Police and increase its accessibility to the needy public through close interaction with and better understanding of the public. “
26CRITERIA FOR MEMBERSHIP Members of Janamaithri Suraksha Samithi should be able to spare time, should not involve in any criminal case. He does not have any statutory powers. Political party members are not included.
27MEETING OF A SAMITHIThe meeting is convened by the Circle Inspector and SHO is the Secretary Samithi. The meetings shall be attended by the Sub Divisional Police Officer once in every month and by the Superintendent of Police at least once a year. Downloaded from: accessed on-policing-project-of.html accessed on
29IMPEDIMENTS TO COMMUNITY POLICING IN NIGERIAInternal resistance from police officers who benefited from thetraditional policing and who prefer to maintain status quo;Lack of commitment to the project by implementing officers;Lack of support from members of the public;Inadequate support from the government;Poor welfare packages/incentives for policemen;Conflict between informal ethnic militia and policeREFERENCE: Dickson, A.Y. (2007) “Community Policing” in Arase, S.E. and Iwuofor (eds.), Policing Nigeria in the 21st Century, Ibadan,Spectrum Books.
32MISSION OF A POLICE OFFICER “The traits of ruthlessness and violence which are desired in a Marine are counterproductive to the mission of a police officer.”Operational Culture for Warfighter: Principles and Applications,by Salmoni and Holmes-Eber
33POLICING IS WORSHIPPING Social Contract TheorySocially evolved value systemSociety made laws and rulesCrime is a social deviationSocial disorganization v/s crimePolice as Social ScientistsPolice as Social Workers and ReformersPolice protect haqooq-ul-abad
34Justice Ali Nawaz Chauhan All Pakistan Legal Decisions 2005 POLICE AS SOCIAL WORKERSDuring the period of Hazrat Ali, the ‘shurta’ wereresponsible for the following jobs, as well:suppression of beggary,control over quackery,removal of encroachments,checking and stopping portersand boatmen from carrying heavy loads.Justice Ali Nawaz ChauhanAll Pakistan Legal Decisions 2005
35Justice Ali Nawaz Chauhan All Pakistan Legal Decisions 2005 POLICE AS SOCIAL WORKERSIn France, during the regime of Louis-XV police performed the following jobs, as well:Construction of welfare projects,Police established stock exchange of ParisFor providing employment the jobless,Food supplies,Inspection of drains,Cleaning of streets, etc.,Justice Ali Nawaz ChauhanAll Pakistan Legal Decisions 2005
36THE WARRIOR IMAGE“that the warrior image has had a devastating impact on recruiting the right kind of officer. As long as the warrior image remains, policing will draw the wrong kind of applicant, reward the wrong kind of behavior, and fail to provide the kind of services that communities increasingly demand.“Kimberly A.Lonsway Ph.DDismantling the Warrior Image: The Role of Women in Community Policing.
37TRAITS OF A POLICE OFFICER Emotional self-awareness, Independence,Interpersonal relationships, Empathy, Stress tolerance,Impulse control,Flexibility,[and] Problem solvingRole of Female Police OfficersWomen bring a unique dynamic to policing and female officers are often very competent in many crucialcomponents of community policing. Agencies across the globe have recognized this and begun to activelyrecruit female officers to help support some of these new roles that members are taking on. Women doextremely well at communicating and they have great interpersonal skills, which can be very helpfulwhen dealing with situations where victims of crime would feel more comfortable discussing what occurredwith a female officer, perhaps someone they can relate to. Female officers compliment their male partnersand often provide a different perspective. Women are also great problem solvers and often approach andsolve problems from a different angle than their male counterparts. EPS officers recognize these differencesand see them as vital components of a great team! In the end, each gender brings something unique andvaluable to the job. That is why a diverse membership is so important to the EPS.Operational Culture for Warfighter: Principles and Applications,Salmoni and Holmes-Eber
38COMMUNITY POLICE OFFICER REQUIRED TRAITS OFCOMMUNITY POLICE OFFICERAbove board moral, intellectual and financial integrityUse of thinking and imagination in problems solvingAbility to act independently and take initiativesSensitive to socio-cultural values of communityIntelligence led and knowledge based policingSincerity of purpose and commitmentAffable, extrovert, tolerant, empathetic, clairvoyantVery good in communication skills
39TRAITS OF A FEMALE POLICE OFFICER More serious in duty: do not waste their timeLess corrupt financially, morally and intellectuallyInteract better with female victims of violenceCan have easy ingress to householdsPresent softer side of the policeEmpathetic and sensitive to human relationshipVery good in communication and problems solving
41PERCEPTION OF A POLICE OFFICER Perceive it dilution of their powersThink controlling crime is exclusively a police jobPublic will exploit closeness with policeDistrict police officers are too busy to find timeFancy policing is not going to workWhy to annoy political elite
42PERCEPTION OF POLITICIANS Police is not a social serviceServing the people is exclusively their domainIt will distance the public from the politiciansIt is their right to be members of such initiativesThe political opponents have no role
43PERCEPTION OF THE PUBLIC Maintenance of public order is exclusively police jobNormally police touts join such initiativesWhy to earn enmity with anti-social elementsPolice are not serious in serving the community“What’s in it for me” approachWe do not have free time
45BRAINSTORMING SESSION Time 15 minsGROUP 1 How to associate Politicians in community policingwithout compromising its basic principles?GROUP 2 What Areas of Importance did we miss in ourinitiative to disallow CP to take roots in Pakistan?GROUP 3 What Problems women police officers may facein community policing initiatives while workingbeside their male colleagues?GROUP 4 What are the possible areas where women community police officers can contribute for Women Protection and Well-being?
48ISLAMIC INJUNCTIONS ABOUT WOMEN INTERPRETATION OFISLAMIC INJUNCTIONS ABOUT WOMEN"Muslims who advance conservative views on female affairs...are normally very literal in their understanding of texts; but they tendentiously opt for an understanding that suits their prejudice.“Dr. Hassan Al-TurabiBachelor in LawMasters University of LondonPhD from Sorbonne, ParisSpeaker of Parliament, SudanMinister of Justice, SudanMinister of Foreign Affairs, SudanDeputy Prime Minister, Sudan
49SUMMARY Traditional policing focuses on controlling and reacting Community policing is preventive and proactiveTraditional Policing is centralizing CP is for devolving powersTP uses brute military power, CP is policing by consentCP works by decreasing social disorganizationImplementation is easier in low crime homogenous societyWithout support of the public police fails to achieve goals… continued
50Police are Social Scientists and Social Workers Policing means protecting the basic rights of citizensCP is about equal partnership between police and publicIt has to be adopted as organizational strategyIt is about changing the mindset of the police and the publicCP and TP augment each other