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The British in Atlantic Canada. A New Found Land John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) reached the waters off of Newfoundland in 1497 When he returned to England,

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Presentation on theme: "The British in Atlantic Canada. A New Found Land John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) reached the waters off of Newfoundland in 1497 When he returned to England,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The British in Atlantic Canada

2 A New Found Land John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) reached the waters off of Newfoundland in 1497 When he returned to England, he reported seeing waters teeming with fish This news spread quickly among fishing fleets in Europe Fish was an important food source, especially in Catholic countries Soon hundreds of ships were fishing off the coast of this “new found land” 61-NYB7Sko 61-NYB7Sko

3 Not a Colony? Cabot claimed Newfoundland for Britain, but they did not want it as a colony The climate was too harsh and the soil was not prime for farming They just wanted fish! Most fishermen stayed on their ships and would only go on land to dry their catch They would return home before winter storms occurred

4 Competition As the fishing business grew, there was competition between the fleets to secure the best harbour for drying stations Some even began staying behind in winter to guard the sites Over time, the number of British newcomers grew and King George II granted captains permission to build fishing villages on land As the villages grew, Britain could no longer ignore the island In 1729, the king appointed a governor – Newfoundland was evolving into a colony

5 Extinction of a Nation

6 Podcast Listen to the podcast 4 Items: – What is the subject/title of the podcast? – Fact #1 – Fact #2 – OMG! Moment

7 Cause & Effect Chart Let's review and create a cause & effect chart to understand what happened in Newfoundland A cause & effect chart outlines an event (cause) and the outcome (effect) of it in sequential order

8 Events in Europe Britain and France often fought each other in Europe Sometimes this affected their colonies In 1713, they signed the Treaty of Utrecht to create peace in Europe It allowed France to keep control of Fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton, while Acadia was given to Britain Acadia was renamed Nova Scotia Life pretty much stayed the same for the Colonists

9 The Creation of Halifax Over time, Britain became concerned about the strong French presence in Nova Scotia and the Fortress of Louisbourg As a result, in 1749 Britain decided to show its sovereignty over Nova Scotia It was going to tighten its control on the colony They planned to build a fort and town at a place called Chebucto or “the biggest harbour” It would be a base for British troops and ships 16 ships with 2600 soldiers sailed in to do the job They named the settlement Halifax Houses and buildings were on the waterfront, while the fort was built at the top of the hill

10 Active Citizenship in Halifax The government in Halifax included a governor, a council of advisors and an elected assembly For many years though, the governor put off elections They worked with the advisors to govern on their own without input from citizens In 1758 Britain insisted that an election was to be held Citizens could now participate in their government It was the first elected assembly in British North America Citizens also contributed to their society by working, paying taxes, volunteering and following the laws of their colony

11 Mi'kmaq Perspective The Mi'kmaq were concerned about the British newcomers The site Halifax was built on was one of their preferred coastal campsites Their French allies urged the Mi'kmaq to make life difficult for the British In response, Lord Cornwallis gave the order to “annoy, distress, take or destroy the Mi'kmaq people wherever they are found.” Because of this hostility, the British decided not to build farms outside of Halifax Most of the good farmland was already taken, anyway This increased the tension between the French (Acadians) and British (Halifax) colonists

12 Mi'kmaq Declaration of War, 1749 “The place where you stand, where you build your houses, where you build a fort, where you wish, as it were, to enthrone yourself, this land of which you now wish to make yourselves absolute masters, this same land belongs to me. I have grown up on it like the grass, and it is the very place of my birth and my residence... Show me where I, a Native, will lodge? You chase me away, and where do you want me to take refuge? You have seized nearly all of this land in all its vastness... At the present time, you force me to speak out because of the considerable theft you inflict upon me.” Q: What is this speech saying? Summarize it. Q: Who do you agree with – the Mi'kmaq or the British? Why?


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