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Roger D. Blackwell, Paul W. Miniard, and James F. Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer.

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Presentation on theme: "Roger D. Blackwell, Paul W. Miniard, and James F. Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roger D. Blackwell, Paul W. Miniard, and James F. Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Intentions, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Feelings CHAPTER 10

2 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Intentions

3 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Intentions How much existing product should be produced to meet demand? How much demand will there be for a new product? Useful for firms when predicting how people will act as consumers

4 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Intentions How much existing product should be produced to meet demand? How much demand will there be for a new product? Useful for firms when predicting how people will act as consumers Firms interested in where consumers will buy, when they will buy, and how much they will buy

5 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Intentions

6 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. How Firms Can Predict Behavior

7 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. How Firms Can Predict Behavior Rely on past behavior to predict future behavior

8 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. How Firms Can Predict Behavior Rely on past behavior to predict future behavior Problems: Situations change (changes in market can cause unpredictable changes in demand) Sales trends are sometimes erratic Past behaviors not available for new products or first-time behaviors

9 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. How Firms Can Predict Behavior Intentions: subjective judgments about how we will behave in the future

10 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. How Firms Can Predict Behavior Intentions: subjective judgments about how we will behave in the future Purchase intentions Shopping intentions Spending intentions Search intentions Consumption intentions

11 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. How Firms Can Predict Behavior Intentions: subjective judgments about how we will behave in the future Purchase intentions Shopping intentions Spending intentions Search intentions Consumption intentions People often do what they intend

12 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions

13 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions Intentions can change Intend to do something and don’t Intend not to do something and do Can’t control whether consumers act upon intentions Can influence predictive accuracy

14 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions Measuring intentions may be less predictive of future behavior than measuring what they expect to do

15 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions Measuring intentions may be less predictive of future behavior than measuring what they expect to do Behavioral expectations: represent perceived likelihood of performing a behavior (Although smokers may intend to quit smoking, they may report more moderate expectations due to past failures)

16 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions Accuracy of forecasts also depends on when intentions are measured How far into the future is being predicting? Accuracy depends on what the to- be-predicted behavior is (behaviors repeated with regularity are easier to predict)

17 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions Volitional control: the degree to which a behavior can be performed at will

18 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Constraints on Predictive Power of Intentions Volitional control: the degree to which a behavior can be performed at will Existence of uncontrollable factors interfere with the ability to do as intended Perceived behavioral control: the person’s belief about how easy it is to perform the behavior

19 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Intentions: Other Uses Indicator of the possible effects of certain marketing activities Intentions may provide an informative indication of a company’s likely success in retaining customers

20 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Repurchase Intentions for Personal Computers Repurchase Intention PC Vendor Source: Bruce Brown, “Home PCs,” PC Magazine, December 15, 1998, 120.

21 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Repurchase Intentions for Personal Computers Apple Below Average Compaq Above Average Dell Above Average Gateway Above Average Hewlett-Packard Above Average IBM Above Average Micron Above Average MidWest Micro Average Repurchase Intention PC Vendor

22 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Attitudes

23 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Attitudes Attitudes: represent what we like and dislike Attitudes determine intentions Holding a favorable attitude toward a product is often prerequisite for holding a favorable purchase or consumption intention

24 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Attitudes Attitudes: represent what we like and dislike Attitudes determine intentions Holding a favorable attitude toward a product is often prerequisite for holding a favorable purchase or consumption intention Preferences: represent attitudes toward one object in relation to another (way to measure attitudes)

25 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumer Attitudes Just because consumers prefer brand X, doesn’t mean they will necessarily buy brand X Having a favorable attitude toward a product is not the same as having a favorable attitude toward its purchase or consumption How can attitudes and preferences be measured?

26 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude toward the object: How much do you like/dislike IBM computers? Like very much Dislike very much Attitude toward the behavior: Buying an IBM personal computer would be: Very good Very bad Very rewarding Very punishing Very wise Very foolish Preference: Compared to Apple personal computers, how much do you like IBM personal computers? Like IBM much Like Apple much more than Apple more than IBM

27 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Variety of Consumer Attitudes

28 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Variety of Consumer Attitudes Attitudes toward product Attitudes toward company Attitudes toward a retailer Attitudes toward product attributes Attitudes toward various types of brand associations (logos, symbols, and product endorsers)

29 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Variety of Consumer Attitudes Attitudes toward product Attitudes toward company Attitudes toward a retailer Attitudes toward product attributes Attitudes toward various types of brand associations (logos, symbols, and product endorsers) Attitudes toward advertising and spokespersons

30 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Consumers form a variety of attitudes toward this type of Benetton ad

31 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Formation

32 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Formation The Role of Beliefs The Role of Feelings

33 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation Beliefs: subjective judgments about the relationship between two or more things Beliefs are based on knowledge Multiattribute attitude models show that beliefs about a product’s attributes determine favorability of one’s attitude toward the product

34 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation The Fishbein Model n A o = Σ b i e i i =1 A o = attitude toward object b i = strength of the belief that object has attribute i e i = evaluation of attribute i n = number of salient or important attributes

35 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation The Fishbein Model Model proposes that attitude toward an object is based on the summed set of beliefs about the object’s attributes weighted by the evaluation of these attributes Attributes can be any product or brand association

36 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Fishbein Model: Sample Results Shock absorbent Price less than $ Durability Comfort Desired color Arch support Total score Brand Brand Brand AttributeEvaluation A B C Beliefs

37 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation The Fishbein Model Companies want consumers to perceive their products as: Possessing desirable attributes (when e i positive; b i should be positive)

38 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Communicating the Presence of Desirable Attributes

39 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation The Fishbein Model Companies want consumers to perceive their products as: Possessing desirable attributes (when e i positive; b i should be positive) Not possessing undesirable attributes (when e i is negative; b i should be negative)

40 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Communicating the Absence of Undesirable Attributes

41 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation The Ideal-Point Model A P = Σ W i (I i - X i ) A P = attitude toward product W i = importance of attribute i I i = ideal performance on attribute i X i = belief about product’s actual performance on attribute i n = number of salient attributes i = 1 n

42 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Beliefs in Attitude Formation The Ideal-Point Model Consumers indicate where they believe a product is located on scales representing the various levels of salient attributes Also report where ideal products would fall on these scales The closer ideal and actual ratings are, the more favorable the attitude

43 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Ideal-Point Model: Sample Results Taste: sweet (1) - bitter (7) Carbonation: high (1) - low (7) Calories: high (1) - low (7) Fruit juices: high (1) - low (7) Price: high (1) - low (7) Total Score Impor- Ideal Brand Brand Attribute tance Point A B Beliefs

44 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Benefits of Using Multiattribute Attitude Models Diagnostic power: examine why consumers like or dislike products Simultaneous importance- performance grid Marketing implications for each cell

45 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Stimulus Importance-Performance Grid HIGH LOW POOR GOOD POOR GOOD Neglected Opportunity Competitive Disadvantage Competitive Advantage Head-to-head competition Null Opportunity False Alarm False Advantage False Competition Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good Attribute Our Competitor’s Simultaneous Importance Performance PerformanceResult

46 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Benefits of Using Multiattribute Attitude Models Can provide information for segmentation (based on importance of specific attributes) Useful in new product development Forecast performance of specific brands and attributes in market Guidance in development of attitude change strategies

47 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Feelings in Attitude Formation Feelings: an affective state (such as mood you currently are in) or reaction (such as feelings experienced during product consumption or when processing an advertisement) Can be positive or negative and range from overwhelming to virtually nonexistent

48 Types of Feelings (Partial List) NegativeWarmUpbeat Source: Julie A. Edell and Marian Chapman Burke, “The Power of Feelings in Understanding Advertising Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (December 1987),

49 Types of Feelings (Partial List) NegativeWarmUpbeat Angry Annoyed Bad Bored Critical Defiant Disgusted Fed-up Insulted Irritated Regretful Affectionate Calm Concerned Contemplative Emotional Hopeful Kind Peaceful Pensive Touched Warm-hearted Active Adventurous Alive Attractive Confident Creative Elated Energetic Good Happy Pleased

50 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Feelings in Attitude Formation Feelings As Part of The Consumption Experience Consumption often evokes a wide range of feelings (relaxation at a spa or frustration with an airline) Feelings may influence post- consumption evaluations and product attitudes

51 How often, if at all, do you experience the following feelings as a result of eating chocolate? Happy never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Excited never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Delighted never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Joyous never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Satisfied never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Proud never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Annoyed never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Depressed never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Guilty never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often Regretful never _:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_ very often

52 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Feelings in Attitude Formation Feelings As Part of The Advertising Experience Some ads may amuse while others annoy consumers Feelings experienced during ad processing may influence postmessage evaluations Products attitudes are influenced by feelings evoked during ad

53 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Feelings in Attitude Formation Mood State

54 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of Feelings in Attitude Formation Mood State Some feelings are carried into purchase and consumption situations Mood states can influence attitude formation (when consumers feel positive, the mood is often transferred to product attitude) Sometimes more intense feelings from consumption overpower the influence of preconsumption mood states

55 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Change Attitudes are dynamic Both positive and negative attitudes may become more neutral as time passes Attitude persistence: an attitude’s immunity to corrosion Consumers may expect high quality and form a certain product attitude, but have a bad experience and change their attitude accordingly

56 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Change Changing consumer attitudes is a frequent business objective Attitude adjustment is often required when turning product nonusers into users Need to change preferences when recruiting competitors’ customers

57 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Change Attitude resistance: the degree to which an attitude is immune to change The more resistant consumers’ product attitudes are, the more difficult it is for competitors to recruit them A strong foundation and direct experience enhance resistance

58 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Change Implications from Multiattribute Attitude Models Three primary ways for changing consumer attitudes:

59 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Change Implications from Multiattribute Attitude Models Three primary ways for changing consumer attitudes: Changing beliefs Changing attribute importance Changing ideal points

60 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Changing Consumer Attitudes: Changing Beliefs Firms hope that changing beliefs about products will result in more favorable product attitudes and influence what consumers buy If beliefs are false, they need to be brought into harmony with reality If beliefs are accurate, it may be necessary to change the product Comparative advertising helps reduce beliefs about a competitive brand

61 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Changing Consumer Attitudes: Changing Attribute Importance Changing an attribute’s importance is more difficult than changing a belief How is a brand perceived relative to ideal performance? Increasing attribute importance is desirable when the competitor’s brand is farther from the ideal point than your product Firms may add a new attribute

62 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Estimating the Attitudinal Impact of Alternative Changes

63 Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Estimating the Attitudinal Impact of Alternative Changes How expensive are the product modifications required to change attitude? Are they possible to accomplish? How resistant to change are consumers? What are the potential attitudinal payoffs each change might deliver?

64 Roger D. Blackwell Paul W. Miniard James F. Engel Consumer Behavior Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to the following address: Permissions Department, Harcourt, Inc Sea Harbor Drive Orlando, Florida Copyright© 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


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