2MBTI GUIDELINESA person’s psychological type should be regarded as a working hypothesis.Everyone uses every preference. We favor, however, one preference over the other on each of the four scales.MBTI scores should not be over interpreted. High scores do not indicate greater skill, magnitude, or use of a preference. Scores indicate clarity of choice.Psychological type can explain some human behavior—not all.Type should not be used as an excuse for doing or not doing something. Avoid stereotyping someone on the basis of his or her type MBTI Team Building Program
3Type Theory Based on the work of Carl Jung Researched normal differences between healthy peopleJung concluded that differences in behavior result from inborn tendencies to use your mind in different ways.As we act on these tendencies, we develop patterns of behavior.
4Type helps us to understand… Where you focus your attention and energy?How you acquire or gather information?How you make decisions or judgments?How you relate to the outer world?
5What are Preferences? Sign your name on the line as you normally do. Sign your name again, but this time use your other hand.Everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI continuums.When we use our preferred methods we are at our best and feel most competent.
6How to interpret your results? Your type consists of four letters that represent your four preferences.The bars on the graph illustrate the clarity of your MBTI preferences.The longer bar suggests you are quite sure that you prefer that pole.The shorter bar suggests that you are less sure about your preference for that pole.
7EXTRAVERSION INTROVERSION Direct energy outward toward people and thingsOrientation – after thinkersWork EnvironmentAction-orientedPrefer to be around othersMany interestsDirect energy inward toward ideas and conceptsOrientation – fore thinkersWork EnvironmentQuiet and concentratedPrefer to be aloneInterests have depth
8SENSING INTUITION Focus on five senses(experience) Details, practicality, realityWork EnvironmentPrefer learned skillsPay attention to detailsMake few factual errorsFocus on the possibilities(sixth sense)Patterns and expectationsWork EnvironmentPrefer adding new skillsLooks at the big picturePatient with complexity
9THINKING FEELING Focus – logic of a situation, truth and principles Work Environment – brief and businesslikeContributions – intellectual criticism, solutions to problemsFocus – human values and needs, people and harmonyWork Environment – friendly and personalContributions – loyal support, care and concern for others
10JUDGING PERCEPTIONAttitude – decisive, planful, self-regimented, purposefulWork Environment – focus on completing tasks, makes decisions quicklyAttitude – curious, spontaneous, flexible, adaptable, tolerantWork Environment – focus on starting tasks, postpones decisions
11Review your Type Summary on the Third Page As you read, underline anything that seems to “ring true” about you.After reviewing the whole page, turn to another student nearby and take turns sharing what information from the summary statement seems accurate about youTake turns sharing your reaction and give examples to support your statements
12Type in CollegeMake the best of your college experience by understanding your type.Choosing a MajorPeople are most attracted to careers that provide them the opportunity to express their preferences.Learning StylesIdentify learning styles consistent with your preferences.Each type has a different style that works best for them.
13Type in College Reading, Writing and Studying Students of each type have unique ways of approaching the writing process.Use type to help you understand your preferred style of writing.PlayingType helps you understand your preferences for forming social relationships, getting along with roommates and participating in student groups.Handling StressType helps you understand how you typically deal with stress.
14Type and Careers Summary designed to help you explore career options Focus on the exploration process instead of the selection processConsider type in past and future activitiesConsider the strengths and challenges associated with each typeConsider the relationship between your personality preferences and possible careers
15The Functions LensCombination of Perceiving (Sensing and Intuition) and Judging (Thinking and Feeling) are a central aspect of typeBrock’s research on selling and influencing demonstrated that the four functions are most closely related to communication skillsExtraversion and Introversion are important in establishing communicationJudging and Perceiving are needed to bring communication to a close
16Type and Communication In the area of communication, what a person perceives, as well as the way he or she organizes that information, impacts communicationThe columns of the type table represent the four different ways of accessing information about the world and making decisions about the information
18ST FunctionPay attention to details and the reality of any given situationFocus on the past and the present and are often characterized by a serious, no nonsense demeanorCommunication to others is often about costs, schedules and other basic facts
19SF FunctionPay attention to facts and details of a situation and organize this concrete information according to the values they hold and the importance the info has for themselves and othersFocus on the immediate past and current needs of each person in their careOften characterized by a friendly demeanorCommunication is based on their own and others’ needs
20NF FunctionPay attention to insights and to what could be done instead of what is. Like to discuss values and relationshipsConcerned about the future and how people’s goals and aspirations can be achievedCharacterized by an inspirational demeanorOrganize their communication by paying attention to what people in general valueCommunicate easily with others about team, community, and organizational needs & values
21NT FunctionFocus on relationships between theories and structures and organize this info by logical analysis of cause and effectFocus on the futureOften characterized by an analytical, quizzical demeanorCommunicate with others about strategies, visions, and potentials
22Challenges ST often overlook people’s values and the “big picture” SF may overlook the logical specifications of a situation and future implicationsNF are likely to overlook logical implications and the current realities of the situationNT often overlook people’s values and the present reality
23Group DiscussionDo the Functions descriptions fit with team member’s experiences?Please share examples with one another
25Type Differences in Close Relationships (E vs. I) Extraverts Need:Sufficient external stimulationReach decisions by talking them out and getting feedbackMay experience I’s style as excluding them and robbing them of mutual sharingIntroverts Need:Sufficient “alone time”Reach decisions by processing them internally and sharing final decisionMay experience E’s style as intrusive and controlling
26Type Differences in Close Relationships (S vs. N) Sensing partners with strong grounding in reality can make Intuitive partners feel impractical and unobservantIntuitive partners with rapid insights can make Sensing partners feel slow and mundane
27Type Differences in Close Relationships (T vs. F) Thinking favors an objective , logical approach to arrive at truthCan become irritated when Feeling type appears to ignore the logic of a situationFeeling favors a subjective, personal approach that arrives at harmonyCan feel hurt when Thinking type appears to be cold, uncaring, and hypercritical
28Differences in Thinking and Feeling are Prone to Gender Stereotyping Thinking is often confused with intellectual competence and lack of emotionFeeling is often confused with intellectual fuzziness and excessive emotionalityThinking is often perceived as the province of males and Feeling for femalesThinking-Feeling differences are often seen as gender differences (e.g., Thinking women may see Feeling men as unmasculine and Feeling men may perceive Thinking women as unfeminine)
29Thinking Types can Improve Relationships with Feeling Types by: Voicing appreciation before giving criticismMaking critical comments only when necessary rather than as a natural, automatic response to the partner and the world
30Feeling Types can Improve Relationships with Thinking Types by: Stating their wishes clearly so that the Thinking type does not have to guess about their needs and desiresLearning to differentiate between intended critical assessments that sound like personal criticism but are merely impersonal observations from the viewpoint of their Thinking partner
31Type Differences in Close Relationships (J vs. P) Perceiving partner more likely to value spontaneity and freedomMore likely to value “flying by the seat of their pants”Like weighing all the options (furniture)Judging partner likely to value order and predictability in his or her surroundingsMore likely to value careful planningLike closure and concrete plans (vacations)
32Occupational Trends of 16 Types ISTJManagement, AdministrationLaw enforcement , AccountingOr any other occupations where they can use their experiences and attention to detail to get the task doneISFJEducation, Health Care, Religious settingsOr any other occupations where they can draw on their base experience to personally help people in a behind-the-scenes mannerISTPSkilled trades, technical fields, agriculture, law enforcement, MilitaryOr any other occupations where they can use their hands-on, analytical work with data or thingsISFPHealth care, Business, Law EnforcementOr any other occupations where they can use their gentle, service-related attentiveness to detail
33Occupational Trends of 16 Types INFJReligion, counseling, teaching, artsOr any other occupations where they can facilitate emotional, intellectual, or spiritual developmentINTJScientific or technical fields, computers, lawOr any other occupations where they can use their intellectual creativity and technical knowledge to conceptualize, analyze, and get the task done.INFPCounseling, Writing, ArtsOr any other occupations where they can use their creativity and focus on their valuesINTPScientific or Technical FieldsOr any other occupations where they can use their solitary, objective analysis of problems based on their technical expertise
34Occupational Trends of 16 Types ESTPMarketing, skilled trades, Business, Law enforcement, Applied TechnologyOr any other occupations where they can use their action-oriented focus to attend to the necessary detailsESFPHealth care, Teaching, Coaching, Childcare worker, Skilled TradesOr any other occupations where they can use their outgoing nature and enthusiasm to help people with their practical needsESTJManagement, Administration, Law EnforcementOr any other occupations where they can use logic and organization of the facts to get the task doneESFJEducation, Health Care, ReligionOr any other occupations where they can use their personal concern to provide services to others
35Occupational Trends of 16 Types ENFPCounseling, Teaching, Religion, ArtsOr any other occupations where they can use creativity and communication to foster the growth of othersENTPScience, Management, Technology, ArtsOr any other occupations where they have the opportunity to take on new challenges continuallyENFJReligions, Arts, TeachingOr any other occupations where they can help others with their emotional, intellectual, and spiritual growthENTJManagement, LeadershipOr any other occupations where they can use tough-minded analysis, strategic planning, and organization to get the task done
36Type and Work Environments Extraverts..Like variety and actionTend to be faster, dislike complicated procedures (ES)Good “greeters” (EF)Impatient with long, slow jobs done aloneIntrovertsLike quiet for concentrationCareful with details (IS)Trouble with names & faces (IT)Can work for long periods of time on a project without interruptions
37Type and Work Environments Introverts..Interested in details & ideas behind jobDislike telephone (IT)Think before acting, sometimes without actingWork alone (IT)“In their heads” (IT)Extraverts..Interested in activities of their job, getting it done, and how others do itDo not mind telephone (EF)Act quickly, sometimes without thinking it throughLike people around (EF)Communicate freely (EF)
38Type and Work Environments Intuitive..Focus on future and what might beSolving problems in new waysDislike routine (NP)Enjoy learning new skill more than using itBursts of energy with slack times (ENP)Sensing..Focus on here and now and realityStandard ways of solving problemsPreferred established order for doing things (SJ)Preferring using and perfecting learned skillsSteady workers with realistic assessment of time (ISJ)
39Type and Work Environments Sensing..Reach a conclusion step by step (ISJ)Patient with details (ISJ)Impatient when situations get complicated (ES)Not often inspired, mistrust inspirationSeldom make factual errorsGood at precise work (IS)Create new by adapting oldIntuitive..Reach an understanding quickly (ENP)Impatient with routine details (ENP)Patient with complex situations (IN)Follow inspirations regardless of dataMake errors of fact, preferring big pictureDislike precision (time)Create something new with personal insight
40Type and Work Environments Thinking..Like analysis and orderingCan get along without harmonyTend to be firm mindedDo not show emotion readily and often uncomfortable with others’ feelingsMay hurt others’ feelings without knowing itDecide impersonally, sometimes insufficient attention to others’ wishesFeeling..Like harmonyOffice feud by impair efficiencyTend to be sympatheticAware of other people and their feelings (EF)Enjoy pleasing othersAllow decisions to be influenced by likes and dislikes
41Type and Work Environments Thinking..Need to be treated fairly in accordance with prevailing standardsAble to reprimand people impersonally, though they may not like doing soMore analytically-oriented, respond best to others’ thoughts (IT)Feeling..Need praise and attentionDislike, even avoid unpleasant encountersMore people oriented, respond more easily to others values
42Type and Work Environments Judging..Work best when they plan work and follow planLike to get things settledMay decide too quickly (EJ)Dislike interrupting project for more urgent one (ISJ)Perceiving..Adapt well to changing situationsPrefer leaving things open for alterationsMay postpone decisions (IP)May start too many projects and have difficulty finishing them (ENP)
43Type and Work Environments Judging..May not notice new things that need to be done while completing what they are doingWant only the essentials needed to begin their work (ESJ)Satisfied once they reach a judgment on a thing, situation, or personPerceiving..May postpone unpleasant jobs while finding other things more interesting in the momentWant to know all about a new job (INP)Curious and welcome a new light on a thing, situation, or person
44What types are attracted to Business School? Managers of all types learn to value managerial culture (STJ) “practical and results oriented”Among MBA students, ESTJ and ISTJ are modal types, as expectedNTJs are more are attracted to MBA programs than STJs given their numbers in the base population
45Which types are drawn to small business ownership? ISTJ and ESTJ are modal types and overrepresented among small business ownersINTJ and ENTJ are also more attracted to ownership than their proportion in the populationSmall business owners usually did not have MBA degreesMBAs usually work in large organizations
46Organizational Values of 16 Types ISTJLow: Visible AutonomyISFJHigh: Happy FamilyLow: Variety and challengeVisible autonomyISTPLow: Outgoing AffiliationFinancial AnalysisISFP
47Type and Roles on Team Read over the last page of your packet Mark on post it padsHow have these roles played out in your work with teams?What do you value about your own type’s leadership style?What does your type do as leaders that annoy people of different functions?What does your type opposite do that annoys you?What do you value about your type opposite?
48Organizational Values of 16 Types INFJINTJHigh: Financial AnalysisLow: Business SociabilityINFPHigh: Nurturing AffiliationINTPHigh: Visible Autonomy
49Organizational Values of 16 Types ESTPHigh: Visible AutonomyLow: Achievement within systemFinancial AnalysisESFPHigh: Happy FamilyESTJHigh: Achievement within systemESFJOutgoing AffiliationBusiness Sociability
50Organizational Values of 16 Types ENFPLow: Achievement within systemENTPHigh: Variety and challengeVisible AutonomyLow: Happy FamilyENFJHigh: Nurturing AffiliationENTJHigh: Financial AnalysisLow: Nurturing Affiliation
51Career Exploration Process Think of a puzzle! Internal FactorsPersonality preferences (MBTI)InterestsValuesSkills and Abilities
52Career Exploration Process External FactorsJob marketEconomyJob RequirementsEducational RequirementsSalary Range
53Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Helps you identify your unique giftsHelps you understand yourselfMotivationsNatural strengthsPotential areas for growthHelps you understand and appreciate people who differ from youHelps you make the best of your college experienceHelps you begin the career exploration process