Presentation on theme: "Process types Lengua Inglesa II Tom Morton. The semantic representation of clauses. A clause represents a pattern of experience, conceptualised as a semantic."— Presentation transcript:
The semantic representation of clauses. A clause represents a pattern of experience, conceptualised as a semantic configuration. A semantic configuration consists of: processes, participants and circumstances. The dogbitthe postmanyesterday participantprocessparticipantcircumstance
Process types (overview) material: processes of ‘doing’ (kick, run, paint, construct, dig, write, repair, send, give) mental: processes of ‘experiencing’ or ‘sensing’ (see, hear, know, feel, believe, think, like) relational: processes of ‘being’ or ‘becoming’ in which a participant is characterised, or identified, or situated circumstantially (be, seem, stand, lie, become, turn, get) verbal (say, tell), existential (there is a problem), behavioural (laugh, cry).
Process TypeSub-categoryExample MaterialEvent (happening)The sugar dissolved. The lion sprang. Action (doing)She stirred the coffee. The lion caught the tourist. MentalPerceptionShe saw the car. CognitionShe forgot his name. Tim realised that he was in a big city. AffectionShe liked his music. RelationalAttributiveMaggie was strong Peter has a piano. IdentifyingMaggie was our leader. The piano is Peter’s. BehaviouralShe laughed VerbalShe said what she wanted. Mike told us his plan. ExistentialThere was once a beautiful princess.
Material Processes Actor: the Actor of a process can be either: the Agent of the process (must be an animate entity capable of conscious action) The Prime Minister resigned Actor: agentProcess: material Lightningstruckthe oak tree Actor: forceProcess: material Goal Inanimate Agent or Force (where the Actor is not animate)
The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes, The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening, Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains, Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys, Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap, And seeing that it was a soft October night, Curled once about the house, and fell asleep. From The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot
Goal: The goal can be either: Affected (if the Goal exists before the process but is affected by it): The avalancheburiedthe climbers Actor: forceProcess: materialGoal: affected Effected (if the Goal is created by the process): Marymadean omelette Actor: agentProcess: material Goal: effected
Recipient and Beneficiary Recipient: participant to whom the action is directed and who receives the goods: Igavethe kidssome money Actor: agentProcess: materialRecipientGoal: affected Beneficiary: participant for whom some service is done: I’ll make you an omelette. Iwill makeyouan omelette Actor: agentProcess: materialBeneficiaryGoal: effected
Range Ranges are participants specifying the scope of the action: She sang a new song. They played some games. He ran a good race. Ranges are often associated with what are sometimes called delexical verbs. In ‘he dined at eight’ ‘dined’ is lexical. English also allows you to say ‘He had dinner at eight’, where ‘dinner’ is a range and ‘had’ is delexical. More examples: Have an argument, a chat, a drink, a quarrel Make a comment, a suggestion, a mistake, a payment Take a shower, a walk, a photo, nap, leap Give a presentation, a kiss, a push, a shove
Actor and Goal with Ergative verbs: the Subject of an intransitive clause with an ergative should be seen as the Goal, not the Actor: The glassbroke Goal: affectedProcess: material Actor and Goal in passive sentences: in a passive sentence, what was Object in the active sentence becomes the Subject, and keeps the same semantic role: Youwill be madean omelette BeneficiaryProcess: materialGoal: effected
Exercise: Participants with material processes Identify the participant roles in the following sentences: 1.She built the house for the kids. 2.The house was built for the kids. 3.Bill climbed the mountain. 4.Paul dug a hole. 5.I was attacked by three thugs. 6.The piano has been polished by the maid. 7.The children were sent presents by their grandparents. 8.Three thugs attacked me on the street. 9.They made a fatal mistake. 10.Most people can sing one or two Beatles songs.
Mental Processes Senser: the one who sees, feels, likes, etc. Phenomenon: the participant which is perceived, known, liked, etc. The riderhearda noise SenserProcess: mentalPhenomenon Ithoughtthat she was coming SenserProcess: mentalPhenomenon That you like ice-creampleasesme PhenomenonProcess: mentalSenser
Clause rewriting exercise Rewrite each of the clauses so that the senser coincides with the subject, e.g. (a)The results delighted us. (b)We were delighted with the results. (1)Neither of the proposals pleased the members of the commission. (2)His presence of mind amazed us. (3)The dramatic increase of crime in the cities is alarming the government. (4)The fact that she seems unable to lose weight worries her. (5)Will the fact that you forgot to phone annoy your wife? Downing & Locke, 2006: 170
Answers (1)The members of the commission were not pleased by/with either of the proposals. (2)We were amazed at/by his presence of mind. (3)The government is alarmed at/by the dramatic increase of crime in the cities. (4)She is worried by the fact that she seems unable to lose weight. (5)Will your wife be annoyed by the fact that you forgot to phone?
Verbal Processes Sayer: the one who speaks the message. Verbiage: what is said. Addressee (if present): the one who is spoken to. Johnsaidsomething SayerProcess: verbalVerbiage Johntoldmeto go SayerProcess: verbalAddresseeVerbiage “Get out of here!”shescreamed VerbiageSayerProcess: verbal
Relational Processes These processes are mostly those with ‘be’ and ‘have’ as the main verb (also ‘seem’, ‘appear’, and also words of sensing when the Complement is an adjectival phrase (I felt sad). These verbs do not in general passivise. We will identify 2 main types here: Johnisvery sick. CarrierProcess:relationalAttribute Johnisthe president CarrierProcess:relationalAttribute/identifying That bookismine Possessed/CarrierProcess: relationalPossessor/Attribute
Existential Processes These are processes of existing or happening. The only participant is the Existent. Existential processes don’t just state that something exists, but expand it in some way, often by adding quantitative information or the location of the Existent: There aresome peoplein the park Process:existentialExistentCircumstance: locative
ExampleProcessParticipant(s)Attribu te Circumstance 1.We carried our luggage 2.The spectators cheered enthusiastically. 3.The gardener dug a hole in the garden. 4.She gave me a bracelet for my daughter. 5.A stone broke the window. 6.The water boiled. 7.The window broke. 8.The dog died. 9.I can smell the gas. material material (happening) mental (perception) agent + affected agent agent + effected agent + rec + affected + ben force + affected affected senser + phenomenon manner locative
ExampleProcessParticipantAttributeCircum stance 10.He slipped on the ice. 11.I can’t understand their objections. 12.We believe that he is right. 13.Phil knows the answer. 14.Tom is mean 15.That car is mine. 16.He remained the leader. 17.The water feels cold 18.I didn’t say that material (involuntary) mental (cognition) mental relational (att) relational (poss) relational (att) verbal affected senser + phenomenon carrier possessed carrier sayer + verbiage characterising possessor current locative Adapted from From Downing & Locke, 2006: 166