Presentation on theme: "1 TRAINING FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS [Date …Place …Event…Sponsor…Organizer] CHILDREN AND NOISE CHILDREN AND NOISE Children's Health and the Environment."— Presentation transcript:
1 TRAINING FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS [Date …Place …Event…Sponsor…Organizer] CHILDREN AND NOISE CHILDREN AND NOISE Children's Health and the Environment WHO Training Package for the Health Sector World Health Organization www.who.int/ceh
Children and noise 2 1. Introduction 2. Vulnerability of children 3. Adverse health effects 4. Effects by age-group 5. Taking action 6. Discussion CONTENTS
Children and noise 3 To understand, recognize and know 1.Definition and characteristics of sound and noise 2.Sources and settings of noise exposure 3.Adverse effects of noise exposure On physical health On psychological health On cognition 4.Weight of the evidence of the harm to children –Special vulnerability of children –Various noise exposure scenarios in settings where children develop 5.Interventions and preventive strategies LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Children and noise 4 1.Introduction 2.Vulnerability of children 3.Adverse health effects 4.Effects by age-group 5.Taking action 6.Discussion CONTENTS
Children and noise 5 DEFINITION: SOUND AND NOISE Sound is characterized by: Vibration Frequency (Hz) Intensity (Pa or dB) Decibel scale logarithmic Begins at threshold of hearing Periodicity Duration “Noise is an unwanted or objectionable sound” NASA
Children and noise Frequency (KHz) 6 THRESHOLDS OF HUMAN HEARING Sound level (dB) EPA
Children and noise 7 MAGNITUDE AND EFFECTS OF SOUND COMMON EXAMPLEdBAEFFECT Breathing0-10Hearing threshold Conversation at home50Quiet Freeway traffic (15 m), vacuum cleaner, noisy party 70Annoying, intrusive, interferes with phone use Average factory, train (at 15 m)80Possible hearing damage Jet take-off (at 305 m), motorcycle100Damage if over 1 minute Thunderclap, textile loom, chain saw, siren, rock concert 120Human pain threshold Toy cap pistol, Jet takeoff (at 25 m), firecracker 150Eardrum rupture
Children and noise 8 SOURCES OF NOISE Outdoor sources Transport Aircraft Road Rail Occupational Machinery Neighbours Machinery Loud music Indoor sources Ambient noise outside Building design and location Room acoustics Activities of occupants Children
Children and noise 9 Hypothesized lifestyle noise exposure patterns SETTINGS OF NOISE EXPOSURE: “NOISE-SCAPE” EPA Sleep Eat, Relax, Watch TV SleepEat, Dress Noon Midnight HOUR OF DAY
Children and noise NOISE EXPOSURE IN EU 40% of population exposed to Leq > 55 dBA during the day 20% of population exposed to Leq > 65 dBA during the day 30% of population exposed to Lmax > 55 dBA during the night Hazard is increasing 10
Children and noise 11 NOISE CONTAMINATION Noise exceeding safety threshold is widespread: In neighbourhoods Schools, hospitals and care centres Urban and suburban areas Activities inside the buildings (elevators, water tubs, music in discotheque) From children themselves (toys, equipment, children playing or practicing sports in a close yard) Traffic: heavy road, railways, highways, subways, airports Industrial activities Building and road construction, renovation Increased environmental noise levels - more noise sources Also linked to population growth
Children and noise 12 1.Introduction 2.Vulnerability of children 3.Adverse health effects 4.Effects by age-group 5.Taking action 6.Discussion CONTENTS
Children and noise 13 VULNERABLE GROUPS OF CHILDREN The fetus and babies Preterm, low birth weight and small for gestational age babies Children with dyslexia and hyperactivity Children on ototoxic medication
Children and noise 14 VULNERABILITY OF CHILDREN Different perception of dangers of noise Can not recognize the dangerous exposures Lack of ability to control the environment Are not able to identify and avoid the source of noxious noise Exposure intra utero Noise can interfere with communication of danger May be more exposed due to their behaviour Exploratory or risk behaviour (in children and teenagers)
Children and noise 15 Why might children be more susceptible to noise effects? Possible increased risk due to immaturity Increased cochlear susceptibility? In utero Animal data studies Critical periods in relation to learning Lack of developed coping repertoires Vulnerable tasks \ Vulnerable settings (schools, home, streets) What might be the implications of noise effects? Lifelong impairment of learning and education Short-term deficit followed by adaptation Non intentional lesions VULNERABILITY OF CHILDREN
Children and noise 16 1.Introduction 2.Vulnerability of children 3.Adverse health effects 4.Effects by age-group 5.Taking action 6.Discussion CONTENTS
Children and noise 17 ADVERSE EFFECTS FROM EXCESS NOISE EXPOSURE Direct ear damage Noise induced hearing loss Noise induced threshold shift Indirect adverse effects Physiological effects Psychological effects Impaired cognition Characteristics of the sound can modify effect
Children and noise 18 ORGAN DAMAGE NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS Normal hair cellNoise damaged hair cell VIMM DIRECT DAMAGE VIMM
Children and noise 19 AUDIOGRAM OSHA DIRECT DAMAGE Noise-induced hearing loss
Children and noise 20 CHILDREN AND NOISE: SETTINGS Noise at home50 - 80 dB A Home appliances78 - 102 dB A Noise in incubators 60 - 75 dB A, peak sounds 120 dB A Noise in hospitals > 70 dB A Day-care institutions 75 – 81 dB A Noise from toys peak sounds79 - 140 dB A Background noise in schools46.5 – 77.3 dB A DIRECT DAMAGE
Children and noise 21 NOISE INDUCED THRESHOLD SHIFT (NITS) Initially - a temporary condition Decrease in sensitivity to noise Tinnitus Caused by exposure to loud noises May be reversible or irreversible Severity and duration of exposure Continuous and recurrent exposure DIRECT DAMAGE
Children and noise Non-metropolitan 22 PREVALENCE NOISE INDUCED THRESHOLD SHIFTS Niskar AS, Pediatrics, 2001, 108(1):40-3 National survey US children (n=5249) DIRECT DAMAGE Characteristics % (95% CI) Age: Sex: Urban status: 6-11 years old 12-19 years old Male Female Metropolitan 8.5 15.5 14.8 10.1 11.9 13.0 (6.9-10.0) (13.3-17.6) (12.3-17.3) (8.3-11.8) (9.8-14.0) (11.3-14.6)
Children and noise 24 There might be harmful consequences to health during the state of alertness as well as when the body is unaware or asleep. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NOISE INDIRECT DAMAGE EPA
Children and noise 25 STRESS HORMONES - CHILDREN + increase with noise, - decrease with noise, 0 no effect INDIRECT DAMAGE Adapted from Babisch W, Noise Health, 2003, 5(18):1-11 Evans, 1998 Ising, 1999 Stansfeld, 2001 Haines, 2001 Evans, 2001 Ising, 2001 AuthorCortisolNoradrenalineAdrenaline +++ 000 00+ 0 0 + 00 N° Noise exposure Noise type (leq) Aircraft53, 62217 40 115 56 238 204 56, 70 60 66 53, 62 30-54, 55-78 Aircraft Road, Rail Road
Children and noise 26 BLOOD PRESSURE - AIRCRAFT NOISE Inconsistent picture: 3 positive, 4 negative studies Prospective studies: 1 positive, 1 negative study Magnitude of effect found in positive studies may be relevant INDIRECT DAMAGE
Children and noise HYPERTENSION AND EXPOSURE TO NOISE NEAR AIRPORTS The HyENA study 27 INDIRECT DAMAGE Results Significant exposure-response relationship Night time aircraft noise exposure: borderline significant relationship Risk of myocardial infarction in relation to noise exposure: analysis ongoing Effects of noise exposure on stress hormone level (cortisol): statistical analyses and epidemiological ongoing Conclusion Prevalence of hypertension increased with increasing noise exposure Long-term road traffic noise exposure effects on BP Acute effect on hypertension of night-time aircraft noise Highly annoyed people are found at aircraft noise levels
Children and noise 28 PSYCHOLOGICAL DAMAGE Exposure to moderate level of noise can cause Psychological stress Annoyance, interference with activity, isolation Headache, tiredness and irritability; may impair intellectual function and performance of complex tasks Exposure to intense level of noise can Cause personality changes and aggressive/violent reactions Reduce ability to cope Alter work performance and intellectual function May cause muscle spasm and also break a bone (when combined with strong vibration) Sleep disturbance Changes in mental health. Exposure to sudden, unexpected noise can cause Startle reaction with stress responses Cause non intentional injuries INDIRECT DAMAGE
Children and noise 29 IMPAIRED COGNITIVE FUNCTION Chronic noise exposure impairs cognitive function Reading comprehension Long term memory Dose-response relationships Supported by both laboratory and field studies Study of possible mechanisms and noise reduction interventions Tuning out of attention / concentration Impairment of auditory discrimination INDIRECT DAMAGE
Children and noise 30 ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Children 6 months - 5 years Inverse associations between noise level at home and cognitive development IMPAIRED COGNITION Wachs TD. Early Experience and Human Development. New York Plenum, 1982 Evans GW. Children's Environments,1993,10(1):31-51
Children and noise 31 APARTMENT NOISE AND READING ABILITY 54 children living in apartments above interstate highway 32 nd floor: 55 dBA, 20 th floor: 60 dBA, 8 th floor: 66 dBA Measures of auditory discrimination and reading ability Correlations between floor level and auditory discrimination vary by duration of residence Floor level correlates with reading-abolished by adjustment for auditory discrimination Reading powerfully associated with mothers’ education IMPAIRED COGNITION Cohen S. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1973, 9:407-22.
Children and noise Reading scores compared between classes in same school Exposed/not exposed to railway noise No selection of children into classes Poorer performance on achievement test on noisy side Measuring reading age 3-4 months behind on noisy side 32 RAILWAY NOISE AND READING SCORES IMPAIRED COGNITION Bronzaft AL. Environment and Behavior, 1975, 7:517-28
Children and noise 33 Los Angeles airport study Cohen S. Am Psychol., 1980, 35:231-43. New York airport city Evans G. Environment and Behavior, 1997, 29(5):638-656. Munich airport study Evans G. Psychological Science, 1998, 9:75-77; Psychological Science, 1995,6:333-38 Heathrow studies Haines MM. Psychological Medicine, 2001a,b,c; J Epidemiol Community Health, 2002, 56(2):139 IMPAIRED COGNITIVE FUNCTION Over 20 studies have reported that adversely affects noise adversely affects children’s academic performance IMPAIRED COGNITION
Children and noise 34 MUNICH AIRPORT MUNICH AIRPORT SCHOOL PERFORMANCE Closure of old airport, opening of new airport Deficits in long-term memory and reading around old airport Impairments diminish within 2 years after airport closed Same impairments develop in new group of children within 2 years of new airport opening IMPAIRED COGNITION Hygge S, Psychol Sci. (2002)13(5):469 US Transportation Security Administration
Children and noise 35 STRENGTH OF EVIDENCE FOR EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT NOISE ON CHILDREN InadequateImmune effects InadequateBirth weight Inadequate / no effectSleep disturbance Inconclusive / no effectPsychiatric disorder Limited (weak associations) Hypertension Limited / inconclusiveCatecholamine secretion Sufficient / limitedWellbeing/perceived stress Sufficient / limitedMotivation InconclusiveCognitive performance - attention SufficientCognitive performance - academic performance SufficientCognitive performance - speech perception SufficientCognitive performance - auditory discrimination SufficientCognitive performance - memory SufficientCognitive performance - reading SufficientHearing loss SufficientAnnoyance STRENGTH OF EVIDENCE HEALTH OUTCOME IMPAIRED COGNITION
Children and noise 36 1.Introduction 2.Vulnerability of children 3.Adverse health effects 4.Effects by age-group 5.Taking action 6.Discussion CONTENTS
Children and noise 37 EFFECTS OF NOISE BY AGE-GROUP Fetus Infant Pre-school, school-aged children Teenager Youth
Children and noise 38 EFFECTS OF NOISE ON THE FETUS Growth retardation Occupational exposure of the mother to noise Environmental noise unlikely to cause effects, but exposure to chronic low-dose noise requires more study Hearing impairment Possible effects
Children and noise Pre-term and full-term baby Exposed to “Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" (NICU) noise Pre-term babies have immature hearing organs / systems Adverse noise-induced effects on the pre-term baby Hearing impairment: possible effect Sleep disturbances: awakening, sleep disruption Others: crying 39 EFFECTS OF NOISE ON INFANTS
Children and noise 40 EFFECTS OF NOISE IN PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN Hearing impairment In isolated cases by toys or equipment Sleep disturbances Earlier responses than adults (EEG awakenings) Somatic effects Blood pressure and stress hormones Psycho-social effects No studies on behaviour with high environmental noise levels Cognitive tasks are impaired, like reading, long term memory, attention and motivation Vocal nodule
Children and noise 41 EFFECTS OF NOISE…. A WORD APART FOR TEENAGERS!! Potential sources of hearing impairment Noisy toys, firecrackers, boom-cars, musical instruments, others Discotheques and pop concerts Exposure similar to occupational exposures Use of music headphones Loss of hearing may go undetected for many years after chronic exposure to high levels of noise Increased rates of adolescent hearing impairment in last 3 decades Protection needed from the start Be instructed to use personal hearing protection Not only at work but also at technical and polytechnic schools
Children and noise 42 1.Introduction 2.Vulnerability of children 3.Adverse health effects 4.Effects by age-group 5.Taking action 6.Discussion CONTENTS
Children and noise 43 PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION More research needed, especially in vulnerable groups Preventive action Noise has to be controlled at the source Hearing protection devices are a last resort Child hearing conservation programs Education and dissemination
Children and noise 44 WHERE TO INTERVENE? Techniques for reducing or eliminating noise At the source By installing a barrier between the source and the recipient At the point of reception / At the human recipient Potential settings for intervention NICU Child care settings Primary schools Discotheques and rock festivals Address external and internal noise sources TAKING ACTION
Children and noise 45 HOW TO INTERVENE? Technically Planning and designing outdoors and indoors “soundscapes” Improving road surfaces and developing green spaces and green barriers Developing noise barriers, building sound insulation Planning internal spaces according to activities (e.g. schools, sports- centres, others that involve noise), strategically using the space & location Reducing internal noise (eg. fans, ventilators) Using sound-absorbent materials Setting sound limits for concerts Increasing public and professional education to recognize noise pollution and reduction!
Children and noise 46 Organizationally and Educationally Educating children, adults, professionals Teaching methods/interventions Disseminating information Informing the media and decision-makers and health professionals! Creating silent areas (“silence islands”) for resting Distributing earplugs at work and setting limits for the earphones Identifying and turning off noise at the source! HOW TO INTERVENE?
Children and noise 47 Planning Identifying noise sources and recognizing noise as a problem Recognizing health effects in children caused by noise Recognizing and diagnosing adults' health problems originated in childhood exposure Raising awareness Setting-up noise control campaigns in hospitals and schools Applying the “Precautionary Principle” Thinking about noise exposure when planning the settings where children dwell Promoting sound landscape design Developing noise mapping, action plans, community involvement Standardizing noise measurements HOW TO INTERVENE?
Children and noise 49 First draft prepared by Lilian Corra, MD, Argentina With the advice of the Working Group on Training Package for the Health Sector: Cristina Alonzo, MD (Uruguay); Yona Amitai, MD, MPH (Israel); Stephan Boese- O’Reilly, MD, MPH (Germany); Stephania Borgo MD (ISDE, Italy); Irena Buka, MD (Canada); Ligia Fruchtengarten, MD (Brazil); Amalia Laborde, MD (Uruguay); Leda Nemer, TO (WHO/EURO); R. Romizzi, MD (ISDE, Italy); Katherine M. Shea, MD, MPH (USA). Reviewers: Yoon JungWon (Republic of Korea) WHO CEH Training Project Coordination: Jenny Pronczuk, MD Medical Consultant: Ruth A. Etzel, MD, PhD Technical Assistance: Marie-Noel Bruné, MSc Latest update: December 2009 (C. Espina, PhD) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WHO is grateful to the US EPA Office of Children’s Health Protection for the financial support that made this project possible and for the data, graphics and text used in preparing these materials.
Children and noise 50 DISCLAIMER The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The opinions and conclusions expressed do not necessarily represent the official position of the World Health Organization. This publication is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages, including any general, special, incidental, or consequential damages, arising out of the use of this publication The contents of this training module are based upon references available in the published literature as of June 2004. Users are encouraged to search standard medical databases for updates in the science for issues of particular interest or sensitivity in their regions and areas of specific concern. If users of this training module should find it necessary to make any modifications (abridgement, addition or deletion) to the presentation, the adaptor shall be responsible for all modifications made. The World Health Organization disclaims all responsibility for adaptations made by others. All modifications shall be clearly distinguished from the original WHO material.