WordTranslation Part of speech (vb, adj, n, adv) Collocation, pattern or example
WordTranslation Part of speech (vb, adj, n, adv) Collocation, pattern or example annoyverbannoy somebody by doing something greetverbgreet your friends stretchverbstretch your legs gapingadjectivegaping hole yawnverb / nouna gaping yawn slamverbslam the door erasernoun borrow an eraser use an eraser mumbleverbmumble an answer smuglyadverbsmile smugly napverb, nountake a nap snoreverbsnore loudly
Listen to the text read by your tutor. Label the diagram below and make notes on anything you hear that you think is important.
Use the diagram and your notes to describe the process described to a partner.
Chungungo Experiment Villages along the north coast of Chile 1_________________ [always suffer] from water shortages, despite the fact that the region 2__________ [have] abundant cloud cover and low-lying fog. These weather conditions 3______________ [cause] by warm and cold air currents meeting together. However, the presence of cloud and fog 4 ______________ [not / result] in rain because both 5________________ [evaporate] by the hot sun. An interesting solution to the problem 6_________________ [test] currently in the small village of Chungungo. Using local materials, researchers 7_____________ [recently manage] to improve on centuries-old method for 8_____________ [capture] the water droplets in the fog. The method involves 9 _________ [use] cheap plastic nets 10___________ [catch] the moisture. The re-designed nets are bigger and more efficient than the old wooden nets 11_________ [be]: each can 12__________ [collect] 40 gallons of water a day. The procedure works as follows: as the fog 13________ [develop], the water 14____________ [trap] in the net and then 15_________ [flow] into large troughs. The water can then 16______________ [send] along pipes to a large water tank. Here, it 17_____________ [treat] with chemicals 18___________ [kill] dangerous bacteria. It is hoped that this system 19____________ [supply] enough water for the entire community's personal and agricultural needs. The advantages of the procedure is that it is cheap and easy 20_______ [build], and non-polluting. Studies 21_____________ [currently/ undertake] to see if the system can 22_____________ [adapt] for non-coastal regions as well.
Chungungo Experiment : Key Villages along the north coast of Chile have always suffered from water shortages, despite the fact that the region has abundant cloud cover and low-lying fog. These weather conditions are caused by warm and cold air currents meeting together. However, the presence of cloud and fog does not result in rain because both are evaporated by the hot sun. An interesting solution to the problem is currently being tested in the small village of Chungungo. Using local materials, researchers have recently managed to improve on centuries-old method for capturing the water droplets in the fog. The method involves using cheap plastic nets to catch the moisture. The re-designed nets are bigger and more efficient than the old wooden nets used to be: each can collect 40 gallons of water a day. The procedure works as follows: as the fog develops, the water is trapped in the net and then flows into large troughs. The water can then be sent along pipes to a large water tank. Here, it is treated with chemicals to kill dangerous bacteria. It is hoped that this system will supply enough water for the entire community's personal and agricultural needs. The advantages of the procedure is that it is cheap and easy to build, and non-polluting. Studies are currently being undertaken to see if the system can be adapted for non-coastal regions as well.
Word / PhraseNumber of sentences? Noun phrase or Clause? because as a result of is due to as a result, since the consequence is that… because of the first cause of… is… therefore
EFFECTCAUSE The first cause ofshynessmay be a child’s home or family life. CAUSEEFFECT In Japan, an individual’s performance success is credited externally to parents, grandparents, teachers, coaches, and others, while failure is entirely blamed on the person. Therefore,Japanese learn not to take risks in public and rely instead on group-shared decisions. [In Israel] Failure is attributed to parents, teachers, coaches, friends, anti-Semitism, and other sources, while all performance success is credited to the individual’s enterprise. The consequence is thatIsraelis are free to take risks. Everyone texts, e-mails, and converses in online chat rooms. As a result,people have less opportunity to socialise in person, become increasing awkward at it, and eventually start avoiding it altogether.
EFFECTCAUSE Israelis are free to take riskssincethere is nothing to lose by trying and everything to gain. The rising numbers of shy young people may be due in part togrowing dependence on non-human forms of communication Adults, too, are becoming more isolated as a result oftechnology. Face-to-face interactions are no longer necessary becausepeople can use machines. Others become shyas a result oftheir experiences in life. CAUSEEFFECT Because oftheir lack of social skillsthey (children in single- parent homes) may begin to feel socially inhibited, or shy, when they start school. Because ofTheir tendency towards criticism, Shy people are often high achievers.
Word / PhraseNumber of sentences? Noun phrase or Clause? because1C as a result of1NP is due to1NP as a result,2C since1C the consequence is that…2C because of1N the first cause of… is…1N therefore2C
CAUSE SIGNAL WORDS & EXPRESSIONS Coordinators: after a comma, before a clause, only possible between two clauses - For Subordinators: no comma, before a clause, possible at the beginning or middle of two clauses - Because - Since - As Others - Result from / Be the result of (verb phrases) - Due to / Because of / As a result of / As a consequence of (no comma, before a noun phrase, possible at the beginning or middle of a sentence) - The effect of / The consequence of (at the start of a sentence, followed by a cause and then the effect)
EFFECT SIGNAL WORDS & EXPRESSIONS Transition words and phrases: start a new sentence and are followed by a clause - as a result, as a consequence, therefore, thus, consequently, hence, because of this, due to this Coordinators: in the middle of two clauses - so Others - Result in / cause / have an effect on / affect (verb phrases) - the cause of / the reason for (use in the structure X NOUN PHRASE is the cause of Y NOUN PHRASE) - thereby (most frequently used in front of –ing phrases, thereby follows a comma at the end of a cause clause)