2“A positive attitude may not solve all your problems, but it will annoy enough people to make it worth the effort.” – Herm Albright
3ObjectivesExplain the importance of skin analysis and client consultation.Understand contraindications and the use of health- screening forms to safely perform facial treatments.List and describe various skin types and conditions.Describe different types of products used in facial treatments.
4Objectives (continued) Perform a client consultation.Identify the various types of massage movements and their physiological effects.Describe the basic types of electrical equipment used in facial treatments.Identify the basic concepts of electrotherapy and light therapy techniques.LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)With the aging of the baby boomer generation, our society has grown more interested than ever before in the health and beauty of skin. The sale of skin care and grooming products for both men and women has become a multimillion-dollar-per-year business. With the purchase and use of skin care products comes the need for professional advice and services to ensure optimum results. Almost everyone wants to have an attractive appearance, which includes healthy, natural-looking skin. It takes more than just makeup to accomplish that. Massages will help keep the skin smooth and fresh and the muscles firm.Massage is the scientific method of manipulating the head and body by rubbing, kneading, tapping, or stroking with the hands to exercise muscles, maintain muscle tone, and stimulate circulation.The term massage is of Arabic origin from the word masa, meaning "to stroke" or "to touch." The therapeutic benefits of massage were used and enjoyed in ancient Greece and are enjoyed more than ever today with the proliferation of licensed massage therapists. As cosmetologists, you will have the opportunity to give your clients massages in a variety of ways. A relaxing, stimulating facial or scalp massage will inspire client confidence in you and ensure repeat business. A firm massage given with flexible hands will ensure that your manicure and pedicure clients receive the ultimate benefit from the service.Your massage manipulations may be accompanied by the use of therapeutic lamps, high-frequency current, facial steamers, heating caps, scalp steamers, facial steamers, or vibrators. Remember to keep your hands soft by using creams, oils, and lotions. It is also important that you keep your nails smooth and not too long to avoid scratching your client’s skin.No matter how the benefits of a service are stressed, unless it is pleasurable to the client, the need and demand for the service will decline. A service accompanied by a good massage will endear you to your clients for years to come.
5Skin Analysis and Consultation Analysis determines skin type, skin condition, and needed treatment.Consultation allows you to ask questions about client’s health and skin care history, and to advise client about needed home-care regimen.
6Health ScreeningUsed to determine if client has any contraindications that might prevent skin treatments
8Contraindications (continued) Use of oral steroidsAutoimmune diseases such as lupusDiabetesUse of blood thinnersObvious skin abnormalitiesWhen in doubt, don’t!Use of oral steroids: Avoid stimulating or exfoliating treatment or waxing.Autoimmune diseases such as lupus: Avoid any harsh or stimulating treatments.Diabetes: Diabetics heal slowly; get physician’s approval before treatment.Use of blood thinners: Avoid extraction or waxing.Obvious skin abnormalities: Open sores or fever blisters (herpes simplex) should be referred to a physician.When in doubt, don’t perform the facial.
9Health-Screening Form Client dataClient occupationMedical conditionsMedications takenHome-care regimenHow referred to youHEALTH SCREENING FORM: This form allows you to obtain additional important information from the client.Client data, such as name, address, and phone numberClient occupationMedical conditions that might affect treatmentMedications used, including topical drugs for skinHome-care regimen of products clients are usingHow client heard about you, which allows you to recognize a client who referred or how to focus your advertising (Figure 22–2)
10Treatment Records Kept separate from health forms Include client’s personal information, results of analysis, observations, retail products purchased, treatment dates.
11Analysis Procedure Read form; discuss questions. Put on smock. Seat client.Drape hair.Remove jewelry.Recline client.Warm cleanser and apply.Apply cotton eye pads.ANALYSIS PROCEDURE1. Read health-screening form. Discuss questions with client.2. Have client change into smock.3. Seat client in chair.4. Drape client. Use hair cap, headband, or towels.5. Have client remove jewelry.6. Recline client in chair.7. Warm cleansing milk and apply with an upward circular movement. Cleanse eye area with eye makeup remover. Use damp facial sponges or cotton pads.8. Apply cotton eye pads to client’s eyes.
12Determine Skin Type Examine with magnifying lamp. Observe visible pores.Obvious pores = oily skinLack of pores = dry, or alipidic, skinDETERMINE SKIN TYPE: Skin type is determined by how oily or dry the skin is. Skin type is hereditary and cannot be permanently changed with treatment. Skin conditions are characteristics of the skin associated with a particular skin type.Look through magnifying lamp.Observe pore size. The amount of sebum produced by the sebaceous glands determines the size of the pores and is hereditary. Obvious pores indicate oily skin; lack of pores indicates dry (alipidic) skin.
13Skin TypesSKIN TYPESALIPIDIC: Alipidic means “lack of liquids.” Alipidic skin becomes dehydrated (or dry) because it does not produce enough sebum to prevent the evaporation of cell moisture.OILY: Oily skin produces too much sebum and has large pores. Skin appears shiny or even greasy. Pores may be clogged from dead cells building up in hair follicles. Open comedones (blackheads) may be present. Open comedones are a mixture of solidified sebum and dead cell buildup stuck in the follicles. Closed comedones are small bumps just underneath the skin surface. The difference between closed and open comedones is the size of the follicle opening or ostium. (See Table 22–1.)NORMAL: Normal skin has even pore distribution. It is very soft with a smooth surface and lacks wrinkles. Normal skin is unusual.COMBINATION DRY: In combination dry skin, the pores are obvious down the center of the face. The outer edges of the face have pores that are not visible or become smaller.COMBINATION OILY: In combination oily skin, there is a wider distribution of large pores down the center of the face that extends to the outer cheeks. Pores become smaller toward the edges of the face.ACNE: Acne is considered a skin type because it is hereditary. With acne, the pores are very large in all areas. There is a presence of numerous open and closed comedones, clogged pores, and red papules and pustules (pimples).
14Analysis of Skin Conditions DehydrationHyperpigmentationSensitive skinRosaceaDilated capillaries (telangiectasias, couperose)Aging skinSun-damaged skinANALYISIS OF SKIN CONDITIONS. Conditions are generally treatable, not hereditary, and associated with a particular skin type.DEHYDRATION: Indicated by flaky areas or skin that wrinkles easily on the surface. Gently pinching the skin surface may result in the formation of many fine lines. Dehydrated skin may be caused by lack of care, improper skin care products, sun exposure, and so on. Treat by using hydrators appropriate for skin type.HYPERPIGMENTATION: Dark blotches of color. Usually caused by sun exposure or hormone imbalances. Use of mild exfoliants and sunscreen and avoidance of sun exposure can help.SENSITIVE SKIN: Has a thin, red-pink look. Skin turns red and is easily inflamed by skin care products. Avoid use of strong products.Rosacea: A chronic hereditary disorder that can be indicated by constant or frequent facial blushing.Dilated capillaries: Also known as telangiectasias or couperose. Avoid use of treatment that releases heat or stimulates the skin.AGING SKIN: Indicated by loss of elasticity; skin tends to sag in areas around the eyes and jaw line. Wrinkles may appear. Treatments that hydrate and exfoliate improve skin appearance.SUN-DAMAGED SKIN: This skin has been chronically exposed to sun over client’s lifetime. Hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and sagging skin are present.
15Skin Care Products Cleansers Cleansing milk Foaming cleansers Toners (fresheners or astringents)Lower pHRemove excess cleanserHydrate and sootheSKIN CARE PRODUCTS. Most skin care products are designed for specific skin types or conditions. There are two major categories.CLEANSERS: Formulated to cleanse surface of skin and remove makeup.Cleansing milks: Nonfoaming lotions. Designed to cleanse dry and sensitive skin types and remove makeup. Can be applied with hands but must be removed with dampened facial sponges, soft cloth, or cotton pads.Foaming cleansers: Wash-off products; contain surfactants (also known as detergents) that cause the product to foam and rinse easily.TONERS: Also known as fresheners or astringents. Have lower pH; remove excess cleanser; hydrate and soothe. May contain an exfoliating ingredient to help remove dead cells. Some contain higher alcohol content for oilier skin types. They are applied with cotton pads; alcohol-free toners can be sprayed on face.
16ExfoliantsDesigned to exfoliate, or remove excess cells from, the skin surfaceSmoother, clearer skin after dead skin cell removal
17Mechanical Exfoliants Granular scrubs: “bump off” dead cellsGommages: “erase” or roll off dead cellsMicrodermabrasion: uses electronic vacuum sprayMECHANICAL EXFOLIANTS: These work by physically “bumping off” dead cell buildup.Granular scrubsGommages: Gommage is a French word meaning “erase.” Gommages are cream products that are rubbed off, removing dead skin cells through friction.Microdermabrasion: Mechanical exfoliation using a powerful electronic vacuum to spray high-grade microcrystals across the skin through a pressurized wand.
18Chemical Exfoliants Salon alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) exfoliants Require home use for at least two weeks prior to salon applicationCHEMICAL EXFOLIANTS: Contain chemicals that loosen or dissolve dead cell buildup. Popular exfoliating chemicals are alpha hydroxy and beta hydroxy acids, which dissolve the bonds and “intercellular cement” between cells.Alpha hydroxy acid exfoliants: Often referred to as peels. Salon products contain around 20 percent to 30 percent alpha hydroxy acids and shouldn’t be used in the salon unless client has been using a 10 percent product at home for at least two weeks prior to the salon treatment.
19When to Avoid Mechanical Peeling Skin with visible capillariesThin skin that reddens easilyOlder skin if thin and bruises easilySkin being medically treatedAcne-prone skinWHEN TO AVOID MECHANICAL PEELING:Skin with visible capillaries (which indicate fragile blood vessels)Thin skin that reddens easilyOlder skin if it is thin and bruises easilySkin being medically treated with isotretinoin (retinoic acid or Retin-A), azelaic acid, adapalene (Differin), alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), or salicylic acidAcne-prone skin if it has inflamed papules and pustulesCAUTION: You must have hands-on, supervised training before attempting chemical exfoliation treatments.
20Enzyme PeelsUse keratolytic enzymes that dissolve keratin protein in surface cellsDerived from papaya, pineapple, and beef by-products.Cream typePowder typeENZYME PEELS: Use keratolytic enzymes, which speed up the breakdown of keratin (the protein of skin) in surface cells. Enzymes often used in keratolytic enzyme peels are papain, which is derived from the juice of papaya fruit, and pancreatin, which is derived from beef by-products.Cream type: Usually contain papain. They are applied to skin, allowed to dry to a crust, then “rolled” off.Powder type: Powder is mixed with water and applied to face; it does not dry and can even be used during a steam treatment.
21Proper Exfoliation Clogged and oily skin Skin roughness Moisture content and hydrationHyperpigmentationUneven skin colorWrinkles and fine linesPoor elasticityPROPER EXFOLIATION: Proper exfoliation speeds up cell turnover and allows for better penetration of treatment creams and serums and more even application of makeup. Proper exfoliation may improve the appearance of the following skin conditions:Clogged and oily skinSkin roughnessMoisture content and hydrationHyperpigmentationUneven skin colorWrinkles and fine linesPoor elasticity
22Moisturizers Help increase moisture content of skin surface Mixtures of humectants (hydrators/water-binding agents) and emollients (products that hold water in)– Dry skin contains more emollients– Oily skin contains fewer emollientsMOISTURIZERS: Help increase moisture content of skin surface; mixtures of humectants (hydrators/water-binding agents) and emollients (products that hold moisture in).Dry skin: Moisturizers for dry skin use heavier cream and contain more emollients.Oily skin: Moisturizers for oily skin use lotions that contain smaller amounts of emollients.
23Moisturizers (continued) SunscreensNight treatment productsSerums and ampoulesMassage creamsSUNSCREENS: Day protection products and sunscreens are necessary to help prevent premature aging and skin cancers. Daily moisturizers should contain broad-spectrum sunscreens.NIGHT TREATMENT PRODUCTS: Heavier than day products and may contain higher level of conditioning ingredients.SERUMS AND AMPOULES: Concentrated products that contain higher amounts of ingredients; applied under moisturizer or sunscreen.MASSAGE CREAMS: Lubricants to make the skin slippery during massage. They often contain oils or petrolatum.
24Masks Clay-based (oil-absorbing) Cream (contain oils and emollients) Gel (used for sensitive/dehydrated skin)Alginate (often seaweed-based)Paraffin (used with treatment creams)MASKS: Masks are a combination of ingredients for the purpose of toning, tightening, hydrating, and nourishing the skin.Clay-based: Used for oily and combination skin.Cream: Often used for dry skin since they contain oils, emollients, and humectants.Gel: Used for sensitive or dehydrated skin; contain hydrators and soothing ingredients.Alginate: Often seaweed-based. They come in powder form to be mixed with water or serums and form a rubberized texture. Generally used only in the salon.Paraffin: Melted at little more than body temperature before application. They quickly cool to lukewarm temperature and harden to a candlelike consistency. They are used with treatment creams. Eye pads and gauze are used to protect facial and eyebrow hair.
25Masks (continued) Modelage Gauze Modelage: Contain special crystals of gypsum, a plasterlike ingredient. Used with treatment cream. Product hardens on the skin; setting time is about 20 minutes. Beneficial for dry, mature skin or skin that looks dull or lifeless. Massage is not recommended before or after modelage masks.Gauze: Gauze is a thin, open-meshed fabric of loosely woven cotton. It holds the mask on the face while allowing ingredients to seep through and benefit the skin. Gauze should be cut in a size to fit the entire face, with cutouts for the nose, mouth, and eyes.
26Consultation CardCONSULTATION CARD. The salon should designate a quiet area for facial treatments and client consultations. The following information should be requested from the client:[This information was basically covered at the beginning of the lesson.]Client’s personal information (name, address, phone number)Client’s occupation and date of birthClient’s medical historyContraindicationsFacial treatment historyProducts being usedHow client was referredObservations (type, condition, abnormalities of skin)
27Facial MassageMassage is the manual or mechanical manipulation of the head or body by rubbing, pinching, kneading, tapping, and other movements to increase metabolism and circulation, promote absorption, and relieve pain.
28Practitioner Qualities Knowledge of anatomy and physiologyFirm and sure touchFlexible handsQuiet temperamentSelf-controlFiled and shaped nailsPRACTITIONER QUALITIESAnatomy and physiology knowledgeFirm and sure touchFlexible hands (soften with creams, oils, and lotions)Quiet temperamentSelf-controlFiled and shaped nailsAs a licensed cosmetologist, your services are limited to certain areas of the body. Deep muscle and tissue massage and lymph drainage should be performed by therapists specializing in these areas.NOTE: Please research those areas in your state and make sure students understand which body areas they are allowed to massage.
29Basic Massage Begin at insertion. Move toward origin. BASIC MASSAGE. The impact of massage treatment depends on the pressure, direction of movements, and duration of each manipulation.Begin at insertion. Insertion is the point where the muscle is attached to another muscle or to a movable bone or joint.Move toward origin. The origin is the fixed attachment on one end of the muscle, bone, or tissue. Massaging in wrong direction can result in loss of resiliency and sagging of skin and muscles.
30Massage Manipulations EffleuragePetrissageFullingMASSAGE MANIPULATIONSEFFLEURAGE: Light, continuous, stroking movement applied with fingers or palms in a slow, rhythmic manner; no pressure is used; palms work large surfaces; cushions (not ends) of fingertips work small surfaces (such as around eyes). Frequently used on forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulders, neck, chest, arms, and hands for its soothing and relaxing effects. Every massage should begin and end with effleurage.PETRISSAGE: A kneading movement performed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing the tissue with a light, firm pressure. Petrissage offers deeper stimulation to the muscles, nerves, and skin glands; improves circulation; usually limited to back, shoulders, and arms.Digital kneading can be done on cheeks with light pinching movements. Pressure is light but firm; movements should be rhythmic, not jerky.FULLING: Form of petrissage wherein tissue is grasped, gently lifted, and spread out; used mostly for arms. With fingers of both hands grasping the arm, a kneading movement is applied across the flesh; light pressure is used on the underside of the client’s forearm and between shoulder and elbow.
31Massage Manipulations FrictionChuckingRollingWringingTapotement (percussion)HackingFRICTION: Deep rubbing movement; pressure is applied on skin with fingers or palm while moving it over an underlying structure. Benefits circulation and glandular activity on skin; usually used on scalp, arms, and hands; light circular movements are used on face and neck. Chucking, rolling, and wringing are variations of friction and are used principally to massage the arms and legs.Chucking: Accomplished by grasping the flesh firmly in one hand and moving the hand up and down along the bone while other hand keeps arm or leg in a steady position.Rolling: Tissues are pressed and twisted using a fast back-and-forth movement.Wringing: Vigorous movement in which hands, placed a little distance apart on both sides of client’s arm or leg and working downward, apply a twisting motion against bones in opposition direction.TAPOTEMENT (PERCUSSION): Consists of short, quick tapping, slapping, and hacking movements; most stimulating and should be applied with care and discretion; tones muscles and imparts healthy glow. In facial massage, use only light digital tapping. In slapping movement, keep wrists flexible and lift flesh slightly with each slapping stroke.Hacking: Chopping movement performed with edges of hands (like karate chop); both wrists and hands move alternately in fast, light, firm, and flexible motions against skin. Used only on back, shoulders, and arms.
32Massage Manipulations (continued) VibrationVIBRATION: Rapid shaking of body part while balls of fingertips are pressed firmly on point of application; accomplished by rapid muscular contractions in arms. Highly relaxing and should be applied at end of massage. Deep vibration, when combined with other massage movements, can be produced with a mechanical vibrator to stimulate blood circulation and increase muscle tone.CAUTION: Do not massage a client with high blood pressure or a heart condition, or a client who has had a stroke. If client has arthritis, be careful to avoid vigorous massage of joints. Maintain constant communication with client during massage and adjust your touch according to his or her needs.
33Physiological Effects of Massage Motor pointsVaried locationsRelaxationPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MASSAGEMOTOR POINTS: Points on the skin over the muscle where pressure or stimulation will cause contraction of the muscle. Every muscle has a motor point.Locations vary due to body structure.Relaxation achieved through light, firm, slow, rhythmic movements, or very slow, light hand vibrations over motor points for a short time.
34Benefits of Massage Skin nourishment Softness and pliability Increased blood circulationGland stimulationStimulated and strengthened muscle fibersSoothed and rested nervesRelieved painACTIVITY: Have students stand and perform the following hand exercises:PLAYING PIANO: Place hands palm down on flat surface; count fingers from thumb to little finger while tapping in rhythm; repeat, starting with little finger and tapping to thumb. Repeat several times.PALM PRESS: Place palms together at chest level (in the praying position); keep together as you bend left wrist as far back as it will go; do same with right wrist; keep bending in rhythm for 20 counts.MASSAGE FINGERS: Start with thumb of left hand and massage all fingers of hand; rub each finger from knuckles to tip, one by one; repeat exercise on right hand.WRIST CIRCLES: Hold clenched hands at chest level; rotate in circular movements at wrists for 20 counts; reverse rotation movements for 20 more counts.
35Facial Equipment Facial steamer Brushing machine Skin suction/cold sprayFACIAL EQUIPMENT. You must have hands-on, supervised experience and training before using equipment.FACIAL STEAMER: Steaming softens tissues.BRUSHING MACHINE: A rotating electric appliance with interchangeable brushes that can be attached to the rotating head. Heads come in different sizes and textures. Avoid brushing on clients using keratolytic drugs, or on those with rosacea, sensitive skin, pustular acne, or other skin inflammation.SKIN SUCTION/COLD SPRAY: Used to increase circulation and to jet-spray lotions and toners onto the skin. Often used to hydrate skin or remove mask treatments. Do not use on sensitive or inflamed skin.
36Electrotherapy and Light Therapy Types of electrotherapy: galvanic, high-frequencyNot to be used on clients with metal implants, pacemakers, heart disease, epilepsy, pregnancy, high blood pressure, fever, infection, insufficient nerve sensibility, open or broken skin, fear of the procedure
37ElectrodeAn applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the client’s skinGalvanic machinesAnode: positiveCathode: negative
38Galvanic CurrentDesincrustation: softens and emulsifies hardened sebum stuck in hair folliclesIontophoresis: penetrates water-soluble products that contain ions into the skin
39MicrocurrentA type of galvanic treatment that uses a very low level of electrical current. It has many applications in skin care and is best known for helping to tone the skin, producing a lifting effect for aging skin that lacks elasticity.
40High FrequencyAn electrode is an applicator for directing electric current from machine to client’s skin.– Direct application: applied directly to skin– Indirect application: client holds electrodeDiscovered by Nikola Tesla; used to stimulate blood flow and help penetrate products; can be used for acne-prone skin because of its germicidal effectHIGH FREQUENCY: Also called Viennese massage.
41Light TherapyInfrared lamps: used to heat skin and increase blood flowLight-emitting diode (LED): used to heal, minimize redness, warm lower-level tissues, stimulate blood flow, help acne-prone skin
42MicrodermabrasionA type of mechanical exfoliation that involves shooting aluminum oxide or other crystals at the skin with a hand- held device that exfoliates dead cellsProduces fast, visible resultsTreats surface wrinkles and aging skinRequires extensive training
43Facial Treatments Perservative: maintain health of facial skin Corrective: correct some skin conditions such as dryness, oiliness, comedones, aging lines, and minor conditions of acne
44Facial Treatment Guidelines Speak quietly and professionally.Explain benefits and answer questions.Provide quiet atmosphere.Maintain clean environment.Follow systematic procedures.Warm hands.Keep nails smooth and short.Analyze skin.
45Special Problems Dry skin: caused by insufficient flow of sebum Oily skin: caused by hardened masses of sebum in sebaceous glandsLimited measures for acne: reducing oiliness; working under medical supervisionSPECIAL PROBLEMS.DRY SKIN: Caused by an insufficient flow of sebum from the sebaceous glands. Facial for dry skin will help correct this condition.OILY SKIN: Characterized by comedones, which are caused by hardened masses of sebum formed in the ducts of the sebaceous glands (sometimes requires medical attention).LIMITED MEASURES FOR ACNE: Generally, the cosmetologist is limited to skin cleansing, reducing oiliness by local applications, removing comedones, and using special medicated preparations.
46Consultation and Home Care Conduct in well-lighted area with mirror.Educate client about at-home and salon procedures.Organize products for retail and explain each.CONSULTATION AND HOME CAREHome care is probably the most important factor in a successful skin care program. The key word here is “program.” Clients’ participation is essential to achieve results. A program consists of a long-range plan involving home care, salon treatments, and client education.Every new client should be thoroughly consulted about home care for his or her skin conditions. After the first treatment, block out about 30 minutes to explain the proper home care for the client.After the treatment is finished, sit the client up in the facial chair, or invite him or her to move to a well-lighted consultation area. A mirror should be provided for the client, so that he or she can see conditions you will be discussing.Explain, in simple terms, the client’s skin conditions, informing him or her about how you propose to treat the conditions. Inform the client about how often treatments should be administered in the salon, and state very specifically what he or she should be doing at home.You should organize the products you want the client to purchase and use. Explain the use of each one at a time, in the order of use. Make sure to have written instructions for the client to take home.It is very important to have products available for the client that you believe in and that you have seen produce results. Retailing products for clients to use at home is very important for success in treatment and in your business.
47AromatherapyUse of essential oils that improves the efficacy of many skin care preparationsEnhances physical, emotional, and mental well-beingAROMATHERAPYThe therapeutic use of essential oils such as lemon verbena, rosemary, and rose has greatly improved the efficacy of many skin care preparations. Many essential oils are also used for their aromatherapy benefits to enhance a person’s physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being.Essential oils can be used in a variety of ways. Lighting a cinnamon candle in the winter can give the salon a cozy feeling, and cheer up both clients and service givers. You can use a spray bottle to diffuse well-diluted essential oils in the treatment room or on the sheets. For a more balanced massage, you can create your own aromatherapy massage oil by adding a few drops of essential oil to a massage oil, cream, or lotion.CAUTION: Aromatherapy is sometimes used as a healing modality by natural healers who have received extensive training in the properties and uses of essential oils and their aromatherapy benefits. Cosmetologists must never attempt to perform healing treatments with aromatherapy.
48Practical Class Facial Manipulations Chest, Back, Neck Manipulations Basic FacialFacial for Dry SkinFacial for Oily SkinFacial for Acne-Prone SkinPRACTICAL CLASSNOTE: Explain to the class the location and time of the practical class. Hand out the procedure sheets found at the end of this lesson plan and have the students follow along as you review each procedure. Have the students put the sheets away when you begin your demonstration or present the applicable Milady DVD (for more consistency), as the handouts will be a distraction from the demonstration.
49Summary and ReviewExplain skin analysis techniques and why they are important.What is a contraindication? List at least five examples.Why is it important to have every client complete a health-screening questionnaire?SUMMARY AND REVIEWThere are several basic manipulations used in massage by the cosmetologist. Each is equally important and is applied in a definite way for a particular purpose. The manipulations must be used according to the client’s condition and the desired results. As you have learned in this lesson, the results of massage treatments depend upon the amount of pressure, the direction of the movement, and the duration of each type of manipulation.Never provide massage to a client with high blood pressure or a heart condition, or to a client who has had a stroke.Massages should also not be performed on diseased, broken, bruised, or scraped skin, or on skin that is extremely inflamed with acne. As always, practicing all applicable sanitary precautions and standards is essential when applying massage techniques.1. Explain skin analysis techniques and why they are important.Answer: Skin analysis is important because it determines what skin type the client has, the condition of the skin, and what type of treatment the client’s skin needs.Techniques include: looking through magnifying lamp at client’s skin; looking for presence or absence of visible pores; looking for flaky or dry skin; looking for skin that may appear shiny or greasy; looking for clogged pores; identifying open or closed comedones and the presence of pimples.2. What is a contraindication? List at least five examples.Answer: A contraindication is a condition the client has or a treatment the client is undergoing that might cause a negative side effect during the facial treatment.Examples include: use of Accutane or skin-thinning or exfoliating drugs; pregnancy; metal bone pins or plates in the body; pacemakers; allergies; seizures or epilepsy; use of topical or oral steroids; autoimmune diseases such as lupus; diabetes; blood thinners; skin abnormalities such as open sores or blisters.3. Why is it important to have every client complete a health-screening questionnaire?Answer: So that the practitioner can identify and determine any contraindication the client might have that might indicate the need to avoid certain types of treatment on that particular client’s skin.
50Summary and Review (continued) Describe the differences between alipidic and oily skin.What is the difference between skin type and skin condition?Name and explain the different categories of skin care products.4. Describe the differences between alipidic and oily skin.Answer: Alipidic means “lack of lipids,” or that the skin is not producing enough sebum. It is referred to as dry skin. Oily skin produces too much sebum and has large pores; the skin may appear shiny or greasy.5. What is the difference between skin type and skin condition?Answer: Skin type is how oily or dry the skin is. Skin condition refers to the state or condition of the skin that is treatable, such as dehydration or hyperpigmentation.6. Name and explain the different categories of skin care products.Answer: The different categories of skin care products are:Cleansers: Designed to clean surface of the skin.Toners: Designed to lower the pH of the skin after cleansing.Exfoliants: Designed to remove excess dead cells from the skin surface.Enzyme peels: Designed to dissolve keratin protein in the surface cells.Moisturizers: Designed to help increase the moisture content of the skin surface.Sunscreens: Designed to shield the skin from exposure to the sun.Night treatments: Designed to treat specific skin problems.Serums or ampoules: Concentrated products containing higher amounts of ingredients affecting skin appearance.Massage creams: Lubricants that make the skin slippery during massage.Masks: Products applied for a short time that have immediate effects.
51Summary and Review (continued) What are the steps to completing a client consultation?Why is massage used during a facial?Name and briefly describe the five categories of massage manipulations.7. What are the steps to completing a client consultation?Answer:Moving the client to a quiet place that is conducive to discussing personal information.Asking questions and further completing the client intake form.Writing down personal information about the client, such as contact information and products he or she has used.Recommending home-care and maintenance products.– Determine the client’s skin type.– Discuss and decide on a treatment/service plan.8. Why is massage used during a facial?Answer: Massage increases metabolism and circulation, promotes absorption, and relieves pain. Cosmetologists massage their clients to help them keep their facial skin healthy and their muscles firm.9. Name and briefly describe the five categories of massage manipulations.Effleurage: Light, continuous stroking movement.Petrissage: Kneading movement by lifting, squeezing, and pressing tissue with a light, firm pressure.Friction: Deep rubbing movement with pressure from the fingers or palm over an underlying structure.Tapotement (percussion): Short, quick tapping, slapping, or hacking movements.Vibration: A rapid shaking of the body part while the balls of the fingertips are pressed firmly on the point of application.
52Summary and Review (continued) Name and describe two types of electrical machines used in facial treatments and explain why these machines add value to a facial.Who is not a good candidate for electrical current treatment? why?How can aromatherapy be used in the basic facial?10. Name and describe two types of electrical machines used in facial treatments and explain why these machines add value to a facial.Answer: Two types of electrical machines used in facials are a facial steamer, which produces a stream of warm steam that can be focused on the client's face or other areas of skin to soften the tissue, and a brushing machine, which is a rotating electric appliance with interchangeable brushes that can be attached to the rotating head.These machines help to increase the efficacy of products, increase product penetration, and provide for a more complete and relaxing treatment for clients.11. Who is not a good candidate for electrical current treatment? Why?Answer: Someone with metal implants (electrical current could affect metal); someone with a pacemaker or heart condition (heart and pacemaker rhythms can be affected by electrical current); someone with epilepsy (electrical current could trigger seizure); someone with high blood pressure (general safety precaution); someone who is pregnanty (general safety precaution); someone with open or broken skin or a pustular acne condition (could cause discomfort); someone who is afraid of electrical current.12. How can aromatherapy be used in the basic facial?Answer: Aromatherapy can be used as a benefit to enhance a person's physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being during a facial. Aromatherapy can be used by lighting a scented candle, or as an additive to a spray bottle to diffuse well-diluted essential oils in the treatment room or on the sheets. For a more balanced massage, you can create your own aromatherapy massage oil by adding a few drops of essential oil to a massage oil, cream, or lotion.
53You have completed one unit of study toward course completion. Congratulations!You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.