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Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency The Threat Landscape – A U.S. Perspective March 13, 2014 CSIT 2014 Belfast, Northern Ireland Douglas.

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Presentation on theme: "Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency The Threat Landscape – A U.S. Perspective March 13, 2014 CSIT 2014 Belfast, Northern Ireland Douglas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency The Threat Landscape – A U.S. Perspective March 13, 2014 CSIT 2014 Belfast, Northern Ireland Douglas Maughan Division Director

2 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Presentation Outline  Threat Space  The Human Challenge  Top Technical / Policy Challenges  Critical Infrastructure Security  Software Assurance  Mobile Device (and App) Security  Distributed Denial of Service Defenses  Cyber-Physical Systems  Cybersecurity Workforce  Legal and Ethical R&D  Summary 2

3 Environment: Greater Use of Technology, More Threats, Less Resources Globalization & Transportation Natural Disasters & Pushing Beyond Design Limits Misuse of Technology Border Security & Immigration Cyber Domain LESS RESOURCESLESS RESOURCES MORE THREATS Violent Extremism Nature of Innovation Both sides get to innovate Predictive & Reactive Aviation as an example … Low cost of entry Strategic potential Anywhere in the world in 24 hours Historical Perspective Tenuous balance Insider Threat

4 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003  Malware – Malicious software to disrupt computers  Viruses, worms, …  Theft of Intellectual Property or Data  Hactivism – Cyber protests that are socially or politically motivated  Mobile Devices and Applications and their associated Cyber Attacks  Social Engineering – Entice users to click on Malicious Links  Spear Phishing – Deceptive communications ( s, Texts, Tweets)  Domain Name System (DNS) Hijacking  Router Security – Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Hijacking  Denial of Service (DOS) – blocking access to web sites  Others ….. Cyber Threats and Sources 4 Nation States Cyber Criminals Hackers/Hacktivists Insider Threats Terrorists, DTOs, etc.

5 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Cyberspace Definitions “Cyberspace is [our nation’s critical infrastructures’] nervous system—the control system of our country. Cyberspace is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, and fiber optic cables that allow our critical infrastructures to work.” National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, 2003 “Cyberspace means the interdependent network of IT infrastructures, and includes the internet, telecomms networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers in critical industries” NSPD 54, 8 Jan 2008 “A cyber environment includes users, networks, devices, all software, processes, information in storage or transit, applications, services, and systems that can be connected directly or indirectly to networks. International Telecommunications Union X.1205, Overview of Cybersecurity, Oct 2008 “The terms cyber security and information assurance refer to measures for protecting computer systems, networks, and information from disruption or unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction.” Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development, Apr 2006 “The interdependent network of information and communications technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems and networks, and embedded processors and controllers in facilities and industries.” White House Cyberspace Policy Review, May 2009 AND PEOPLE!!!

6 6 Example of a Cyber Intrusion Determined Attacker 1.Targeted Phishing 2.User clicks on link to hostile website or opens attachment 3.Infected computer beacons to attacker and waits for commands 4.Attacker takes direct control of remote machine inside encrypted session All traffic over common ports (25, 80, 443) 5.Attacker compromises administrator credentials 6.Attacker move laterally through the network, compromising additional machines and searches for desired information 7.Targeted information is packaged and exfiltrated 8.Infected machines sit idle and wait for further instructions or remove evidence of intrusion Unique IPs used for each attack phase

7 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Presentation Outline  Threat Space  The Human Challenge  Top Technical / Policy Challenges  Critical Infrastructure Security  Software Assurance  Mobile Device (and App) Security  Distributed Denial of Service Defenses  Cyber-Physical Systems  Cybersecurity Workforce  Legal and Ethical R&D  Summary 7

8 Cybersecurity for the 16 Critical Infrastructure Sectors  Business / Personal  Shopping & Banking Point of Sale (in store/on line) – See “Target”, for example  Personal  Social Media  … DHS provides advice and alerts to the 16 critical infrastructure areas … … DHS collaborates with sectors through Sector Coordinating Councils (SCC) X X 8

9 Homeland Security Office of Cybersecurity and Communications Executive Order (EO) on Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity/ Policy Presidential Directive (PPD) on Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Executive Order 13636: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity directs the Executive Branch to:  Develop a technology-neutral voluntary cybersecurity framework  Promote/incentivize adoption of cybersecurity practices  Increase the volume, timeliness and quality of cyber threat information sharing  Incorporate strong privacy and civil liberties protections into every initiative to secure our critical infrastructure  Explore existing regulation to promote cyber security Presidential Policy Directive-21: Critical Infrastructure  Security and Resilience replaces Homeland Security Presidential Directive-7 and directs the Executive Branch to: –Develop a situational awareness capability that addresses both physical and cyber aspects of how infrastructure is functioning in near-real time –Understand cascading consequences of infrastructure failures –Evaluate and mature the public-private partnership –Update the National Infrastructure Protection Plan –Develop comprehensive research and development plan 9 “America must also face the rapidly growing threat from cyber attacks… That’s why, earlier today, I signed a new executive order that will strengthen our cyber defenses by increasing information sharing, and developing standards to protect our national security, our jobs, and our privacy.” President Barack Obama, 2013 State of the Union Credit: White House / Pete Souza

10 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Software Assurance 10 “Software is everywhere, and WE ALL ARE VULNERABLE. Market pressures are forcing early release of untested software.” According to Trustwave’s “2013 Global Security Report,” SQL injections accounted for 26% of the infiltration methods used by hackers in the data breaches it analyzed in % of the infiltration methods

11 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 More Software Numbers Poor software quality has become one of the most expensive topics -- $150 + billion/yr. and $500+ billon/yr. worldwide Source: Capers Jones Software failures account for 24% of all medical device recalls Source: Threatpost via FDA Study NIST study suggests that software errors cost US economy an estimated $59.5 billion annually, of which 1/3 of costs or $22.2 billion could be removed with improved software quality testing and tools

12 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Software Evolution 12 Codebases are HUMONGOUS Common software applications – some apps scale near 60 MLOC Software Assurance tools typically can’t scale this amount of code Codebase size contributes to code complexity More features, usually means more code Spaghetti code typically results in poor quality of code 50 MLOC

13 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Software Evolution DPL DL DPL Every year we release data on the "Most Popular Programming Languages" based on thousands of data points we've collected by processing over 100,000+ coding tests and challenges by over 2,000+ employers – CodeEval For the third year in a row, Python retains it's #1 dominance followed by Java, C++, and Javascript. This year's most noticeable changes were a 300% increase in Objective-C submissions, a 100% surge in C#, as well as a 33% increase in Javascript submissions while PHP lost -55%, Perl dropped -16%, and Java shrank -14%.

14 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 SWAMP Vision Document VISION pdf ”The Software Assurance Marketplace has been carefully constructed, developed and implemented with community feedback. It is with this approach we expect the SWAMP to be a revolutionizing force in the software assurance community for years to come. A software assurance marketplace is a great place for the community to meet for research collaboration and technical exchange. The concept of the marketplace has influenced and shaped the vision outlined in this document – ideally the vision is to provide a unique set of services and capabilities that can be leveraged by the community, creating a collaborative marketplace for continuous assurance.” Kevin E. Greene, DHS S&T Software Assurance Program Manager

15 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Mobile Device Growth 15 Desktop PC Portable PC Tablet Smartphone # Units Shipped (millions) 2012 Total: 1, (Projected) Total: 2,

16 Presenter’s Name June 17, Mobile Threats / Vuln’s 16 Source: t.jsp?om_ext_cid=biz_socmed_twitter_facebook_marketwire_linkedi n_2013Apr_worldwide_ISTR18 t.jsp?om_ext_cid=biz_socmed_twitter_facebook_marketwire_linkedi n_2013Apr_worldwide_ISTR18

17 Presenter’s Name June 17, Mobile App Testing 17 TESTING RESULTS 50 POPULAR MOBILE APPS, IOS/ANDROID % With Issues 100% ~80% ~30% ~50% ~15% Stored Username Stored Password Medium or High Risk Failed MITM Stored Username Stored Password Other Risks Failed MiTM

18 Presenter’s Name June 17, DDoS Attacks 101 Command and Control: Nation State, Criminal Organization, Hactivist groups, etc. Victim is overwhelmed. Examples include: Gbps traffic to 10 Gbps access link - Millions of requests to server designed for thousands s of 911 calls to a system designed for hundreds Both brute force and clever ways to overwhelm the target Control Over Vast Number of Compromised Devices: Desktops, laptops, and even refrigerators! Attack traffic originated from multiple locations throughout the Internet

19 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Threat: DDOS Volume 19 Challenge: shift advantage in DDoS events toward defense Distributed Denial of Service attacks render key systems and resources unavailable, effectively denying users access to the service Current Advantage Favors Attackers: Attack resources are cheap compromised machines while defense requires provisioning Attackers easily cross boundaries while defense requires cross-organization collaboration NY Times: Attacks used the internet against itself to clog traffic Attack traffic exceeds 400 Gbps! USA Today: Why DDoS attacks continue to bedevil financial firms … adversaries may potentially be nation states … eWeek: DHS, FBI Warn of Denial-of-Service Attacks on Emergency Telephone Systems

20 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Cyber-Physical Systems 20 Cyber Physical Systems Are Becoming Ubiquitous: Smart cars, smart grids, smart medical devices, smart manufacturing, smart homes, and so on You will “bet your life” on many of these systems Fast moving field focusing on functionality now and will bolt on security later… Drones Could Help Tulsa Firefighters During Search, Rescue PPD 21 Identifies critical infrastructure as “interdependent functions and systems in both the physical space and cyberspace” and aims to strengthen security and resilience “against both the physical and cyber attacks” Just like the Internet in its early days, car networks don’t employ very much security” Opportunity Now To Build Security Into Emerging Cyber Physical Designs  Transportation  Auto, UAVs, Aeronautical, Rail  Manufacturing  Healthcare  Energy  Agriculture  Emergency Response

21 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003   II.C.1 U.S. DHS S&T Homeland Security Advanced Research Project Agency (HSARPA)  DHS S&T encourages R&D in cybersecurity to enhance the resilience of critical information infrastructure.  HSARPA has particular interests in security technologies relevant to cyber-physical systems. The NITRD CPS Senior Steering Group's 2012 CPS Vision Statement, which notes CPS research gaps, identifies drivers and technologies for CPS related to transportation, emergency response, energy, and healthcare are considered especially relevant for HSARPA. Relevant technologies include cybersecurity approaches for guarding against malicious attacks on CPS as well as diagnostics and prognostics that aim to identify, predict, and prevent or recover from faults.CPS Vision Statement Recent Solicitation 21

22 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Workforce Shortage 22 (Reuters) - For the governments and corporations facing increasing computer attacks, the biggest challenge is finding the right cyber warriors to fight back. Hostile computer activity from spies, saboteurs, competitors and criminals has spawned a growing industry of corporate defenders who can attract the best talent from government cyber units. The U.S. military's Cyber Command is due to quadruple in size by 2015 with 4,000 new personnel while Britain announced a new Joint Cyber Reserve last month. From Brazil to Indonesia, similar forces have been set up. But demand for specialists has far outpaced the number of those qualified to do the job, leading to a staffing crunch as talent is poached by competitors offering big salaries.

23 A N ATIONAL P ROBLEM 23 Enhance public awareness: (1) Augment current messaging to promote policies and practices that support Administration priorities, such as EO and PPD-21, and (2) develop messaging that targets senior executives of critical infrastructure companies (e.g., CEOs, Boards of Directors). Expand the Pipeline: (1) Expand formal education at the post-secondary level, including both four-year and two-year institutions and (2) establish new National Academic Consortiums for Cybersecurity Education (government, colleges/universities, high schools, middle schools, technical academies, industry, professional organizations) Evolve the profession: (1) Identify critical cybersecurity workforce skills through a national cybersecurity Workforce Inventory and Gap Analysis and continued development of Cybersecurity Workforce Forecasting Tools and (2) provide access to free or low-cost training for the identified critical skills. NICE was established in support of the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) – Initiative 8: Expand Cyber Education – Interim Way Forward and is comprised of over 20 federal departments and agencies.

24 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Cybersecurity Education  Cyber Security Competitions (http://nationalccdc.org)  National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE)  NCCDC (Collegiate); U.S. Cyber Challenge (High School)  Provide a controlled, competitive environment to assess a student’s depth of understanding and operational competency in managing the challenges inherent in protecting a corporate network infrastructure and business information systems.  WHY Competitions?  Hands-on approach better than “book learned”; provides opportunities to perform “real world” defense  Measurable – can determine if participants are getting better/smarter  Easier than internships, etc. for younger and minority students  Private sector companies can more easily provide supporting funding 24

25 Who else is supporting these activities? NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP April 25-27, 2014 in San Antonio, TX

26 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003  Menlo Report  Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communications Technology Research (ICTR)  Something similar to the Belmont Report for human subject research (from 1970s)  Respect for Persons  Beneficence  Justice  Respect for Law and Public Interest  Companion Report  21 Case Studies examined Legal and Ethical R&D 26

27 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Summary  Cybersecurity research is a key area of innovation to support our global economic and national security futures  Must focus on the human aspect of cyberspace - education, training, and awareness aspects of our current and future cybersecurity workforce  No shortage of technical challenges  Everyone gets to innovate in their own way  Collaboration is essential; no single government / university / company is going to solve this problem alone  Look at future technical agendas with the most impact for the global community  Need to continue strong emphasis on technology transfer and experimental deployments 27

28 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 For more information, visit Douglas Maughan, Ph.D. Division Director Cyber Security Division Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) /

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30 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Transition To Practice (TTP) Program 30 R&D Sources  DOE National Labs  FFRDC’s (Federally Funded R&D Centers)  Academia  Small Business Transition processes  Testing & evaluation  Red Teaming  Pilot deployments Utilization  Open Sourcing  Licensing  New Companies  Adoption by cyber operations analysts  Direct private- sector adoption  Government use  Implement Presidential Memorandum – “Accelerating Technology Transfer and Commercialization of Federal Research in Support of High-Growth Businesses” (Oct 28, 2011)


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