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Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency

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Presentation on theme: "Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency"— Presentation transcript:

1 Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Threat Landscape – A U.S. Perspective March 13, 2014 CSIT 2014 Belfast, Northern Ireland Douglas Maughan Division Director

2 Presentation Outline Threat Space Top Technical / Policy Challenges
The Human Challenge Top Technical / Policy Challenges Critical Infrastructure Security Software Assurance Mobile Device (and App) Security Distributed Denial of Service Defenses Cyber-Physical Systems Cybersecurity Workforce Legal and Ethical R&D Summary

3 Environment: Greater Use of Technology, More Threats, Less Resources
Globalization & Transportation Anywhere in the world in 24 hours LESS RESOURCES Border Security & Immigration Tenuous balance Violent Extremism Insider Threat Cyber Domain Low cost of entry Strategic potential Both sides get to innovate Aviation as an example … Nature of Innovation Predictive & Reactive Misuse of Technology Historical Perspective Natural Disasters & Pushing Beyond Design Limits MORE THREATS

4 Cyber Threats and Sources
Nation States Malware – Malicious software to disrupt computers Viruses, worms, … Theft of Intellectual Property or Data Hactivism – Cyber protests that are socially or politically motivated Mobile Devices and Applications and their associated Cyber Attacks Social Engineering – Entice users to click on Malicious Links Spear Phishing – Deceptive communications ( s, Texts, Tweets) Domain Name System (DNS) Hijacking Router Security – Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Hijacking Denial of Service (DOS) – blocking access to web sites Others ….. Cyber Criminals Terrorists, DTOs, etc. Insider Threats Hackers/Hacktivists

5 Cyberspace Definitions
“Cyberspace is [our nation’s critical infrastructures’] nervous system—the control system of our country. Cyberspace is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, and fiber optic cables that allow our critical infrastructures to work.” National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, 2003 “Cyberspace means the interdependent network of IT infrastructures, and includes the internet, telecomms networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers in critical industries” NSPD 54, 8 Jan 2008 “The interdependent network of information and communications technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems and networks, and embedded processors and controllers in facilities and industries.” White House Cyberspace Policy Review, May 2009 “The terms cyber security and information assurance refer to measures for protecting computer systems, networks, and information from disruption or unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction.” Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development, Apr 2006 “A cyber environment includes users, networks, devices, all software, processes, information in storage or transit, applications, services, and systems that can be connected directly or indirectly to networks. International Telecommunications Union X.1205, Overview of Cybersecurity, Oct 2008 AND PEOPLE!!!

6 Example of a Cyber Intrusion
All traffic over common ports (25, 80, 443) Determined Attacker Unique IPs used for each attack phase 7 1 2 3 8 4 6 7 5 6 6 6 6 Targeted Phishing User clicks on link to hostile website or opens attachment Infected computer beacons to attacker and waits for commands Attacker takes direct control of remote machine inside encrypted session Attacker compromises administrator credentials Attacker move laterally through the network, compromising additional machines and searches for desired information Targeted information is packaged and exfiltrated Infected machines sit idle and wait for further instructions or remove evidence of intrusion

7 Presentation Outline Threat Space Top Technical / Policy Challenges
The Human Challenge Top Technical / Policy Challenges Critical Infrastructure Security Software Assurance Mobile Device (and App) Security Distributed Denial of Service Defenses Cyber-Physical Systems Cybersecurity Workforce Legal and Ethical R&D Summary

8 Cybersecurity for the 16 Critical Infrastructure Sectors
DHS provides advice and alerts to the 16 critical infrastructure areas … … DHS collaborates with sectors through Sector Coordinating Councils (SCC) X X Business / Personal Shopping & Banking Point of Sale (in store/on line) – See “Target”, for example Personal Social Media

9 Credit: White House / Pete Souza
Executive Order (EO) on Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity/ Policy Presidential Directive (PPD) on Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Executive Order 13636: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity directs the Executive Branch to: Develop a technology-neutral voluntary cybersecurity framework Promote/incentivize adoption of cybersecurity practices Increase the volume, timeliness and quality of cyber threat information sharing Incorporate strong privacy and civil liberties protections into every initiative to secure our critical infrastructure Explore existing regulation to promote cyber security Presidential Policy Directive-21: Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience replaces Homeland Security Presidential Directive-7 and directs the Executive Branch to: Develop a situational awareness capability that addresses both physical and cyber aspects of how infrastructure is functioning in near-real time Understand cascading consequences of infrastructure failures Evaluate and mature the public-private partnership Update the National Infrastructure Protection Plan Develop comprehensive research and development plan Credit: White House / Pete Souza “America must also face the rapidly growing threat from cyber attacks… That’s why, earlier today, I signed a new executive order that will strengthen our cyber defenses by increasing information sharing, and developing standards to protect our national security, our jobs, and our privacy.” President Barack Obama, 2013 State of the Union Executive Order – Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity Facing threats to our nation from cyber attacks, and in the absence of comprehensive legislation, the President issued an Executive Order directing Federal agencies to use their existing authorities and increase cooperation with the private sector to provide better protection for the computer systems that are critical to our national and economic security. In developing the PPD and EO, the Administration sought input from stakeholders of all viewpoints in the private sector, and their concerns have been incorporated. There is also a strong role for State, local, tribal and territorial governments who own a significant portion of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. The Executive Order clears the way for more efficient sharing of cyber threat information with the private sector and directs the establishment of a Cybersecurity Framework to identify and implement better security practices among critical infrastructure sectors. America’s national security and economic prosperity are increasingly dependent upon critical infrastructure that is at risk from a variety of hazards, including attacks via the Internet. Presidential Policy Directive (PPD)-21 Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience To complement the Cyber Security Executive Order, the Administration is also issuing a Presidential Policy Directive on critical infrastructure security and resilience that updates the national approach from Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 (issued in 2003) to adjust to the new risk environment, key lessons learned, and drive toward enhanced capabilities. The PPD directs the government to develop an efficient situational awareness capability that addresses both the physical and cyber implications of an incident. The PPD directs the government to address other information sharing priorities, including updating the information flow to near real-time to respond to the changing risk environment. The PPD also calls for a comprehensive research and development plan for critical infrastructure to guide the government’s effort to enhance market-based innovation.

10 Software Assurance “Software is everywhere, and WE ALL ARE VULNERABLE. Market pressures are forcing early release of untested software.” According to Trustwave’s “2013 Global Security Report,” SQL injections accounted for 26% of the infiltration methods used by hackers in the data breaches it analyzed in 2012.

11 More Software Numbers NIST study suggests that software errors cost US economy an estimated $59.5 billion annually, of which 1/3 of costs or $22.2 billion could be removed with improved software quality testing and tools Poor software quality has become one of the most expensive topics -- $ billion/yr. and $500+ billon/yr. worldwide Software failures account for 24% of all medical device recalls Source: Capers Jones Source: Threatpost via FDA Study

12 Software Evolution Codebases are HUMONGOUS
Common software applications – some apps scale near 60 MLOC Software Assurance tools typically can’t scale this amount of code Codebase size contributes to code complexity More features, usually means more code Spaghetti code typically results in poor quality of code 50 MLOC

13 Software Evolution - 2 DPL DPL DPL DPL DPL DL
Every year we release data on the "Most Popular Programming Languages" based on thousands of data points we've collected by processing over 100,000+ coding tests and challenges by over 2,000+ employers – CodeEval DPL DPL DPL DPL DPL DL For the third year in a row, Python retains it's #1 dominance followed by Java, C++, and Javascript. This year's most noticeable changes were a 300% increase in Objective-C submissions, a 100% surge in C#, as well as a 33% increase in Javascript submissions while PHP lost -55%, Perl dropped -16%, and Java shrank -14%.

14 SWAMP Vision Document ”The Software Assurance Marketplace has been carefully constructed, developed and implemented with community feedback. It is with this approach we expect the SWAMP to be a revolutionizing force in the software assurance community for years to come. A software assurance marketplace is a great place for the community to meet for research collaboration and technical exchange. The concept of the marketplace has influenced and shaped the vision outlined in this document – ideally the vision is to provide a unique set of services and capabilities that can be leveraged by the community, creating a collaborative marketplace for continuous assurance.” Kevin E. Greene, DHS S&T Software Assurance Program Manager

15 Mobile Device Growth Desktop PC Portable PC Tablet Smartphone
# Units Shipped (millions) 2012 Total: 1,201.1 2017 (Projected) Total: 2,250.3 1600 1200 700 200

16 2013 Mobile Threats / Vuln’s

2013 Mobile App Testing TESTING RESULTS 50 POPULAR MOBILE APPS, IOS/ANDROID % With Issues 100% ~80% ~30% ~50% ~15% Stored Username Stored Password Medium or High Risk Failed MITM Stored Username Password Other Risks Failed MiTM

18 DDoS Attacks 101 Victim is overwhelmed. Examples include:
- 400 Gbps traffic to 10 Gbps access link - Millions of requests to server designed for thousands - 1000s of 911 calls to a system designed for hundreds Both brute force and clever ways to overwhelm the target Attack traffic originated from multiple locations throughout the Internet Control Over Vast Number of Compromised Devices: Desktops, laptops, and even refrigerators! Command and Control: Nation State, Criminal Organization, Hactivist groups, etc.

19 Threat: DDOS Volume Distributed Denial of Service attacks render key systems and resources unavailable, effectively denying users access to the service USA Today: Why DDoS attacks continue to bedevil financial firms … adversaries may potentially be nation states … NY Times: Attacks used the internet against itself to clog traffic Attack traffic exceeds 400 Gbps! eWeek: DHS, FBI Warn of Denial-of-Service Attacks on Emergency Telephone Systems Current Advantage Favors Attackers: Attack resources are cheap compromised machines while defense requires provisioning Attackers easily cross boundaries while defense requires cross-organization collaboration Challenge: shift advantage in DDoS events toward defense

20 Cyber-Physical Systems
PPD 21 Identifies critical infrastructure as “interdependent functions and systems in both the physical space and cyberspace” and aims to strengthen security and resilience “against both the physical and cyber attacks” Cyber Physical Systems Are Becoming Ubiquitous: Smart cars, smart grids, smart medical devices, smart manufacturing, smart homes, and so on You will “bet your life” on many of these systems Fast moving field focusing on functionality now and will bolt on security later… Drones Could Help Tulsa Firefighters During Search, Rescue Just like the Internet in its early days, car networks don’t employ very much security” Transportation Auto, UAVs, Aeronautical, Rail Manufacturing Healthcare Energy Agriculture Emergency Response Opportunity Now To Build Security Into Emerging Cyber Physical Designs

21 Recent Solicitation
II.C.1 U.S. DHS S&T Homeland Security Advanced Research Project Agency (HSARPA) DHS S&T encourages R&D in cybersecurity to enhance the resilience of critical information infrastructure. HSARPA has particular interests in security technologies relevant to cyber-physical systems. The NITRD CPS Senior Steering Group's 2012 CPS Vision Statement, which notes CPS research gaps, identifies drivers and technologies for CPS related to transportation, emergency response, energy, and healthcare are considered especially relevant for HSARPA. Relevant technologies include cybersecurity approaches for guarding against malicious attacks on CPS as well as diagnostics and prognostics that aim to identify, predict, and prevent or recover from faults.

22 Workforce Shortage (Reuters) - For the governments and corporations facing increasing computer attacks, the biggest challenge is finding the right cyber warriors to fight back. Hostile computer activity from spies, saboteurs, competitors and criminals has spawned a growing industry of corporate defenders who can attract the best talent from government cyber units. The U.S. military's Cyber Command is due to quadruple in size by 2015 with 4,000 new personnel while Britain announced a new Joint Cyber Reserve last month. From Brazil to Indonesia, similar forces have been set up. But demand for specialists has far outpaced the number of those qualified to do the job, leading to a staffing crunch as talent is poached by competitors offering big salaries.

23 A National Problem Enhance public awareness: (1) Augment current messaging to promote policies and practices that support Administration priorities, such as EO and PPD-21, and (2) develop messaging that targets senior executives of critical infrastructure companies (e.g., CEOs, Boards of Directors). Expand the Pipeline: (1) Expand formal education at the post-secondary level, including both four-year and two-year institutions and (2) establish new National Academic Consortiums for Cybersecurity Education (government, colleges/universities, high schools, middle schools, technical academies, industry, professional organizations) Evolve the profession: (1) Identify critical cybersecurity workforce skills through a national cybersecurity Workforce Inventory and Gap Analysis and continued development of Cybersecurity Workforce Forecasting Tools and (2) provide access to free or low-cost training for the identified critical skills. NICE was established in support of the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) – Initiative 8: Expand Cyber Education – Interim Way Forward and is comprised of over 20 federal departments and agencies.

24 Cybersecurity Education
Cyber Security Competitions ( National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) NCCDC (Collegiate); U.S. Cyber Challenge (High School) Provide a controlled, competitive environment to assess a student’s depth of understanding and operational competency in managing the challenges inherent in protecting a corporate network infrastructure and business information systems. WHY Competitions? Hands-on approach better than “book learned”; provides opportunities to perform “real world” defense Measurable – can determine if participants are getting better/smarter Easier than internships, etc. for younger and minority students Private sector companies can more easily provide supporting funding

25 Who else is supporting these activities?
NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP April 25-27, 2014 in San Antonio, TX

26 Legal and Ethical R&D Menlo Report Companion Report
Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communications Technology Research (ICTR) Something similar to the Belmont Report for human subject research (from 1970s) Respect for Persons Beneficence Justice Respect for Law and Public Interest Companion Report 21 Case Studies examined

27 Summary Cybersecurity research is a key area of innovation to support our global economic and national security futures Must focus on the human aspect of cyberspace - education, training, and awareness aspects of our current and future cybersecurity workforce No shortage of technical challenges Everyone gets to innovate in their own way Collaboration is essential; no single government / university / company is going to solve this problem alone Look at future technical agendas with the most impact for the global community Need to continue strong emphasis on technology transfer and experimental deployments

28 For more information, visit
Douglas Maughan, Ph.D. Division Director Cyber Security Division Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) / For more information, visit


30 Transition To Practice (TTP) Program
R&D Sources DOE National Labs FFRDC’s (Federally Funded R&D Centers) Academia Small Business Transition processes Testing & evaluation Red Teaming Pilot deployments Utilization Open Sourcing Licensing New Companies Adoption by cyber operations analysts Direct private-sector adoption Government use Implement Presidential Memorandum – “Accelerating Technology Transfer and Commercialization of Federal Research in Support of High-Growth Businesses” (Oct 28, 2011)

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