Presentation on theme: "Lesson 12 Lions and tigers and bears. 1. How do you like parks? 2. What does a park provide you with? 3. What is usually related to the parks? I.Warming-up."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 12 Lions and tigers and bears
1. How do you like parks? 2. What does a park provide you with? 3. What is usually related to the parks? I.Warming-up Qs
How do you think of crimes happening in parks? Do you think it is a safe place? If not, what will you do that may help to make it a better place?
If you should happen after dark To find yourself in Central Park, Ignore the paths that beckon you And hurry, hurry to the zoo, And creep into the tiger’s lair. Frankly, you’ll be safer there. Question: What does the poem try to tell us? I.Warming-up Qs
About the text An interesting travel article by Bill Buford for “The New Yorker.” He spent the night in the park and told of his adventures in “Lions and Tigers and Bears.” That piece is included in Best American Travel Writing The author combines his travel description with everything he has read, heard, observed and experience in connection with the place:
his movement in the Central Park, the events and famous people associated with its history, the beauty of New York at night seen from its heart, the crime the park has witnessed and the fear it has inspired. The author writes in an engaging style, varying the pace as well as the tone of this narration with a charming rhythm.
Success Can Be Reached in Different Ways by People in Different Careers. II.Dictation Listen to the passage and fill the missing words.
II.Dictation Different Media LISTEN With the introduction of radio, newspaper publishers wondered how ___________would affect them. Many feared that ____ as a quick and easy means of keeping people ________ would displace the newspaper industry altogether. Others hoped that the brief newscast heard on the air would ________ listeners in the story so they’d buy the paper to get more information. broadcasting radio informed stimulate
This second idea turned out to be _____ to the truth. Radio and print were not __________ for each other but actually supported each other. You see the relationship between different _____ is not always one of ___________ but can be one of _____________. II.Dictation closer substitutes media displacement reinforcement
However this is not always the____. Take television and motion pictures for example, with the _____________of TV, the motion picture industry suffered greatly. Movie _________ dropped when audience members chose to stay at home and be _________. Likewise, when a football game was shown on the air, the _______ were often empty because _____chose to watch the game at home. case popularization attendance entertained stands fans
I.Founding Commissioners of Central Park II.Central Park Location on Manhattan Map III.Central Park History IV.Central Park Background Information
Central Park Central Park in New York City is built in 1857 and located in the center of Manhattan Island. It covers an area of 840 acres and is 2.5 miles long and 0.5 mile wide. There are 35 miles of walks and miles of road and 5.5 miles of bridle path.
Manhattan Map New York’s green rectangle Central Park
the urban wonders of the world, a green oasis in the great concrete, high-rise landscape of New York City Central Park
For most New Yorkers, Central Park is our constant definition of open space, room to run and the romance of reading under a tree. Free and open to the public, Central Park is our citywide campus and our common backyard. “a garden for all as private Eden” Central Park
In Central Park Roller skating has always been a popular recreational pastime. Central Park
Lions Para. 5 The Ramble A bronze sculpture of panther crouched on a rock on the edge of Ramble. His name is Still Hunt. Overlooking the East Drive in Central Park, Still Hunt is a reminder of the smaller animals and birds that can be found in the Park.
Tigress and Cubs Inside the Central Park Wildlife Conservation Center, 64th Street and Fifth Avenue Central Park
Groups of Bears: near Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street Central Park
Dicussion Do you know anything about the bite of China? What do you think attributes to its success? What’s the common way of organizing the travel writing? changing steps and landscapes
酒店处于群山环抱之中，空气清新怡人 ，处处鸟语花香，四季如春，移步换景 。 Surrounded by hills, the hotel feasts on fresh and pleasant air, bird chirps, flower fragrance, a weather that is like spring all the year round, and picturesque sceneries everywhere.
Text structure Part 1 (Paras. ) : Part 2 (Paras. ) : Part 3 (Paras. ) : The author decided to camp in the Central Park. The first or two hours and his feeling and the fear Central Park inspired Central Park history and another scare My sleep over in the wood 1—2 3—63—6 7 — — 25
Detailed study The author’s decision to camp in Central Park: When? Friday evening in July; 9:15 Where? Who? The author
What? To spend the night in the CP Why? Human psychology—wishing to do sth. precisely because it is something people normally don’t do. How? by camping
Detailed Analysis (part 1) Para. 1-2
stuff To stuff sth with sth else: to fill or overfill a container or space with sth She stuffed the fridge with food. She stuffed the food into the fridge. 他满脑子的愚蠢想法. His head is stuffed with silly notions.
Put that stuff over there. Don't give me that stuff about being tired. The team really showed its stuff and won the championship. A stuffed tiger do one's stuff 显身手 kids' stuff 轻而易举的事情
curl Examples: The hairdresser curled Mary’s hair. She kept curling her handkerchief around one finger. Smoke curled from the chimney. A snake curled around the trunk of a tree. v. a) to form into a spiral or curved shape 卷曲，扭曲；缠绕 b) to grow in or form curls or ringlets （烟）缭绕升起；蜷曲
curl up She curled her mouth up in anger. 卷起，撅起（嘴唇）； She curled herself up in the big armchair with a good book. （因恐惧、羞愧、厌恶）使蜷缩，扭曲身体
Without any hesitation, she took off her shoes, _____ up her skirt and splashed across the stream. A.tucked B.revolved C.twisted D.curled Key: A
Drop off to drop off: (infml) to start to sleep; doze off 他总是在上课时打瞌睡。 He always dropped off to sleep in the middle of lecture. Cf: Can you drop me off at a supermarket? Her friends dropped off into the shadows. （逐个）走开，消失；放下，下降，掉 下
drop off the edge of the earth ph. 人间蒸发 drop off the hooks vi. 死
appeal If you want children to work hard you must _____ their interests instead of their sense of duty. A.appeal to B.look into C.give rise to D.go in for Key: A
Generally, it is only when animals are trapped that they _____ to violence in order to escape. A.proceed B.appeal C.resort D.incline Key: C
Founding Commissioners of Central Park Calvert Vaux Frederick Law Olmsted
The founding commissioners: the city officials who were appointed to establish Central Park. Commissioners are officials in government, esp. those in charge of departments. The founding commissioners of Central Park were the landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. The two designed and oversaw the first- phase construction of the Park which began in 1858 and ended in Founding Commissioners of Central Park
Robert Moses (1888—1981) was a New York state and municipal official whose ambitious public works projects of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s transformed the urban landscape of New York City. He expanded the State’s park system and built numerous parkways and hundreds of new playgrounds and parks and important highways, bridges and tunnels linking the boroughs of New York City. Founding Commissioners of Central Park
Moses preferred recreational facilities to the rural scenery stressed by the English Romanticists, and an ordered and symmetrical design in French Renaissance style, evident in the southern Central Park. Therefore, under Moses, Central Park gained 19 playgrounds, 12 ball- fields, handball courts, and the Woll-man Rink.
not to mention / without mentioning 更不必说 ······ ，除 ······ 以外还 We are served French champagne, not to mention the usual cocktails. David is handsome and smart, not to mention being a good athlete.
Detailed Analysis (part 2) Para. 3-6
The Delacorte Theatre The Delacorte Theater is the summer home of the New York Shakespeare Festival. It’s a place to host classical plays and musicals. During June, July and August. Para. 3
The open-air theater in Central Park that serves as home to free summertime performances which, during the months of June, July and August, include at least one Shakespeare production. The summertime performance are one of the New York City’s most beloved cultural events. The Delacorte Theatre Para. 3
The taming of the Shrew was written by Shakespeare in 1591 and probably the earliest of his comedies.
Synopsis Katherina isn’t top of Lucentio’s or Hortensio’s popularity list. Her sister Bianca is. But Bianca isn't on the market until Katherina gets hitched. Enter Petruchio, a Shrew Whisperer, intent on Katherina's dowry. Three men with just two women on their mind. But who will succeed? And who will complete the taming of the shrew?
stock Stock: usually kept in stock and regularly available 常备的 Intensive reading is one of our stock courses. A stock phrase 口头禅
There's a whole _____ of bills waiting to be paid. A. stock B. stack C. number D. sequence Key: B
In view 在能看见的范围内；在考虑中；在注意中 Examples: The sea came in view as we came out of the forest. Dream pursuer has kept his goal in view.
_____ his poor record in school, the board thinks that he should study hard. A. In spite of B. In charge of C. In view of D. In case of Key: C
They came to inspect the house ____ buying it. A. in the event of B. with a view to C. with reference to D. on account of with a view to 意为 “ 以 … 为目标；目的是 …” ，后接动名词； in the event of 意为 “ 如果 … 发生；万一 ” ； with reference to 意为 “ 关于，就 … 而论 ” ； on account of 意为 “ 因为，由于 ” 。
Language and thought may be viewed as two independent circles overlapping in some parts. When language and thought are identical or closely parallel to each other, we may regard thought as “subvocal speech,” and speech as “ _____ ”. A.vocal thought B.subvocal thought C.covert thought D.overt thought Key: D
in view of 鉴于，由于 to the view 在展出 with a view to 以 ······ 为目标 come in view of 出现在 ······ 视线中
come /burst into view （突然）出现在眼前 disappear/be lost from view 看不见了 block/obstruct/shut off/spoil the view 挡住某人的视线
Belvedere Castle Para.3 To the south of Delacorte Theater perched on Visa Rock. As its name suggests, the castle offers visitors a wonderful panoramic viewpoint. It is now home to the Henry Luce Nature Observatory, where simple displays show how naturalists observe the world.
Belvedere Castle Para. 3 Belvedere is Italian for “beautiful view”.
Shakespeare Garden Para. 4 Nestled between the Delacorte Theater, Belvedere Castle, and the Swedish Cottage, it is a garden dedicated to Shakespeare in 1916, the 300th anniversary of his death.
Para. 4 Shakespeare Garden Following a Victorian tradition, only flowers mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays and poetry were planted in the garden. Scattered throughout the garden are bronze plaques with Shakespearean quotations that inspired the planting.
drift out （口）不经意（慢吞吞）走出来，走开， 离开 Example: The smoke pall drifted out to reveal the blackened shell of the building.
The service operates 36 libraries throughout the country, while six ____ libraries specially serve the countryside. A. mobile B. drifting C. shifting D. rotating Key: A
come upon I came upon an old friend when I was shopping in the store. Fear came upon her as she waited 碰上，偶然遇上 ; 冲向，袭来 come upon the stage 进入社会
bolt vi. a) to run away quickly 猛冲，逃跑 b) to move; to break away 迅速移动 vt. c) to fasten with strong rods and bar 拴住，使 ······ 和在一块 d) to swallow food or drink hurriedly 匆匆吞下，咽下
a) He bolted out of his house. b) Eyes bolted towards the stranger. c) He bolted the door on the inside. d) He bolted down a hurried breakfast. a bolt from (out of) the blue 晴天霹雳，意外的事 bolt upright 笔直 make a bolt (for it) 赶快逃走
stroll Wander 和 ramble 强调没有固定路线或目标 They would go off together, rambling along the river. She wandered in the darkness, not knowing where to go. Roam 强调行动的自由性，通常指在一片广阔 的土地上 Herds of horses and cattle roamed at will over the plain.
Meander 表示轻闲地，有时是无目标地 漫步走过一条不规则的或曲折的路线： He meandered to and fro, completely lost in his thought. vagabonds meandering through life Stroll 散步 ; 溜达 (at a leisurely pace) stroll in the park stroll the beach
The interpreter gave only a ____ version of the old man’s long rambling account. A. minimum B. tiny C. condensed D. compressed 翻译对老人喋喋不休的描述只做了简要翻译。 condensed 意为 “ 缩短的，缩写的 ” ； minimum 意为 “ 最低的；最小的 ” ； tiny 意为 “ 极小的，微 小的 ” ； compressed 意为 “ 压缩的；压紧的 ” ， 不能指语言。
obliterate The heavy rain obliterated all footprints. Anne was eager to obliterate her error. They tried to obliterate the enemy’s bomb base. 擦掉痕迹 ; 忘记； 消灭
The Ramble Para. 5 It is a 38-acre wild garden in Central Park with rocky outcrops, secluded glades and a tumbling stream, built for visitors to stroll in. With its intricate landscape Olmsted called his creation, ramble a "wild garden".
The Ramble The Ramble is a sanctuary for as many as 250 species of birds, with the interlaced paths and hills, countless trees, shrubs, meadows, rocky cliffs and a winding stream. It takes people with adventurous spirit to hike in the Ramble. Para. 5
Raccoons can be seen scurrying in the underbrush. The Ramble Raccoon Para. 5 To be continued on the next page.
Lions Para. 5 The Ramble A bronze sculpture of panther crouched on a rock on the edge of Ramble. His name is Still Hunt. Overlooking the East Drive in Central Park, Still Hunt is a reminder of the smaller animals and birds that can be found in the Park.
Background– New York Skyline New York City has the world's most recognized and inspiring skyline—an icon of New York. The best New York skyline vantage points are on top of the 102-story Empire State Building. Para. 5
New York Skyline at Night Para. 5 Buildings soar upward. To be continued on the next page.
The lake is the largest body of water (excluding the Reservoir) in Central Park. It was created out of a large swamp in the south of the Park and was intended for boating in the summer and ice-skating in the winter. Many visitors are content, however, to circle the lake on foot, following the pathways that wind along its shoreline, watching the Park’s tree-line shifting in its reflection. The Lake Para. 6
rowing boat on the lake in the Central Park The Lake
suspend As the workers went on strike, the company was obliged to suspend its operations. Such fine particles suspend readily in water. They decided to suspend trade with that country. The policeman was suspended while the complaint was investigated. 暂停 ; 悬浮 ; 中止 ; 勒令停职
Grain production in the world is _____,but still millions go hungry. A. staggering B. shrinking C. soaring D. suspending Key: C
She intends to move that the committee ____ discussion on this issue. A. suspends B. suspend C. will suspend D. suspended 【句意】她想提议委员会暂时终止对这个问题的讨 论。 本句中， move 后面加 that 从句时，从句中要求使用 虚拟语气形式，即 (should)+ 动词原形。所以选项 中只有 B) 对
bearing Her dignified bearing throughout the trial made everyone believe she was innocent. The pain was almost past bearing. I saw a tombstone bearing the date We must consider this question in all its bearings. He is out of his bearings.
Sometimes the student may be asked to write about his _____ to a certain book or article that has some bearing on the subject being studied. A. comment B. reaction C. impression D. comprehension Key: B
The Strawberry Fields The tear-drop-shaped area of parcel of park landscape in the south of Central Park planted with 125,000 strawberry. It is named after the song Strawberry Fields Forever in honor of John Lennon (1940—1980), member of the Beatles. Para. 6
Phrases containing “rip” rip into 猛烈攻击，抨击 She won the election campaign by ripping into her opponent's political record. rip out 狠狠地发出 Rip out a vicious oath.
rip off She ripped off a leather jacket while ostensibly trying on clothes. This false advertising campaign ripped off a great many consumers. 1. 偷窃 2. 剥削、诈取、欺骗 3. 撕掉 rip apart 把... 扯破 / 开, 把... 弄得凌乱不堪 rip and tear 狂怒 ; 胡闹
No one can function properly if they are _____ of adequate sleep. A. deprived B. ripped C. stripped D. contrived Key: A
compulsive They have done away with _____ Latin for university entrance at Harvard. A.influential B.indispensable C.compulsory D.compulsive E. compelling Key: C
受照顾；需要负责；可自由支配 1. She has a large family on her hands. 她有许多子女要照顾。 2. 我手里有一所空房子要处理掉。 I have an empty house on my hands. 3. 他有许多时间可自由支配。 He has got much time on his hands. on one’s hands
at hand: 在附近，在手边 on hand: 现在，在手头；到场出席；即将发生 in hand: 手里拿着；在掌握中；（工作等）在进行 中（讨究）
Detailed Analysis (part 3) Para. 7-12
secluded This is the quietest and most secluded area of the city. secluded life/monk/valley v. seclude (from) n. seclusion adj. seclusive 隐居的，与世隔绝的； 僻静的 Translation
A French garden
spot Can you ____ any smell of the gaswhich is escaping? A. discover B. detect C. find D. spot Key: B detect 意为 “ 察觉，发觉，发现 ” ； discover 意为 “ 发 现 ” ，指偶然发现了已经存在那里很长时间的事物； find 意为 “ （通过努力）发现；发现 … 处于某种状态 ” ； spot 意为 “ （尤用眼睛）察觉，认出，挑出，发 现 ” 。
rigid We have watered down the rigid training. rigid discipline a table made of rigid plastic Their face are rigid for cold. 严格苛刻的 / 呆板的，僵硬的 / 固执僵化的 ，刻板的 / 刚硬的, 刚性的 Synonym: rigorous
v. / n. to shout in a loud high voice because you are frightened, excited, or surprised Examples: The woman trapped under the piles of debris raised her voice to a shriek. She shrieked an alarm at him. Cf. shrill shriek Translation 尖叫，尖声叫喊
v. to give courage or confidence to sb. Examples: 在酒精的作用下，他勇敢地走过去同她讲话。 Emboldened by drink, he walked over to speak to her. Bold a bold, impudent child. Pay attention to the words in bold. a bold handwriting. embolden
There are three elements in the architecture of Central Park. English Romanticism is characterized by the picturesque ideal to blend with the natural environment. Central Park’s founding commissioners Olmsted and Calvert Vaux were influenced by this tradition. Their ideal was to allow New Yorkers to experience a day in the pastoral country without leaving the island city. Another style is Classicism characterized by formal symmetry and the use of straight lines, evident in the south end of the Park. Central Park History
The Park was pressed for primarily by wealthy merchants and landowners. In the first decade after its completion, it was clearly the playground of the wealthy. It was located too far uptown to be within walking distance for the city’s working class population. Central Park History
Until the late 19th century, workers comprised but a fraction of the visitors to the Park when they launched a successful campaign to have concerts held on Sundays. Saturday afternoon concerts were for middle-class audiences, for the six-day working week precluded attendance by the working class. III. Central Park History
Indeed the concept of creating the park was originally conceived by wealthy New Yorkers who admired the public grounds of London and Paris. However, with the maturing of the nation and the rise of its power, the pride of Americanism gradually took the upper hand. The author therefore describes the Park proudly as efficient, purposeful and distinctive—neither romantic nor classical, and neither English nor French, but distinctively American. III. Central Park History
pat on the back A word or gesture of praise or approval: 赞扬或同意的话或手势： 他因为工作干得出色而得到赞扬 He received a pat on the back for doing a good job.
domain n. 领地，领域，范围， [ 数 ] 域 Military history is really outside my domain. The kitchen is my wife's domain, she doesn't like me going into it. C.f. dominate dormant
These causes produced the great change in the country that modernized the _____ of higher education from the mid-1860's to the mid-1880's. A. branch B. category C. domain D. scope Key: C
Governments today play an increasingly larger role in the _____ of welfare, economics, and education. A. scopes B. ranges C. ranks D. domains Key: D
The Reservoir Para. 11 Note
The Reservoir: Located in the north part of Central Park, the reservoir, with the 1.58 mile track round it, is a favorite place for joggers, birdwatchers, and tourists where they can enjoy some of the best views of the New York City skyline. The Reservoir
on the/a rampage 横冲直撞；暴跳如雷 The escaped elephant was on the rampage for two days. The rioters went on a rampage and vandalized many shops.
The Central Park Jogger case involved an assault and rape that took place in New York City's Central Park on April 19, The victim was Trisha Meili. Five juvenile males were tried and convicted for the crime. The convictions were vacated in 2002 when another man claimed to have committed the crime alone and DNA evidence confirmed his involvement in the rape.
itinerary of the author
The Ramble ( 漫步园 ) The West Side Near the reservoir The Ninety-fifth Street And …
A starlit night
Fragment You watched the sight from a bridge, As a sightseer watched you from a tower. The moon adorns your window, And you adorn another’s dream. --- 王佐良
Central Park West at Night Para. 12
Another Aesthetic Experience Para. 12
But there was no escaping the recognition that this city— contrived, man-made, glaringly obtrusive, consuming wasteful and staggering quantities of electricity and water and energy—was very beautiful. (Para. 12) But there was no denying the fact (you have to admit) that the city was very beautiful, although it was not a natural kind of beauty, it was artificial and showy, and it used up a great amount of water and energy.
But there it was: the city at night, viewed from what meant to be an escape from it, shimmering. (Para. 12) People come to the Park to escape from the hustle and bustle of the city. But it was precisely in the Park that day that I found the city at night was extremely beautiful.
There is no escaping/denying the recognition that the city was very beautiful. (Para. 12) There is no verb.+ing… There is no denying that… There's no escaping being human. (We can never escape who we are.) There is no escaping the fact that he has lied. (One cannot escape from the fact that he has lied.)
More examples: There was no knowing how long he might be away. There’s no telling when an outburst might come. There’s no escaping mental stress these days. Life is tough. There is no denying the fact that these people have a reason to be angry.
There is no arguing with someone who refuses to listen. He knew that from that day onward there was no going back. There was no mistaking his intention this time.
shimmering: shining unevenly/seeming to move slightly other words denoting “to send forth light” glimmer glisten glitter sparkle twinkle flash
Everything about her shimmered and glimmered softly, as if her dress had been woven out of candle-beams. The sweat glistened on his forehead. jewels glittering in the display case crystal glasses sparkling in the candlelight a few stars, twinkling faintly in the deep blue of the night sky
Flash 指的是突然的、明亮的但短暂的发 光： A bolt of lightning flashed across the horizon. Gleam 暗指在黑色的背景上不断出现的 短暂亮光： “The light gleams an instant, then it's night once more” (Samuel Beckett).
Sparkle 指一系列迅速闪动的高亮度小闪 光 crystal that sparkled in the candlelight; glitter 是具有更高亮度的相似的一系列光 点 glittering mirrors Glimmer 指的是微弱的、迅速消失的光
glisten 尤其指潮湿的物体上反映的有光泽 的柔和光辉，如高山上积雪反射的光辉 Round about, piles of lime-stone glistened in all the colours of the rainbow. Her eyes were glistening with tears. Twinkle 就是迅速地、间歇地发光或闪亮 ： “a few stars, twinkling faintly in the deep blue of the night sky” (Hugh Walpole).
Park’s West Drive The North Woods The Loch The Empire State Building （帝国大厦） And …
North Woods The North Woods are the dense woodlands covering the northwest Central Park from 101st to 110th Street. Para. 13
wind one’s way 迂回而行，弯曲经过 Examples: The brook wound its way through the fields. She wound her way into his confidence. Cf. I took them into my confidence. 我对他们很信任。
A bridle Path in Central Park North Meadow Para. 16 North Meadow
perplex The question perplexed him. The boy perplexed his parents. to perplex an issue adj. perplexed/perplexing n. perplexity 使困惑，使费解； 使复杂化
scurry It began to rain and we scurried home. We heard mice scurrying about in the kitchen. Dark clouds were being scurried across a grey sky by the wind. a scurry of footsteps in the passage 急促脚步声 Huge snow scurries. 急赶，急转，疾走
Henry James ( ) 亨利 詹姆斯
Life story Born in a wealthy family （ New York ） three siblings and a brother (second) Henry James, Sr.(father) a philosopher and reformer( 改革家 ) William James (brother), a psychologist and philosopher William Dean Howells (his life-long friend) Educated in Harvard Law School Balzac, Merimee, George Sand, George Eliot and Hawthorne. Not married ; once loving his cousin
touring England, France, Italy Reading intensively European literary celebrities Thinking that American life is materialistic and lack of culture and sophistication Settling in England in 1876 becoming a naturalized British citizen in 1915( 加入 英国国籍 ) Influenced by some literary celebrities: George Eliot; Turgenev( 屠格涅 夫 ) ； Flaubert ( 福楼拜 ) Hawthorne
awarded the Order of Merit by King George V. （ 1916 ） died of pneumonia on 28 February 1916 His ashes were interred at the Cambridge Cemetery in Massachusetts, United States inscription “Novelist, Citizen of Two Countries, Interpreter of His Generation On Both Sides Of The Sea”. A memorial stone was placed for him in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey, London, England in 1976.
Literary achievements a. the first period ( ) b. the second period ( ) c. the third period ( ) A productive writer : writing novels, novellas and tales, traveling writings, literary criticism, plays, autobiographies and so on. Three periods of his literary life
the first period ( ) The American 《美国人》 (1877) a story about a young and innocent American confronting the complexity of the European life Daisy Miller 《 黛西 密勒》 (1878) a novella about a young American girl who gets “killed” by the winter in Rome international fame for the first time.
The Europeans (1878) the scene shifted back to America, where some Europeans learn with difficulty to adapt themselves to the American life. The Portrait of A Lady 《贵妇人画像》 (1881) : masterpiece the clash between the Old World and the New in the life journey of an American girl in a European cultural environment.
The Second period ( ) Dropping the “international theme” experiment with different themes and forms Novels The Bostonians (1886), which satirized the women liberation movement that took place in Boston The Princess Casamassima (1886), which exposed the anarchist conspiracy in the slum of London, were written in a naturalistic mode and proved to be unsuccessful.
play writing —better knowledge of literary techniques, though not at all success short fictions The Private Life (1893) The Death of a Lion (1894) The Middle Years (posthumously 1917) exploring the relationship of the artist to the society only to prove that the artist would not sacrifice the truth for the passion no matter how troubled and isolated he feels.
short fictions The Turn of the Screw (1898) a story about the troubled and abnormal psychology of oppressed children, in which a whole household is terrorized by “ghosts,” The Beast in the Jungle (1903) focuses on the imaginative obsession of some haunted men and women with their personal disaster in future
The third period( ) Returning to the “international theme” Writing a few novellas （小说） and tales dealing with childhood and adolescence — a revival of his earlier theme of innocence in a corrupted world What Maisie Knew 《梅吉的见闻》
The third period( ) The Wings of the Dove 《鸽翼》 (1902) The Ambassadors 《专使》 (1903) The Golden Bowl 《金碗》 (1904) James's most influential contribution to literature
His Contribution to Literary Criticism It is both concerned with form and devoted to human values “The Art of Fiction” 《小说的艺术》 the aim of the novel is to present life so it is not surprising to find in his writings human experiences explored in every possible form: illusion, despair, reward, torment, inspiration, delight, etc.
His Contribution to Literary Criticism The artist has the freedom to write about anything that concerns him, even the disagreeable, the ugly and the commonplace. The artist should be able to "feel" the life, to understand human nature, and then to record them in his own art form.
His Contribution to Literary Criticism Novels should be correspondent with life. The area of art is all life, all feeling, all observation, all vision. The air of reality should be the supreme virtue of a novel. The form and content of a novel should be consistent. The Art of Fiction
I. International theme James's fame generally rests upon his novels and stories with the international theme. These novels are always set against a larger international background, usually between Europe and America, and centered on the confrontation of the two different cultures with two different groups of people representing two different value systems.
The typical pattern of the conflict between the two cultures would be that of a young American man or an American girl who goes to Europe and affronts his or her destiny. The unsophisticated boy or girl would be beguiled, betrayed, cruelly wronged at the hands of those who pretend to stand for the highest possible civilization.
Marriage and love as the focal point of the confrontation between the two value systems the protagonist usually goes through a painful process of a spiritual growth, gaining knowledge of good and evil from the conflict.
International theme The meeting of America and Europe American innocence in contact and contrast with European sophistication and decadence( 颓废 ), and its moral and psychological complications, and some superiority of the values of the New World to those of the Old
James treated with great care the clashes between two different cultures the emotional and moral problems of Americans in Europe, or Europeans in America
The treatment of the international theme characterized by the richness of syntax and characterization the originality in point of view symbolism, metaphoric texture, and organizing rhythm
II. psychological realism the forerunner of the 20th-century "stream-of-consciousness" novels the founder of psychological realism Psychological Analysis of His Characters Emphasizing on the inner awareness and inward movements of his characters in face of outside occurrences rather than depicting the environment in any detail
III. his narrative “point of view” One of James's literary techniques innovated to cater for this psychological emphasis As the author, James avoids the authorial omniscience as much as possible and makes his characters reveal themselves with his minimal intervetion. So it is often the case that in his novels we usually learn the main story by reading through one or several minds and share their perspectives. This narrative method proves to be successful in bringing out his themes.
the most expert stylist of his time As to his language, James is not so easy to understand. He is often highly refined and insightful. With a large voabulary, he is always accurate in word selection, trying to find the best expression for his literary imagination.
New York City, located in New York State, is the largest city and the chief port of the United States. The total area of New York City is about ____square miles. The city has ____boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queen ’ s, Brooklyn and Richmond. The city with its good _____was discovered as early as 1524, and it was established by the _____who named the city New Amsterdam. In 1664, the city was taken by the English and it got the name New York as it _____ now. During the American Revolution in 1776, George Washington Listening lab
had his _________for a time in New York City. The Declaration of Independence was first read there on July 4th The city remained the nation ’ s capital until____. New York became an important port early in the last century. A large _____ of the national exports passed through New York harbor. New York has become one of the world ’ s busiest ports and also the________, manufacturing, and travel center of the country.
New York is often called “The Big Apple”, which was termed by ____musicians to describe something that is the ultimate in size, _________ and achievement. In this city there are many colleges, universities and technical schools, many theaters,______, concert halls, _______ and zoos. New York City really has the wonders of the Big Apple that exceed all __________—the fantastic skyscrapers, marvelous museums, cultural centers, architecture and ________ attractions, which are most worth seeing.
New York City, located in New York State, is the largest city and the chief port of the United States. The total area of New York City is about ____square miles. The city has ____boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queen ’ s, Brooklyn and Richmond. The city with its good _____was discovered as early as 1524, and it was established by the _____who named the city New Amsterdam. In 1664, the city was taken by the English and it got the name New York as it _____ now. During the American Revolution in 1776, George Washington 300five harbor Dutch bears Listening lab
had his _________for a time in New York City. The Declaration of Independence was first read there on July 4th The city remained the nation ’ s capital until____. New York became an important port early in the last century. A large _____ of the national exports passed through New York harbor. New York has become one of the world ’ s busiest ports and also the________, manufacturing, and travel center of the country. headquarters 1790 portion financial
New York is often called “The Big Apple”, which was termed by ____musicians to describe something that is the ultimate in size, _________ and achievement. In this city there are many colleges, universities and technical schools, many theaters,______, concert halls, _______ and zoos. New York City really has the wonders of the Big Apple that exceed all __________—the fantastic skyscrapers, marvelous museums, cultural centers, architecture and ________ attractions, which are most worth seeing. jazz excitement ballets expectations sightseeing museums