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Using Apostrophes Why are apostrophes important? Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Possessive personal pronouns Indefinite pronouns Special.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Apostrophes Why are apostrophes important? Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Possessive personal pronouns Indefinite pronouns Special."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Apostrophes Why are apostrophes important? Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Possessive personal pronouns Indefinite pronouns Special problems with possessives Contractions Plurals Review A Review B

2 Mainly, the apostrophe is used to show ownership, or possession. Why are apostrophes important? The apostrophe can serve several different purposes. Is this the cat ’ s collar? Here is Justin ’ s baseball cap.

3 Sometimes, in special cases, the apostrophe is used to form plurals. Why are apostrophes important? The apostrophe can also show where something is missing in a contraction. they willthey ’ ll Dot your i ’ s and cross your t ’ s. he hashe ’ s

4 An unnecessary apostrophe is also confusing. A missing apostrophe can cause confusion. Why are apostrophes important? Knowing where to place an apostrophe—and why— will help make your writing clearer. [End of Section] There are two as in this word. Do you know it ’ s price? There are two a ’ s in this word. Do you know its price?

5 Add an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive case of most singular nouns.possessive case Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Singular nouns Ross ’s room the coach ’s plan a bird ’s nest

6 The possessive case of a noun or pronoun is the form of the word that shows ownership or possession. Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns I used Jill’s computer to write my history report. Jill owns the computer. I own the report.

7 For the possessive of a singular noun that ends in an s or z sound, add only the apostrophe if Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Achilles ’ battlesfor goodness ’ sake the noun has two or more syllables and adding an apostrophe and an s will make the word awkward to pronounce Otherwise, add an apostrophe and an s. the witness ’ s testimony Ms. Schwartz ’ s car

8 If a plural noun ends in s, just add an apostrophe. Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Plural nouns the girls’ uniforms the Jacksons’ yard

9 Some irregular plural nouns do not end in s. Add an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive case. Possessive case Singular nouns and plural nouns Plural nouns man menmen’s geese’s geese goose Plural Possessive Plural Singular

10 A possessive personal pronoun never has an apostrophe—even when the pronoun ends in s. Possessive case Possessive personal pronouns Did you buy yours at the same place he bought his? I got a great price on mine. I like your new bike.

11 Most possessive personal pronouns have two forms. Possessive case Possessive personal pronouns These forms are used before nouns. These forms stand alone. mymine youryours his, her, itshis, hers, its ourours theirtheirs Can you see their kite? Is that one theirs? Do not add an apostrophe to any of these pronouns.

12 Be careful not to confuse possessive pronouns with contractions. Possessive pronouns never have apostrophes. Possessive case Possessive personal pronouns Their father is here. They’re late again. Possessive pronoun Contraction of “they are”

13 These possessive pronouns and contractions are often confused because they sound alike. Possessive case Possessive personal pronouns Possessive PronounsContractions Whose lunch is this?Who’s at the door? Look at its fur.It’s shedding. The trophy is theirs.There’s a trophy. They’re good pies.Their pies are good.

14 Possessive case Indefinite pronouns Everybody ’ s hopes were high. In the possessive case, indefinite pronouns need an apostrophe and an s. One player got in the other ’ s way.

15 Possessive case Indefinite pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to one or more persons, places, or things that may or may not be specifically named. alleachmostone anothereithermuchother anyeveryoneneitherseveral anybodyeverythingnobodysome anyonefewnonesomebody anythingmanyno onesomething bothmorenothingsuch

16 In casual speech, contractions formed using indefinite pronouns and is are very common. These contractions look and sound exactly like the possessive case. Everything ’ s wrong. Contraction of “everything is” Possessive case Indefinite pronouns

17 To determine whether the word is a contraction or the possessive case, try saying is instead of ‘s. If is makes sense, the word is a contraction. Someone’s at the door. Someone is at the door. In this sentence, Someone’s is a contraction, not the possessive case. Possessive case Indefinite pronouns

18 Identify the possessive words in these sentences. Add apostrophes where needed. Possessive case 1.We all appreciated the gardens beauty. 2.The womens team may win a championship. 3.The twins father was washing his car. 4.The speaker had everyones attention.

19 1.We all appreciated the garden’s beauty. Possessive case The possessive case of the singular noun garden is formed by adding an apostrophe and an s. Identify the possessive words in these sentences. Add apostrophes where needed.

20 2.The women’s team may win a championship. Possessive case Identify the possessive words in these sentences. Add apostrophes where needed. f The possessive case of the irregular plural noun women is formed by adding an apostrophe and an s.

21 3.The twins’ father was washing his car. Possessive case The possessive case of the plural noun twins is formed by adding an apostrophe after the s. The possessive case of a personal pronoun, such as his, is formed without apostrophes. Identify the possessive words in these sentences. Add apostrophes where needed.

22 4.The speaker had everyone’s attention. Possessive case The possessive case of the indefinite pronoun everyone is formed by adding an apostrophe and an s. Identify the possessive words in these sentences. Add apostrophes where needed.

23 Possessive case For each sentence, write the possessive case of the word or words in parentheses. 1. The ___________ toys are all over the floor. (children) 2.Are those notebooks _________? (you) 3.He did not take _________ opinion seriously. (anyone) 4._______________ tulips are blooming. (Mrs. Katz) 5.The _________ claim to fame is _________ candy factory. (town, it) On Your Own

24 For each sentence, write the possessive case of the word or words in parentheses. 1. The ___________ toys are all over the floor. (children) 2.Are those notebooks _________? (you) 3.He did not take _________ opinion seriously. (anyone) 4._______________ tulips are blooming. (Mrs. Katz) 5.The _________ claim to fame is _________ candy factory. (town, it) Possessive case Answers children’s yours anyone’s Mrs. Katz’s town’s its

25 In compound nouns, only the last word is possessive in form. Compound nouns Possessive case Special problems with possessives the Mississippi River ’ s banks my sister-in-law ’ s scrapbook the editor-in-chief ’ s opinions

26 Possessive case Special problems with possessives A compound noun consists of two or more words that are used together as one noun. A compound noun may be written as one word written as separate words hyphenated stairway bookcase ceiling fan United States merry-go-round vice-president

27 The names of organizations and businesses may be compound nouns too. Possessive case Special problems with possessives National Public Radio ’ s new schedule the Girl Scout Council ’ s annual conference

28 When two or more nouns share possession, only the last noun is possessive in form. Possessive case Special problems with possessives Joint possession Brad, Suki, and Dawn ’ s band Three people have a band together.

29 Possessive case Special problems with possessives Joint possession When one of the words showing joint possession is a pronoun, both words should be in the possessive form. His and Jared ’ s paper Two boys are working on a paper together.

30 When two or more persons each possess something, each of their names should be in the possessive form. Possessive case Special problems with possessives Two or more persons possessing something individually Tim ’ s and Jake ’ s skateboards Each boy has his own skateboard. The noun skateboards is plural.

31 With words showing joint or individual possession, be sure to check your apostrophes when you change a noun to a pronoun. Possessive case Special problems with possessives Mark ’ s and Kim ’ s pianos Ty and Yoko ’ s piano Ty ’ s and her piano Mark ’ s and her pianos Two people own one piano together. Two people each own pianos.

32 Use apostrophes for the possessive forms of Possessive case Special problems with possessives Times and amounts a day’s rest thirty minutes’ work words indicating amounts in cents or dollars one dollar’s worth two cents’ worth words indicating time, such as minute, hour, day, week, month, and year

33 Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. 1.I bought fifty (dollars, dollars’) worth of books. 2.Will plans to work at his (brother-in-law’s, brother’s-in-law’s) law firm this summer. 3.Has (Helen and Gina’s, Helen’s and Gina’s) song been entered in the contest? Possessive case Special problems with possessives

34 Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. Use an apostrophe to form the possessives of words indicating amounts in dollars and cents. Possessive case Special problems with possessives 1.I bought fifty (dollars, dollars’) worth of books.

35 Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. In compound nouns only the last word is possessive in form. Possessive case Special problems with possessives 2.Will plans to work at his (brother-in-law’s, brother’s-in-law’s) law firm this summer.

36 3.Has (Helen and Gina’s, Helen’s and Gina’s) song been entered in the contest? Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. When two or more persons possess one thing together (the song), only the last noun should be in the possessive case. Possessive case Special problems with possessives

37 For each sentence, write the possessive case of the word or word group in parentheses. 1. In history class we read about __________________ expedition. (Lewis and Clark) 2.Mandy saved two _________________ pay to buy the sweater. (weeks) 3.Have you seen the ________________________ new exhibit? (Natural History Museum) 4.Were ________________ grades good? (Rob and Katie) On Your Own [End of Section] Possessive case Special problems with possessives

38 For each sentence, write the possessive case of the word or word group in parentheses. 1. In history class we read about __________________ expedition. (Lewis and Clark) 2.Mandy saved two _________________ pay to buy the sweater. (weeks) 3.Have you seen the ________________________ new exhibit? (Natural History Museum) 4.Were ________________ grades good? (Rob and Katie) Answers Lewis and Clark’s weeks’ Rob’s and Katie’s Natural History Museum’s Possessive case Special problems with possessives

39 An apostrophe shows where letters, words, or numerals have been omitted from a contraction. Contractions have not haven’t they had o’clock they’d of the clock 1950’50 you willyou’ll

40 Contractions Usually, when the word not is shortened to n’t and added to a verb, the spelling of the verb doesn’t change. The two exceptions to this rule are [End of Section] should not does not shouldn’t doesn’t will not cannot won’t can’t

41 Plurals To prevent confusion, a few kinds of nouns do form plurals by adding an apostrophe and an s. lowercase letters some capital letters In most cases, do not use an apostrophe to form the plural of a noun. state statesglassglasses m ’ s and n ’ si’si’s A’sA’sU’sU’sS’sS’s

42 Plurals Also use an apostrophe and an s to form the plural of symbols numerals some words that are referred to as words %’s%’s$’s$’s&’s&’s 5’s5’s6’s6’s7’s7’s He uses too many but’s and and ’ s.

43 Without the apostrophe the plural of I would spell Is. The apostrophe in the plural of T is included for consistency. Some writers add only an s to form the plurals of letters, numerals, and symbols if the plural forms cannot be misread. Plurals Most of his grades were Cs. The printed T’s looked like I’s. Use apostrophes consistently.

44 Contractions and plurals Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. 1.I (cant, can’t) tell the difference between your (i’s, is) and your (t’s, ts’). 2.Put ($’s, $s’) after all the figures. 3.(He’s, Hes) gotten mostly (As, A’s) this year. 4.How many (ums, um’s) did you hear?

45 1.I (cant, can’t) tell the difference between your (i’s, is) and your (t’s, ts’). Contractions and plurals Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. Can’t is the contraction for “cannot.” The apostrophe shows where the letters n and o have been omitted. Use an apostrophe and an s to form the plural of a lowercase letter.

46 2.Put ($’s, $s’) after all the figures. Contractions and plurals Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. Form the plural of a symbol by adding an apostrophe and an s.

47 Contractions and plurals Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. He’s is the contraction for “he is.” The apostrophe shows where the letter i has been omitted. Use an apostrophe for the possessive form of the capital letter A so that it will not be confused with the word As. 3.(He’s, Hes) gotten mostly (As, A’s) this year.

48 4.How many (ums, um’s) did you hear? Contractions and plurals Choose the correct form of the word or words in parentheses. Use an apostrophe and an s to form the plural of a word referred to as a word.

49 Contractions and plurals [End of Section] Add apostrophes where needed in the following sentences. If the sentence is already correct, write C. 1. My little sister doesnt write her bs or ds clearly. 2.How many double ss are in Mississippi? 3.It’s almost time to go see the dentist. 4.Lets see whats going on. 5. Ill add the &s and *s to the report later. On Your Own

50 Add apostrophes where needed in the following sentences. If the sentence is already correct, write C. 1. My little sister doesn’t write her b’s or d’s clearly. 2.How many double s’s are in Mississippi? 3.It’s almost time to go see the dentist. 4.Let’s see what’s going on. 5. I’ll add the &’s and *’s to the report later. Answers Contractions and plurals C

51 Review A [End of Section] In the following sentences, circle any words that need apostrophes or have incorrect apostrophes. 1. The childrens’ tickets didnt cost as much as the adults tickets. 2. Is that someones journal lying there? 3. We’re leaving for Pauls party at nine o clock. 4. Wev’e found youre no help at all. 5. Your handwritten ws look like vs.

52 In the following sentences, circle any words that need apostrophes or have incorrect apostrophes. 1. The childrens’ tickets didnt cost as much as the adults tickets. 2. Is that someones journal lying there? 3. We’re leaving for Pauls party at nine o clock. 4. Wev’e found youre no help at all. 5. Your handwritten ws look like vs. Review A

53 Review B [End of Section] Correct the errors in possessive forms, contractions, and plurals in the following sentences. 1.Ben and Terrells bikes are both ten-speeds. 2.This will be Jeffs first time babysitting the Rosses children. 3.We did not get a moments rest. 4.Dont forget to dot your is and cross your ts. 5.The usher gathered everybodys tickets. 6.Ive left my jacket in the car; may I borrow yours?

54 1.Ben’s and Terrell’s bikes are both ten-speeds. 2.This will be Jeff’s first time babysitting the Rosses’ children. 3.We did not get a moment’s rest. 4.Don’t forget to dot your i’s and cross your t’s. 5.The usher gathered everybody’s tickets. Review B Correct the errors in possessive forms, contractions, and plurals in the following sentences. 6.I’ve left my jacket in the car; may I borrow yours?

55 The End


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