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SPORTS AND TELEVISION. OVERVIEW SPORTS BROADCASTING ORIGINS SPORTS’ ROLE ON TV PROGRAMMING BOXING ERA, 1946-1962 ABC NEW STRATEGIES, 1960s COLOR TV AND.

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Presentation on theme: "SPORTS AND TELEVISION. OVERVIEW SPORTS BROADCASTING ORIGINS SPORTS’ ROLE ON TV PROGRAMMING BOXING ERA, 1946-1962 ABC NEW STRATEGIES, 1960s COLOR TV AND."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPORTS AND TELEVISION

2 OVERVIEW SPORTS BROADCASTING ORIGINS SPORTS’ ROLE ON TV PROGRAMMING BOXING ERA, ABC NEW STRATEGIES, 1960s COLOR TV AND PRO FOOTBALL MONDAY NIGHT FOOTBALL SPORT SHOWS – SPORT NETWORKS TV IMPACT ON SPORTS

3 SPORTS TV BROADCASTING ORIGINS 1939 NBC WXBS STATION EXPERIMENTAL BROADCAST BASEBALL, TENNIS AND COLLEGE FOOTBALL 1940 INCLUDED BASKETBALL, HOCKEY, TRACK & FIELD 1941 BROADCAST CANCELLED TELECAST SHORTCOMINGS: AUDIENCE, TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES, LACK OF SPONSORS, SCREEN RESOLUTION LIMITATIONS, RADIO HEGEMONY.

4 BOXING ERA WWII AND COLD WAR VALUES LOUIS, MARCIANO, ROBINSON LIMITATIONS: OUTCOME, VIEWERS’ EXPECTATIONS RACE/ETHNIC CHANGES IN PROFESSIONAL FIGHTERS OVERSATURATION, VIOLENCE TIES WITH ORGANIZED CRIME

5 PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL BERT BELL, NEW NFL COMMISSIONER ALL-AMERICAN FOOTBALL CONFERENCE, A NEW PRO LEAGUE FORMED BY ARCH WARD, SPORTS WRITER IN CHICAGO. AAFC= STRONG COMPETITION WITH THE NFL, BETTER SALARIES, ALL-STAR GAME WARD’S IDEA, A GAME IN DECEMBER BETWEEN THE TWO LEAGUES’ CHAMPIONS

6 PRO FOOTBALL AAFC STAR: PAUL BROWN, COACH SUCCESS WITH MASILLON H.S., OHIO STATE. REVOLUTIONIZE FOOTBALL COACHING: PLAY BOOKS FOR PLAYERS, FILM ANALYSIS, PLAY-BY-PLAY BREAKDOWN, RADIO RECEIVER IN QB’S HELMET, FULL TIME ASSISTANT COACHES, PRESS BOX ANALYSIS, UNLIMITED SUBSTITUTIONS, UNLIMITED RESERVES WITH ‘TAXI SQUAD’ TACTICS.

7 PRO FOOTBALL PAUL BROWN, ECONOMIC SUCCESS 1950 NFL ABSORBED THREE TEAMS FROM THE AAFC. UNLIMITED SUBS, UNLIMITED RESERVES, BROWN STRATEGIES= HIGHER QUALITY IN GAMES NFL 1950s ATTENDANCE RISE FROM 25,000 TO 40,000 AVG

8 PRO FOOTBALL SPECIALIZATION= FASTER AND MORE ATTRACTIVE STYLE 1951 FIRST BROADCASTING CONTRACT WITH DuMONT NETWORK 1956 CBS $1 MILLION TV CONTRACT NATIONAL RULES: LOCAL BLACKOUTS, ONE GAME-WEEK

9 PRO FOOTBALL, ROZELLE ERA 1959 BELL DIED 1959 AMERICAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE, 8 TEAMS IN DIRECT ECONOMIC COMPETITION WITH THE NFL AFL, LAMAR HUNT, TEXAS MILLIONAIRE, 20s, DALLAS-BASED TEAM REJECTED BY THE NFL. KANSAS CITY FRANCHISE.

10 NFL, ROZELLE ERA PETE ROZELLE, MARKETING AND P.R. TRAINING, PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRM, LOS ANGELES RAMS PUBLICIST L.A. RAMS GENERAL MANAGER FOOTBALL MERCHANDISE LINE, PRODUCTS WITH THE RAMS LOGO (HATS, CUPS, T-SHIRTS) TEAM-LOGO BUSINESS.

11 NFL, ROZELLE ERA 1960 ROZELLE, NEW NFL COMMISSIONER. MOVED THE NFL HQ TO MANHATTAN. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN TV RIGHTS, “SINGLE PACKAGE” POLICY: ALL TV RIGHTS-ALL TEAMS-INCOME DIVIDED EQUALLY, OPPOSED BY GIANTS, BEARS AND RAMS

12 NFL ROZELLE ERA ROZELLE: MORE INCOME FROM TV IF ALL TEAMS BARGAIN TOGETHER. TV MARKET, NFL FUTURE U.S. CONGRESS PASSED THE “SPORTS ANTITRUST BROADCAST ACT”, ALLOWING ROZELLE’S SINGLE PACKAGE POLICY SECRET BID-OPEN CEREMONY, CBS WON ($14,000,000 A YEAR).

13 ABC NEW STRATEGIES ABC: EDGE FROM NEW SPORTS BROADCASTING STYLE; 1960 CONTRACT WITH THE AFL ROONE P. ARLEDGE, 1960 FOOTBALL GAMES PRODUCER; SHOW BIZZ PRINCIPLE: EVENT AS IMPORTANT AS OUTCOME GAME SETTING AMBIENCE. MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES, CLOSE UPS, CHEERLEADERS, OVER ENTHUSIASTIC FANS

14 ARLEDGE PRODUCTIONS CROWD AS IMPORTANT AS PLAYERS SEX APPEAL IN STANDS/SIDELINES TV-NEW BROADCASTING STYLE FANS CONTEST FOR “SCREEN-TIME” BANNERS, CUSTOMS, LEGENDS MONUMENTAL TAKES, IN GAME ADVERTISING

15 ARLEDGE PRINCIPLE BRING THE VIEWER TO THE EVENT. NOT THE EVENT TO THE VIEWER.

16 ABC SPORTS PRODUCTIONS COVERAGE BEFORE, DURING, AFTER SLOW MOTION, INSTANT REPLAY, LONG SHOTS, CLOSE UPS, VIEWER ATTENTION, SPLIT-SCREEN INDUCED CONTROVERSY CROWD-CARNIVAL-TAKES PLAYERS STATISTICS: PRESENT EXTRAORDINARY DIMENSIONS

17 ABC WIDE WORLD OF SPORTS 1961 BEGINNING, SPORTS-ONLY SHOW FIRST IN STOP-ACTION FILMING VARIETY-SHOW-ON-SPORTS CONTROVERSY SELLS, HATE-LOVE FIGURES (MUHAMMAD ALI, JOE NAMATH, BATTLE OF THE SEXES, ETC) WINTER SPORTS, TROPICAL LOCATIONS, BIZARRE EVENTS EVENT AS IMPORTANT AS OUTCOME

18 ABC MONDAY NIGHT FOOTBALL ARLEDGE SECOND CREATION, 1970 CONTROVERSIAL BROADCASTING, NO TO NFL “ANNOUNCER-APPROVAL” HOWARD COSELL, NY FORMER BOXING- VOICE, PROMOTE-CRITICIZE-PROVOKE- “TELL IT LIKE IT IS” TRANSITION IN BROADCAST ANNOUNCERS FROM THE “GOLDEN THROAT” MODEL (BLOW-BY-BLOW PLAY CALLER) TO “MOST HATED ANNOUNCER” NEW STYLE.

19 COLOR TV AND PRO FOOTBALL 1959 PETE ROZELLE, NFL COMMISSI. TV RIGHTS CONTRACTS-AUCTIONS 1964 CBS-NFL, NBC-AFL NBC $, AFL COULD COMPETE W/NAT. LEAGUE ARTIFICIAL TURFS, TEAM LOGOS-END ZONE TV-MADE UNIFORMS, NAMES, LOGOS, COLORS SUPER BOWL I

20 ARLEDGE’S IMPACT ON TV 1970s NBC, CBS ADOPTED ABC STRAT. 1970s-1970s TV $ IN SPORTS BOOM PRO FOOTBALL, MOST POPULAR SPORT-ENTERTAINMENT PROFESSIONAL SPORTS ADOPTED NEW RULES TO INCREASE TV RATINGS SPORTS BECAME TV PRODUCTIONS

21 TELEVISION IMPACT ON SPORTS TRANSFORMATION OF TEAM SPORTS IN RULES, SCHEDULES, TRANSFORMATION OF “CHAMPIONSHIP-RULES” SUBORDINATION OF SPORTS TO MEDIA INTERESTS MORE PEOPLE PREFER TO WATCH THAN TO PLAY


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