Presentation on theme: "Training of Top US Middle Distance Swimmers"— Presentation transcript:
1Training of Top US Middle Distance Swimmers Genadijus Sokolovas, Ph.D.
2Successful Middle Distance Clubs Colorado Stars (coach Todd Schmitz)University of Michigan (coaches Jon Urbanchek, Mike Bottom)North Baltimore Aquatic Club (coach Bob Bowman)
3Success in Middle Distance Swimming Moderate to high volumes training, especially at young ageAnaerobic and strength training in collegeCompetition from swim clubs in USTraining in short course and long course poolsGreat kicking techniqueDives and turnsEfficient swimming techniqueNCAA
4Coach Todd Schmitz (Colorado Stars) The most decorated swimmer from Colorado Stars is multiple Olympic Champion, world record holder Missy Franklin.Besides Missy, there are several National Junior Team members training at the same club.Missy is the first Olympian from the state of Colorado since Amy Van Dyken ( )
5Training Environment at Colorado Stars The Colorado Stars is team is the only team that developed National Team swimmers without having access to the long course poolThe team is using 25-yard pool and a 15-meter bath pool for trainingThere is one full-time coach and 4 part-time coachesThere are about 170 swimmers on the team
6Colorado Stars Training Philosophy Swimmers have to have fun every day, at competitions and at practicesSwimmers should be engaged in practicesKids have to be excitedPositive attitudeCoaches challenge swimmers every practiceSwim fast
7Training at Colorado Stars Train primarily in short course, sometimes in 15 m poolSundays swim in long courseTuesday and Thursday morning workoutsTrying to be creative – swimming 15 m underwater in 15 m pool“Fun Friday” competition with parachutes, stretch cords, etc
8Underwater Swimming (Colorado Stars) Future of fast swimming is underwaterCoach uses race analysis statistics to see improvements in underwater swimming (breakout times, turns)Underwater training is done in 15-meter pool after the practiceEmphasis on kicking (with and without fins, with and without kick board)
9Dryland Training Strong emphasis on dryland training Use a physical therapist to evaluate any disbalance in the muscles developmentDryland program is based on athleticismGroup stretch after the warm upUsing performance test – “Presidential fitness test” (shuttle around, sit-and-reach, vertical jump)Core awarenessEvery workout starts with 60 min dryland
11Swim Workouts ( Colorado Stars) 6300 yd on average in 2 hour workout (no longer)Include high speed sets all the timeSome kind of sprint every day – kick, pull, 15 m etcWrites workouts the same day or a night before based on feedback from athletesCoach wants athletes to be engaged in every set, think about every set (for example, work on breathing pattern, throw 50 fast, stronger kick, etc)
12Swim Workouts ( Colorado Stars) Writes workouts the same day or a night before based on feedback from athletesEvery day is different warm upHR based trainingCompetitive environment – race each other every dayKick at the end of the practiceKeep athletes hydrated
13Long Course Training (Colorado Stars) Access to the 50-meter pool only on SundaysSometimes has to drive to Colorado Springs (90 km) to swim at the 50-meter poolCoach thinks that training in long course pool may lead to sloppy swimming and less focusA lot of 50s in long course mixing with kick:8 x 50 fly kick + 6 x 50 desc 1-4 and hold 5-6Opportunity to be filmed in Colorado Springs
14Examples of Swim Sets (Colorado Stars) Warm-up:400 (75 swim, 25 catch up), 14 x drills/IM 9-16 (25 scull, 25 underwater)XYZ set:6 x 50 on 3:00 or 6 x 100 on 3:00 or 6 x 150 on 3:00Swimmers select the distance in the set, the rest interval is the same for allMax quality in this set
15Examples of Swim Sets (Colorado Stars) In 15-meter pool: 3 x (6 x 30 on 40s with no more than 6 strokes + 6 x 30 kick)1 min swim all-out, what distance can cover in 1 minUses parachutes with and without fins, stretch cords for resistance and assistanceSwimming with fins, especially when athletes are tired. It keeps their technique better and body position higher in the water.
19Taper (Colorado Stars) During the taper swimmers swim every day, a lot of taper is mental, based on feel, asking kids how they feel.If you feel bad 5 days before the race, it is great! You don’t want to feel great 5 days before the race.Normally taper is 7-9 daysDuration of taper based on the number of races during the meet, athletes recovery, muscle mass.
20Michigan University Swim Team Head coach Mike Bottom – sprint coachFormer head coaches Bob Bowman and Jon Urbanchek – distance and middle distance coachesCurrently, good mixture of sprint and distance programWomen and men programs are combined since 2010 (coach Jim Richardson retired)Michigan University team won NCAA title in 2013
21Swimming Volumes (Michigan University) 10 swim workouts a weekCoach Mike Bottom started towrite training plans when working at Michigan, training plans even for sprintersCoaches have to changes plans based on swimmers’ feedbackSwimming volumes for middles distance swimmers 40-50K a week6-9K daily volumes
22Training Environment (Michigan University) It is important to build team training environmentAll athletes train together, sharing their strength, learning from each otherAerobic conditioning is important background for speed and performances in shorter and middle distancesIn college, swimmers don’t have as much time to develop aerobic conditioning
23Training Equipment (Michigan University) Using the bands (stretch cords) hooked to the blocksDifferent types of fins and paddlesSwimming with broken kick board as a paddleUse of tennis balls keeping them in handsChutes, Power Racks, buckets as resistance trainingMirrors on the bottom of the pool to watch techniqueTowing machines are very good or assisted swimming
24Technique Development (Michigan University) First, it is important to identify necessary improvements in techniqueSecond, build right muscle strength and powerThird, to put technique in the water, develop power in the waterDoing a lot of underwater video analysis, including Swim Power testsVariety of drills to improve swimming techniqueMost of work on technique is done at the beginning of the season
25Kicking (Michigan University) Kicking is a primary area of improvement in collegeSwimmers don’t have too much time to improve aerobic conditioningThere are at least two kicking practices with yd kicking sets:20 x 100 kick, 10 x 50 kick + 10 x 100 kick + 10 x 50 kick, 2 x x x x 100, etcKicking against resistance (cords, Power Racks)Kicking with fins at the end of the practice
26North Baltimore Aquatic Club Founder of the club Murray Stephens (strong believer of long distance training)Current owners are Bob Bowman and Michael PhelpsTwo 50-meter pools – an indoor and an outdoor. Indoor pool can be converted to two short course pools.Strength training facilities (strength and conditioning coach Keenan Robinson)
27North Baltimore Aquatic Club Bob Bowman and his coaching staff are strong believers in structured training plan and sport science supportDoing many tests, such as lactate test, blood screen, underwater video, and muscular balanceHydration and energy barsare always present duringthe practices.
28North Baltimore Aquatic Club Bob Bowman assembled strong international squad to train for 2016 Olympics:USA – Michael Phelps, Allison Schmitt, Chase Kalisz, Tom LuchsingerFrance – Yannick AgnelDenmark –Tunisia – Ous MellouliTurkey – 5-10 swimmersSwimmers from other US clubs are visiting NBAC for camps (Megan Romano, etc)
29North Baltimore Aquatic Club Bob Bowman loves altitude trainingNBAC swimmers train at altitude in Colorado Springs 2-3 times a yearDuration of every altitude camp is daysTraining volumes at altitude may reach up to K a weekStrong aerobic backgroundStrength training and body balance on land
30Kicking at NBAC Swimmers at NBAC practice kicking 3-4 times a week. Good powerful kick improves body position. Kick is more important than pull – fishes don’t have arms to pull.Kicking sets against resistance:Vertical kick with and without weightsKicking against stretch cord underwater and on the surfaceKicking against vertical kickboard
31Training Volumes (NBAC) The number of weekly swimming practices – It depends on the phase of season.Total weekly swimming volumes – gradual increase from 60K to 90K (may reach 100+K at altitude).Total number of weekly strength practices on land – 3. It doesn’t include daily stretching before and after practices.
34Dives at NBAC Use a track start by placing stronger leg forward Lean forward on the diving block if you are not explosive and powerful (younger athletes)Lean back and lift hips high on the diving block if you are explosive and powerfulDon’t jump high and too far. Dive has to be short.Always watch down during the jumpGain horizontal velocity, but not verticalKeep your arms and body strong/rigid when entering the water
35Dives at NBACKeep arms still and start generating fly kicks at a small amplitude, Larger amplitude kicks create more drag because of bending knees too much.Emphasize up-kick during the underwater dolphin kick.Stay underwater as long as your speed is higher than you speed on the surface. Most of swimmers are faster underwater than on the surface during the first 15 m.Match breaking the surface with the endof the first stroke.Keep your head low and neck extendedduring the underwater kick.
36Turns at NBACApproach the turn fast with strong kick. The faster you will swim before the turn, the faster you will leave the wall.Compact rotation (flip turn or open turn)Be in streamline before feet hit the wallPush down slightly to stay longer underwater if you are good underwater kickerYou are faster if deeperOpen turn: lead arm bent, other arm goes close to the head, seeing the ceiling before push
37Practicing Finishes at NBAC Swimmers often missing the finish because they don’t match arms extension and touch of the wall, especially in short-axis strokes (butterfly and breaststroke).Practice finish from various distances for fly and breast.Start finish from 8-10 m to know the number of strokes to the finish (fly and breast).If you have a goof dolphin kick, you finish backstroke with a dolphin kick.
38Training After Trials and Before Major Competition (NBAC) Goal is to improve times at an international competition after stressful trialsMost of US coaches agree that Trials are more stressful than World Championships or Olympics GamesIt is important to have detailed structure of training, logistic, and mental preparationCheck with home coaches what their swimmers need to do between Trials and major international competition
39Training between Trials and Major Competition (NBAC) Swimmers needed about 3 day recovery after trialsThey still swim during these 3 days of recoveryBack to training immediately (water and dryland)For women, it is important to start dryland right after trialsIntensity is low for the first week after trials
40Training between Trials and Major Competition (NBAC) Start with hard kicking in the SCY after trials (3rd day after trials) + weights, varied the training course (SCY and LCM)Mainly aerobic training (10 x 300) + technique for the first 5 daysLactate: 16 x 50 on 45s every 4th fast, 12 x 50 on 50s every 3rd fast, etcEndurance: 4 x 300 descending 1-4, 8 x 50 drills, 4 x 200 descending 1-4, 8 x 50 drillsPower: 4 x (30 kick in the wall on the back + 25 kick fast)
41Training between Trials and Major Competition (NBAC) Too much rest between Trials and Olympics (World Championships) may lead to disastrous results (we learnt from mistakes in 2000 and 2004, when sprinters swam lower at Olympics than at Trials)Build 75% of your volumes with normal intensity from the peak in the last season (Phelps and Schmitt reached 8,000 m a day during the pre-Olympic camp in 2008)Vary training groups and environment during the pre-Olympic/World Championships campTwo days a week big threshold training with various groups, mentally easier
42Training between Trials and Major Competition (NBAC) Two days a week all stroke swimmers trained together (flyers with flyers etc.)Athletes have to enjoy their time together, smile most of the time before competitionKeep athletes happy and smilingDo visualization every day (watch videos of your races, start 6 weeks before the competition), visualize what to do when the race doesn’t go as expectedSet 1 week before meet: 3 x 100 fly ez desc 1-3, lactate clearance protocol, 300 abdominal
43Training before Travel to Major Competition (NBAC) More rested before Olympics/World Championships than during the previous competition (Trials)Last quality work 7 days before the first raceRemove pressure from athletes before the competition (taper) , more happy swimmersDon’t transmit nervousness to your athletesEasier practices 2 days before the trip and 2 days after the trip, only easy workouts
44Preparing for the Trip (NBAC) Detailed plan for each day, including logisticsManage and prepare for the tripBe ready for any challenges (logistics, training, etc.)Be flexible and adaptablePrepare your biological clock before the tripGet on the time zone as soon you arrive (or on the plane)Team environment, all athletes and staff support each other