Presentation on theme: "Workshop 2013-1-LT1-GRU13-09154 READING, WRITING AND REFLECTION FOR ENGAGED AND MEANINGFUL LEARNING 9–13 June 2014, Lithuania Daiva Penkauskienė, Raimonda."— Presentation transcript:
Workshop 2013-1-LT1-GRU13-09154 READING, WRITING AND REFLECTION FOR ENGAGED AND MEANINGFUL LEARNING 9–13 June 2014, Lithuania Daiva Penkauskienė, Raimonda Jarienė Modern Didactics Centre LIFELONG LEARNING PROGRAMME GRUNDTVIG
ANNUAL LITERACY EVENT IN LITHUANIA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= m8MZdNWGV2Mhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v= m8MZdNWGV2M
PROGRAMME FOR THE WEEK 1 st Day – Introduction, Status Quo & trends of AE & AL in Europe 2 nd Day- Methodical Framework for engaged & meaningful learning 3 rd Day – Reading workshop 4 th Day – Investigation strategies 5 th Day – Writing strategies, evaluation & assessment.
DAY 1 Getting acquainted with each other, topic of the workshop, main concepts Getting acquainted with theoretical and methodical background of the workshop Trying out useful teaching & learning strategies.
CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS Notion of literacy No global consensus on what literacy is. Three particularly influential concepts Basic literacy Functional literacy Critical literacy AND Literacy as social practice Multiple literacy.
Basic literacy The acquisition of technical skills involving the decoding of written texts and writing of simple statements within the contexts of everyday life (Rassool, 1999).
Functional literacy A person is literate when she/he has acquired the essential knowledge and skills which enable him to engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his group and community and whose attainments in reading, writing and arithmetic make it possible for him to continue to use these skills towards his own and community development (Gray, 1956, UNESCO,1978).
Critical / transformative literacy Literacy creates conditions for acquisition of a critical consciousness of the contradictions of society in which man lives and of its aims; it also stimulates initiative and participation in the creation of projects capable of acting upon the world, of transforming it, and of defining the aims of an authentic human development. In brief, literacy as tool for critical reflection, action for social change and to his full development.
Literacy as social practice (Papen, 2005) Literacy is more than abstract set of skills Literacy is social and cultural practice, because reading and writing always involve people communicating and interacting with each other; literacy is part of what determines relationship between people; literacy is always embedded in broader social context; literacy include values, ideas, conventions, identities and worldviews that shape the event of which literacy is part; literacy practices are culturally constructed, they have their roots in the past; they are as fluid, dynamic and changing as lives and societies of which they are part. Learning takes place in particular social contexts, part of this learning is the internalization of social processes (Vygotsky )
Think-pair-share If we understand literacy as social practice, what would be the task for adult educators?
Multiple literacy Literacy is not a singular set of abilities but multiple and comprises gaining competences involved in effectively using socially constructed forms of communication and representation. Learning literacies requires attaining competences in practices and in contexts that a governed by rules and conventions and we see literacy as being necessarily constructed in educational and cultural practices. Multiple – which is diverse, have many dimensions and is learned in different ways. Socially constructed – is attained in practices and contexts governed by rules and conventions.
Summing-up: expansion of understanding From viewing literacy as a simple process of acquiring basic cognitive skills, to using these in ways that contribute to socio- economic development, to developing the capacity for social awareness and critical reflection as a basis for personal and social change. From views of literacy as abstract sets of skills to understanding literacy as a social practices that are always embedded in particular cultural contexts.
Key elements for understanding literacy today Literacy as continuum; Sustainable literacy as a target; Literacy as empowering tool that enables participants to continue as lifelong learners; Enriched literate environment as essential support for continuing education.
Internationally adopted notion of adult literacy Learning and using literacy skills is a continuous, context-bound process that takes place both within and outside of educational settings throughout life (according to Belem Framework for Action, 2009).
JIGSAW (Slavin, 1990 ) You will be responsible for learning of different texts about adult literacy as one. But each person will become an expert on one part of the text and will teach others about it. As experts you will read and be responsible for learning and teaching others specific theme. In “experts’ group” you will have to decide how best to deliver a message /information about your text. Returning back to “home groups”, you have to teach others and make them understand a text, the others have not read. The others have to ask for clarification, explanation, examples, etc.
ROUND TABLE (Kagan, 1992) Roundtable is a cooperative structure in which one paper and pencil are systematically passed around a small group. One partner writes an idea and passes the paper and pencil to the partner on the left. That partner adds to the idea presented and passes the paper to the next. A variation of the procedure is to have each partner use a different colored writing tool when the paper is passed. This visually enforces all partners to contribute equally and allows the teacher to document individual contributions.
TASK GROUPS RED MARKER- Motivational factors for AL BLUE MARKER- Possibilities for AL GREEN MARKER- Preconditions for AL BLACK MARKER- Obstacles for AL
PHILOSOPHICAL & METHODICAL BACGROUND OF THE WORKSHOP Framework for teaching and learning, based on ideas of constructivism, metacognition and reflective practice (Piaget, Dewey, Vygotsky ); “Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking project” (Meredith, Steele, Temple, Scott); http://rwctic.org/home/viewpage/id/ 9http://rwctic.org/home/viewpage/id/ 9
TASK Suppose you want to open a snack kiosk in a city. Place an “X” on the map to indicate where you would open the kiosk. Then, explain why you have chose this location and why you think it is better than other places on the map. Use as many examples as you can, and be as detailed as possible.
WHAT WE WILL BE DOING… Practicing a framework for engaged & meaningful teaching & learning; Discussing supportive environment for learning, role of personal experience, cultural context; Trying out strategies for better comprehension of a meaning & text.
HISTORY OF OUR NAMES Do you know what your name means? Do you know how your name was given to you? Find a person, that you have not talked to much yet and tell your story.
WHAT WE KNOW…..? How do you think, what is critical thinking? What it associates with for you? Write whatever comes to your mind…
TEXT ANALYSIS Put a “+” (plus) in the margin if something you read confirms what you knew or thought you knew. Put a “-” (minus) if some information you are reading contradicts or is different from what you already knew or thought you knew. Put a “! ” (vocative) in the margin if a piece of information you encounter is new information for you. Place a “?” (question mark) in the margin if there is information that is confusing to you or there is something you would like to know more about.
FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING EVOCATION Helps to check existing knowledge, believes and builds background for a new information; Evokes interest towards new topic/content/task; Enables openness and prevents subjectivity; Immediately involves into active thinking process. NEEDED: Time; Initiative; Freedom and tolerance; Sharing.
REALIZATION OF MEANING Independent and responsible work with a new information; Maintenance of interest and curiosity; Self control of understanding. NEEDED: Time; Different sources of information.
I.N.S.E.R.T Interactive Notating System for Effective Reading and Thinking is a method of monitoring comprehension, setting a purpose for learning (Vaughn & Estes, 1986). INSERT is a tool for sustaining engagement with a text.
REFLECTION Encourages to rethink information and formulate personal message; Encourages exchange of ideas; Helps to formulate authentic and reasoned opinion, understanding about different things.
FRAMEWORK STIMULTES THINKING: What I already know about it? How new information corresponds to my previous knowledge? What I can do with a new information? How new ideas effect my believes?
SURFFACE TEACHING Existing knowledge New knowledge
Characteristics of motivating and supportive adult educator (Wlodkovski, 2008) Expertise – knows subject, knows information applicable to adult learners; Empathy – understanding and compassionate, realistic expectation of learners, adapt instruction to level of learner skills and experience, continuously consider learner perspective and feeling; Enthusiasm – committed, expressive, values what is being taught, use appropriate emotions and energy, use facial expression and body language, display vitality; Clarity – organization, flow of knowledge, explain criteria or content in alternative ways if not initially clear, signal topic transitions, use familiar examples; Cultural responsiveness – respect for diversity, social responsibility, attention to the collective good of society.
Creating a supportive, culturally responsive environment (1) respect for diversity (accept diverse ideas, opinion, perspectives and values, invite to share different experiences); being responsive – talking „with“ learners, not „for“ learners; listen for understanding learners perspectives, motivation; asking open questions;
Creating a supportive, culturally responsive environment (2) promoting of cognitive risk taking (invitation and encouragement to speculate, negotiate the meaning, not avoid mistakes, but learn from them) and assuring a risk-free environment and; suspending the judgment, creating „shared evaluation“ culture; providing time and opportunity for thinking.
Creating supportive, culturally responsive environment for learning. Individual approach The afternoon knows what the morning never suspected (Swedish proverb) „ In the classrooms and distance learning we need go further than statistics and generalizations about cultural groups to respond to cultural diversity; we need to see adults as individuals with complex identities, personal histories, and unique living contexts“ (R.J.Wlodkovski)
Questions for discussion: Why have you chosen this picture? How would you characterize the situation shown in the picture? What may have caused such a situation? To your mind, who are the people in the picture? What are the relationships among them? What makes you think that? What is left “outside of the picture”, i.e. what is not shown?
BLACK SHEEP What do you think the story will be about?
Once there was a black sheep. All the other sheep in the flock were white. They were disgusted by the black sheep and treated the black sheep badly. Whenever they saw her, they would begin to bleat: - Go away from us. You are a freak. A flaw." They were happy only when they saw the black sheep begin to cry. Belinda, a fat white sheep, was especially mean to the black sheep. She was the leader of the flock. All the other sheep always followed her. They all did whatever she did.
I st stop How do you imagine the flock? Please describe. How would you describe Belinda as a leader? What does it means to you to be a leader? What do you think will happen next?
The black sheep was sad. She wanted to be like the others. However, she could not change her colour. Sometimes she tried to run away and hide. But she always came back in the end because she did not know how to live on her own.
II nd stop What does it mean to be like others? How much is a person free to be different, unique? What do you think will happen next?
Belinda was strong and proud. She decided to set out on a journey to learn about life. She soon came across new pastures. Whenever she met a new flock she stood among them and said proudly: "I am the leader of my flock. Everyone listens to me. I am the one who decides what to do." One day Belinda met a much larger and unusual flock. All the sheep in this flock were black. At first she was surprised, and then she began to giggle. She was so sure that her white coat was superior that she swayed back and forth laughing at them. She approached them.
III rd stop What can you say about Belinda? What new things have you found out about her? What do you think will happen next?
However, the entire flock began to laugh at her mockingly. Belinda did not even have the chance to react when one strong black sheep looked at her and said: "Has anyone ever seen anything funnier than this. We will tear that awful coat off you and then we will see what is underneath." The entire flock began to laugh. Belinda turned and ran as fast as she could. The black flock looked on and laughed at her. She ran as far as another pasture, where she saw another large flock.
IV th stop How would you describe the flock Belinda has met? Compare your vision with the vision about the first flock. Are they different or similar? How? What do you think will happen next?
She had never seen a flock like this before: there were black sheep, white sheep, brown sheep, spotted sheep, all mixed together into one flock. Now that she had lost confidence, she stopped and wondered: "How will this flock treat me?"
V th stop How will this new flock treat Belinda? What do you think will happen next?
VI th stop You have read about three different flocks in the text. Please, compare these with situations from real life. Have you ever been in such “different flocks” situations? What does it mean in real life?
REFLECTION Please remember the picture you have chosen in the beginning of the session. Has your understanding of it changed after reading the text and, if so, how?
Short description of the tested strategies READING WITH PREDICTION
Reading with prediction: DESCRIPTION The strategy Reading with prediction aims to develop deep, context based and reflective reading skills as well as to raise motivation for reading Reading is based on inquiry and asking questions The strategy allows using different types and levels of questions - starting from the simple recall to evaluation level questions (according B. Bloom’s/Sander’s critical inquiry taxonomy). MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
Reading with prediction is a purposeful activity which : Allows to set personal reading objectives; Keeps readers actively engaged in the reading process; Leads to interesting discussions; Encourages readers to formulate their own questions; Helps to express individual opinions; Maintains motivation for reading; Creates a respectful environment for different opinions; Helps to feel and understand the text better; Allows to rethink what is valued by readers; Is stimulus for change. MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
The adult teacher applying this strategy with adults has to think about: Who will be the audience? What are their personal/ professional interests? What do I want participants to learn and understand? What is the main message? What text is the most appropriate to get readers’ interest, motivation and involvement? Can the applied strategy can be used independently by participants in their personal/professional lives? If yes, how exactly? Does the applied strategy lead to any follow-up activities? If so, to what exactly? MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
MAIN PRINCIPLES HOW TO SELECT THE TEXT Any type of narrative text is applicable for the strategy (short story, biography) The text has to leave enough space for reflection, interpretation, opinions, discussions. It has to evoke thinking and imagination. It has to be interesting, motivating to read further. Length of the text depends on reader’s age and experience. It must not be too long so as not to become boring Before choosing text, one has to answer the question: why do I want to read this text? What is important in it? What is the value of it? What issues, questions can be raised? MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
THE MAIN PRINCIPLES HOW TO DIVIDE TEXT INTO FRAGMENTS Most narrative texts can be divided into fragments There are no clear instructions in how many fragments the text has to be divided into Stops can be where one thought /action/ place or time ends and another begins. Each part has to be autonomous by one or another notional unit. It is advisable to avoid too frequent and to rare stops. The text itself provides hints where to stop MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
HOW TO RAISE GOOD QUESTIONS If the title of the text is not clear, one can start from the question: what will the story be about? After each part, it is advisable to ask more specific questions related to the part that has been read or is going to be read : why, how, in what way? Before coming to the next part, one can start from the question: what will happen next? If there are unfamiliar, unknown words in a text, they have to be identified and explained at the very beginning. After reading is finished, participants can be asked to compare their initial and final thoughts about text, to summarize reading in connection with personal experiences. MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
Short description of tested strategies STEPPING INTO A PICTURE
Description The strategy may be applied with any group of learners, when the teacher wants to help them clarify their initial ideas/views on some topical issue/problem or to facilitate the learners’ reflection on a theme that has been studied. MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
MAIN PRINCIPLES HOW TO USE STRATEGY Select pictures that reflect or relate to the topic of teaching. Pictures should be topical, such that can be interpreted differently, and allow for a variety of ideas or opinions. Decide on questions that relate the topic to the aims of your activity, and which are adequate for the stage where you pose them in the learning process. Decide how you will share the pictures and how you will manage the question and response activity, Prepare questions to facilitate post-discussion reflection. MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
MAIN PRINCIPLES HOW TO USE STRATEGY It can be used in everyday situations, as well as in one’s professional life. It facilitates the learners’ understanding of the key concepts or major themes. It develops critical and creative thinking skills and has the potential to motivate people for involvement in lifelong learning processes. It encourages active and cooperative learning and provides the opportunity for the learners to share ideas, opinions, experiences, which are all high motivators for lifelong learning. MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
Summing up Think about yourself as an adults’ teacher. Could you apply the tested strategies (Reading with prediction and Stepping into the pictures) in your professional practice and, if so, how? MODERN DIDACTICS CENTRE
READING WORKSHOP: Reading Open the book and read individually for 20 minutes. Please make your comfortable – sit any place you feel well. Read without stops. Stop immediately after you will be asked to do it.
READING WORKSHOP: Sharing Partner 1 - Share you reading with your pair, introducing the book and the author, the plot, telling why you are reading it, like or dislike, who you recommends to read it Partner 2 - Listen carefully, make notes, then ask questions for clarification, explanation and for your interest Change the roles of a teller and of a listener.
READING WORKSHOP: Readers chair Introduce your book and the author; Tell, what is the book about and how you have chosen to read it; Tell, what you like/dislike, what is important for you; Whom you could recommend to read it, why it is worth reading;
READING WORKSHOP: Audience Listens to a presenter without interruption or comments; Says something positive in response after presentation; Asks questions of interest or for clarification; Gives any authentic feedback.
REFLECTION How do you feel about what we have done? How Reading workshop can support literacy promotion/development? Is it applicable in your practice? How? Present an example
3 CONDITIONS Adequate time to read, experience reading as a joyful, social, self-rewarding act; Ownership – to have a choice about what to read, or when, or for what purpose; Response - to hear about what others have read and react to each others’ literary activities
EXIT CARDS + I liked - I disliked ? I have questions/comments
DAY 4 Pair investigation task “Literacy learning opportunities in the city”: 1.Find any example/object of literacy, that it is recognizable, readable, understandable for you and bring evidence; 2.Find any example/object of literacy, that it is not recognizable, not readable, not understandable for you and bring evidence; 3.Ask for explanation/clarification of not recognizable, not readable, not understandable example/object of local people
MULTICULTURAL PRINTS IN TRAKAI Group task: Look for and collect “multicultural prints” in Trakai; Make a collection of “multicultural prints” and prepare to present it in any form you like for Friday;
EMILIJA PLIATERYTE Emilia Plater (Broel-Plater) (Lithuanian: Emilija Pliaterytė) (13 November 1806 – 23 December 1831) was a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish– Lithuanian Commonwealth. Raised in a patriotic Polish tradition, she fought in the November 1830. Her family, of the Plater coat of arms, traced its roots to Westphalia, but was thoroughly Polonized. Much of the family relocated to Livonia during the 15th century and later to Lithuania, She is described as either Polish, Polish- Lithuanian or LithuanianLithuanianPolish–LithuaniannoblewomanpartitionedPolish– Lithuanian CommonwealthNovember 1830. Her family, of the Plater coat of arms, traced its roots to Westphalia, but was thoroughly Polonized. Much of the family relocated to Livonia during the 15th century and later to Lithuania, She is described as either Polish, Polish- Lithuanian or Lithuanian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilia_Plater
WRITING WORKSHOP: draf Remember one event/moment in your childhood that is important for you for any reason; Write about it not thinking about writing structure or mistakes for 15 minutes
WRITING WORKSHOP: sharing Partner 1 - Share you writing with your pair, reading it out ; Partner 2 - Listen carefully, make notes about it (what you liked, what was interesting for you), then ask questions for clarification, explanation; Change the roles and do the same; Discuss, how you would suggest to improve writings in order to be open for a wider public; Think about possible target group and form of writing piece.
WRITING WORKSHOP: Author’s chair Everybody listens to a presenter without interruption or comments; Says something positive in response after presentation; Asks questions of interest or for clarification; Gives any authentic feedback The author reflects upon pair’s and others’ suggestion for improvement.
REFLECTION How do you feel about what we have done? How Writing workshop can support literacy promotion/development? Is it applicable in your practice? How? Present an example.
What Writers Need Regular chances to write; Interesting topics; Models; Audiences; The habit of revising; A respite from conventions; Peer support; Opportunities to write in a range of subjects and genres.
FEEDBACK AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVEMENT (J. Rogers, 2007) The improvement circle.
FEEDBACK AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVEMENT (J. Rogers, 2007) Comment on performance, not on person. Give it as soon as possible. The best time to give comment is while the effort of making the attempt is still fresh; Catch them doing something right. Make successes visible and explicit; Leave the learner to work out solution; Too generalized or vague feedback is unhelpful.
GIVING FEEDBACK. 8 ESSENTIAL STEPS ( J. Rogers, 2007) 1. Ask for permission 2. Describe what you notice. Be specific. Stick to facts. 3. Ask what the learner would like to have clarified. 4. Describe the impact on you or on situation. 5. Start with positive; whenever possible put more emphasis on that than on the negative. 6. Ask for learner’s view 7. Agree next steps as two-way conversation. 8. Repeat the whole cycle frequently.
GIVING FEEDBACK. EXPANSIVE TALKING (Lucas, Claxton, 2010) What’s going well? Which was the hardest bit? How did you deal with? How else could you have done it? What could you do when you are stuck on that? What would have you made that easier for you? What mistakes did you make that you can learn from? Is there anything else you know that might help? How could you help someone else do that? How could I have taught that better? How could you make that harder for yourself? How did it feel when you had finished?
References 1.CONFINTEA VI: Belém Framework for Action: Harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. http://nuczv.sk/wp-content/uploads/2_zavery.pdf.http://nuczv.sk/wp-content/uploads/2_zavery.pdf 2.Global Report on Adult Learning and education. Rethinking Literacy (2013). UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. 3.Lucas B., Claxton G.(2011). New Kind of Smart. How The Science Of Learnable Intelligence Is Changing Education. Open University Press. 4.Papen U. (2005). Adult Literacy as Social Practice: More than skills. London, New York: Routledge. 5.Rogers J. (2007). Adults Learning. Open University Press. 6.Wlodkowski R.J. (2008). Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn. A Comprehensive Guide for Teaching All Adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.