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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRESCHOOLER Unit 5."— Presentation transcript:


2 Taking the Initiative  Becoming more independent  Improved abilities  Limitless energy  Strong desire to learn and explore

3 Erikson – Initiative vs. Guilt  Initiative = The ability to think or act without being urged.  Developing initiative is important because it sets the stage for ambitions later in life.  Yet, initiative can lead to failures. Too many failures can lead to guilt.  Guilt = Blaming yourself for something done wrong.  SO… caregivers need to make sure children know that it is OK to make mistakes!

4 Showing Responsibility  First step toward dependence  Adults should show examples  Select age-appropriate tasks  What are some chores that would be appropriate for a preschooler?

5 Emotional Patterns  Increased need – independence  Many will venture out of the home environment for the first time  Preschool, Headstart, kindergarten Unfamiliar adults, large group of kids  Each child responds differently  Certain milestones

6 Four Years  Most still self-centered  Defiant, impatient, loud & boastful  Might argue & be bossy (kids & adults)  Other times = loving & affectionate  Need & seek approval of parents & caregivers  Want to see self as separate from parent/caregiver  Want to do things for their self (independence)  Vocabulary & language skills – improve  Test sounds of language  Rude words – test adult reaction

7 Four Years  Active Imagination  Rich fantasy life  Mind cannot separate fantasy from reality  Active imagination + fantasy = FEARS  Caregivers – acknowledge fears & talk about them

8 Five Years  View self as a whole person (mind, body & feelings)  Eager to explore, however they will experience fear of unfamiliar people, places & experiences  May experience anxiety or stress about the strangeness of school & unfamiliar routines  Important to help them cope – listening to concerns, offer love & support

9 Five Years  Emotionally Impulse  Wander around, talk, play – whenever they want School – must sit still, listen & focus Start to learn to control their impulses  Feel more empathy for others (understand how someone else feels)  Better able to play together  Able to see another person’s point of view

10 Six Years  Emotional turmoil – state of extreme confusion or agitation  Find role outside of the home  Long to feel grown up – small & dependent  Stubborn & quuarrelsome  Center of the own universe  Please others to win praise for self  Behavior horrible for parents  Rapid mood changes  Stronger feelings of happiness & joy Appreciation of more activities Nice time to start activities

11 Emotions  As Children grow – better able to recognize & express a variety of emotions  Growing feeling of competence – master various activities – helps control their emotions  Continue to experience fear – however nature of those fear change

12 Anger  Think back to when you were younger, how did you express your anger?? Has it changed?? Why??

13 Anger and Aggression  Anger – Expression changes the most during early childhood  Anger and Aggression being around 10 months of age. They peak with displays of temper in the toddler years and continue in the preschool years.  Preschoolers tend to hit and bite less than toddlers.  Yet they tend to threaten and yell more!  Boys are more physical and girls are more verbal even in the preschool stage!

14 Anger & Ages  Four years  episodes last longer  Use physical violence  Threaten & attempt to get even  Five years  More likely to hurt other children’s feeling than hurt them physically  Six Years  More hurtful with words  Tease, nag & make fun

15 Anger  Frustration – major cause of anger  Child’s tolerance for frustration increases as they grow  Former frustrations – eliminated  By 6, better social skills = deal with situations that lead to anger  Disagreements with other kids – common cause  Use scapegoats  Criticism – another source  Scold a child for doing something wrong – child will try to punish parent by breaking another rule

16 Anger  Varies greatly in children  Children ten to imitate the behavior of adults  Caregivers – express anger in appropriate ways  Page 407. Analyze

17 Fear  Imagination – major emotional force  Ghosts, monsters  Dark, being left alone, abandoned, thunder, lightning, school

18 Critical Thinking  Page 409

19 How can Caregivers help??  Accept the fear  Listen, saying you understand- great help  Never say that fear does not exist, it DOES to the CHILD  Let the child express fear without ridicule  Fear being made fun of  May not open up  Help the child feel able to face the fear  Talking & act help  Reading a book

20 Fear  Sometimes, fears are justified.  Action must be taken  Bully at school

21 Jealousy  Sibling rivalry – common  Caregivers – unintentionally make the problem worse  May try to improve behavior by comparing  Damage a child’s self-esteem & undermine family relationships  Express feelings by:  Tattling  Criticizing  Lying

22 Caregivers  Encourage cooperation & empathy  Avoid taking sides  Give children a change to work through their own problems  Sibling rivalry tends to fade

23 Worry  Children worry  Tension – emotional stress  Fire in home  Stranger taking them  Bully in the neighborhood  Active imagination

24 Worry  Emotional strain & Physical symptoms  Stomachaches, headaches, and sleeping difficulties  Cry, scream or throw tantrums  Bite nails, swing legs or grind teeth

25 Ways to reduce worry & tension  Look for the cause  Ask them to draw a picture  Give children time to calm down  Time out  Provide chances to get rid of tension  Physical way of releasing stress  Read a book about the issue causing stress  Maintain normal limits on behavior  Do not ease up on limits

26 At your table,  Create a list of issues and situations that might cause stress in children 4-6.

27 Questions???  What is self-confidence??  How can you build a child’s self-confidence?  Who is more physical in expressing violence

28 Self-Confidence  New skills & dealing with unfamiliar situations = increased self-confidence  Self-confidence – belief in one’s own abilities  Start taking the initiative & making decisions on their own  Erikson – encouragement = self-confidence  Repeated discouragement/punishment = feelings of inferiority or inadequacy

29 Self-Confidence  Provide opportunities for preschoolers to perform well  Internal satisfaction goes farther than praise  Self-esteem will help develop self-control  See world in terms of all or nothing  How will this hinder their self-esteem??

30 Self-Confidence  All or nothing  Projects – does not go their way = “I can’t do anything right” Self-esteem & self-confidence = lowered  Important – children experience more successes than failures

31 Self-Confidence  Show Respect  Offer choices  “Because I said so” – not effective  Give Praise & Encouragement  Good Job, I appreciate that  Plan Actives  Challenging, but not overwhelming  Children need down time  Encourage Individuality  Opportunities

32 Write a dialogue  Between a parent and child in which the parent is encouraging the child.  Write an effective dialogue, one with a purpose, use appropriate language and quotation marks.  Make sure it reflects the age, personality and background of each person.

33 Causes of Anger and Aggression  Preschoolers use aggression to  Get their way  Hurt another  Gain attention  Gain affection

34 Fear and Anxiety  Some toddler fears fade away and preschoolers develop new fears, some increase.  Fear of the unknown Monsters, Robbers  Fear of physical injury Fear of death by fire, auto accident, drowning, the fear of bites from insects or animals  Fear of pain caused by medical and dental work  Anxiety of a general nature Fear of a tornado may spread to thunderstorms and high winds

35 Feeling and Controlling Emotions  Preschoolers still react to common childlike stressors (situations that cause stress)  These may include:  Illness  Moving  Death  Adult quarrels  Divorce

36 Feeling and Controlling Emotions  Controlling outward signs of emotions such crying, screaming and hitting to help children become socially acceptable!  However, if children control emotions without admitting their underlying feelings to themselves and others, they may become emotionally troubled.  Children need to express themselves!  “I am angry.”  “I am afraid.”

37 Dependency  Preschoolers feel a conflict between their need for dependence and independence!  Sometimes preschoolers ask for help and they really do need it and other times they ask for help even when they don’t!  Emotional Dependence: The act of seeing attention, approval, comfort and contact.

38 Social & Moral Development  With your knowledge of a preschooler’s emotional development, what problems might occur when preschoolers play in a group??

39 General Social Patterns  As children enter preschool and kindergarten they must learn three important social skills  How to interact with new people  How to make friends  How to work & play in organized groups  Learn to take direction & accept authority from others outside the home  Determine right and wrong – act accordingly

40 How do you think social development will differ at the different ages: 4, 5 & 6

41 Four Years  Form friendships with playmates  Engage in cooperative play  Play in groups of 3-4  Share toys, take turns  Often bossy & inconsiderate – fights  Family is still more important  Seek approval, “I’m good at drawing pictures, aren’t I?

42 Five Years  More outgoing & talkative  Play in groups of 5-6  Play – more complicated  Fights – less frequent  Name-calling & wild threats  More respect for other’s belongings  Concerned – what their friends say and do  Do not want to be thought as different – they do not want to be ridicule  Gossip starts (friends, who has what toys)  What the group values, behaviors that are desirable

43 Six Years  Social relations – friction, threats & stubbornness  They want everything  Want to do things their way  Best friends – usually same sex  Play in mixed groups  No regard for team effort – they will just stop playing

44 What would you do??  You are caregiver playing a game with a five year old boy and his eight year old sister. The boy is obviously cheating. His sister is about to complain. What do you do??

45 Family Relations  4 years  Close ties  Want to feel important  Proud – help with chores  Quarrel & bicker w/siblings  5 years  Delight in helping at home  Play better with siblings  Protective of younger siblings  6 years  Do not get along well with family members Self-centered  Argue with adult family members  Rough & impatient with younger siblings  Fight with older siblings

46 What do you think???  Why do you think it is emotionally difficult for some parents to enforce the standards of behaviors they have set for their children?

47 Moral Development  The process of learning to base one’s behavior on beliefs about what is right and wrong  Begins early in life  Preschoolers start to learn the reasons for rules  They start to develop conscience – inner sense of right and wrong that guides an individual’s behavior  Rules they learn in ECH – form the basis of their developing conscience

48  Do you think that boys and girls develop a sense of right and wrong at the same time?? Support your answers with evidence.

49 Guidelines for Moral Development  Set clear standards of behavior  Respond to inappropriate behavior  Talk about mistakes in private  Understand children will test your limits  Consider the child’s age & abilities  It is a lifelong task to learn self discipline  Continue to show love despite misbehavior

50 Handling Lying  Remember: Preschoolers have a hard time telling fantasy from reality.  At times, they are not deliberately lying.  You can show you know the difference, “ I will listen to your story and then I need to know what really happened.”  Lying at this is a misunderstanding  Child may think they completed task – so they will tell you they did. However, you do not think so Be sure the child understands the instructions/directions

51 Handling Lying  Sometimes – they do tell deliberate lies  Get attention  Avoid punishment  Please others & not risk losing love  Consider:  Does he know he lied?  Why is he lying?  Do you need more information?  Is the child Asking for attention

52 Model Moral Behavior  Everyday actions  Children learn by following an example – learned behavior Do not send mixed messages  Television, movies & other media – influences

53 Questions  Identify characteristics that marks the emotional development of 4-6 year olds  List five ways to reduce worry and tension  Describe how to help children develop self- confidence  List three social skills children must learn as they begin school.  Identify chacteristics of family relations of 4-6 year olds

54 Questions  Explain the relationship between imagination and fear in the mind of a preschooler.  Describe how initiative and self-confidence are related.  Explain how parents/caregivers should handle lying.

55 Resolving Conflicts  Preschoolers spend a lot of time with other children = conflict  Aggressive Behavior – hostile and at times, destructive behaviors that people display when faced with conflict  Children need to learn that aggressive behavior is unacceptable

56 Resolving Conflicts  Suggestions  Urge children to talk about their feelings  Acknowledge the efforts of children to resolve conflicts  Model appropriate behavior

57 Social & Moral Development  Competition – rivalry with the goal of winning or outperforming others  Teamwork and cooperation

58 Learning Gender Roles  Preschoolers are beginning to grasp the concept of how to fit into certain social groups  Family, school, clubs, and others Gender-role learning = learning what behavior is expected of males and females  Gender role is a major concept children learn in the preschool years.

59 How does gender role develop?  By how others treat them and how they see others in their male or female roles  Sex-typing = treating boys and girls differently  Clothing  Toys  The way parents react  Children most often identify and imitate models of the same gender as well as:  Teachers  Characters from TV, movies, and storybooks

60 Cultural Differences  Society’s view of male and female is not as clearly defined as it once was!  Traditional views:  Male – more aggressive, economic head of the family  Female – wife, mother How many of your mom’s stay-at-home?  Society’s view has CHANGED!

61  Sexual stereotyping = a statement or even a hint that men and women always do or should do certain tasks.

62 Extending Social Relations  Social learning's:  Sharing  Controlling anger  Thinking of other’s feelings  Making joint efforts with others

63 Adults are still important  Still depend on adults for many of their needs  Adults are social models  Teach by example Model relationships Morals Self-control Manners And much more!!

64 Making Friends  Depends on the following:  child’s friendliness  Ability to follow group rules  Lack of dependence on adults  Prefer friends of the same gender  Self-centered view about friendships  They see friends as people who play with you, help you, share their toys with you, etc.  Creates a closed circle of friends “You can’t play with us!”

65 Learning from Play Groups  Play experiences are richer with others  Learn new ideas  Behave with peers  Learn to play fairly  Become less self-centered  Learn that friends are fun!


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