Presentation on theme: "Social-emotional development of the preschooler"— Presentation transcript:
1Social-emotional development of the preschooler Unit 5
2Taking the Initiative Becoming more independent Improved abilities Limitless energyStrong desire to learn and explore
3Erikson – Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative = The ability to think or act without being urged.Developing initiative is important because it sets the stage for ambitions later in life.Yet, initiative can lead to failures. Too many failures can lead to guilt.Guilt = Blaming yourself for something done wrong.SO… caregivers need to make sure children know that it is OK to make mistakes!All of this is according to Erik Erikson. Do you agree? Disagree? Why? What are your thoughts?Can you think of a time when you took the initiative as a child to try something new? Did you succeed? Did you fail?Think about a time when you did fail at something… did you feel this “guilt” that Erkison is talking about? How did your parents/caregivers/siblings help you overcome it?
4Showing Responsibility First step toward dependenceAdults should show examplesSelect age-appropriate tasksWhat are some chores that would be appropriate for a preschooler?
5Emotional Patterns Increased need – independence Many will venture out of the home environment for the first timePreschool, Headstart, kindergartenUnfamiliar adults, large group of kidsEach child responds differentlyCertain milestones
6Four Years Most still self-centered Defiant, impatient, loud & boastfulMight argue & be bossy (kids & adults)Other times = loving & affectionateNeed & seek approval of parents & caregiversWant to see self as separate from parent/caregiverWant to do things for their self (independence)Vocabulary & language skills – improveTest sounds of languageRude words – test adult reaction
7Four Years Active Imagination Rich fantasy lifeMind cannot separate fantasy from realityActive imagination + fantasy = FEARSCaregivers – acknowledge fears & talk about them
8Five Years View self as a whole person (mind, body & feelings) Eager to explore, however they will experience fear of unfamiliar people, places & experiencesMay experience anxiety or stress about the strangeness of school & unfamiliar routinesImportant to help them cope – listening to concerns, offer love & support
9Five Years Emotionally Impulse Wander around, talk, play – whenever they wantSchool – must sit still, listen & focusStart to learn to control their impulsesFeel more empathy for others (understand how someone else feels)Better able to play togetherAble to see another person’s point of view
10Six Years Emotional turmoil – state of extreme confusion or agitation Find role outside of the homeLong to feel grown up – small & dependentStubborn & quuarrelsomeCenter of the own universePlease others to win praise for selfBehavior horrible for parentsRapid mood changesStronger feelings of happiness & joyAppreciation of more activitiesNice time to start activities
11EmotionsAs Children grow – better able to recognize & express a variety of emotionsGrowing feeling of competence – master various activities – helps control their emotionsContinue to experience fear – however nature of those fear change
12AngerThink back to when you were younger, how did you express your anger?? Has it changed?? Why??
13Anger and AggressionAnger – Expression changes the most during early childhoodAnger and Aggression being around 10 months of age. They peak with displays of temper in the toddler years and continue in the preschool years.Preschoolers tend to hit and bite less than toddlers.Yet they tend to threaten and yell more!Boys are more physical and girls are more verbal even in the preschool stage!
14Anger & Ages Four years Five years Six Years episodes last longer Use physical violenceThreaten & attempt to get evenFive yearsMore likely to hurt other children’s feeling than hurt them physicallySix YearsMore hurtful with wordsTease, nag & make fun
15Anger Frustration – major cause of anger Child’s tolerance for frustration increases as they growFormer frustrations – eliminatedBy 6, better social skills = deal with situations that lead to angerDisagreements with other kids – common causeUse scapegoatsCriticism – another sourceScold a child for doing something wrong – child will try to punish parent by breaking another rule
16Anger Varies greatly in children Children ten to imitate the behavior of adultsCaregivers – express anger in appropriate waysPage 407. Analyze
17Fear Imagination – major emotional force Ghosts, monsters Dark, being left alone, abandoned, thunder, lightning, school
19How can Caregivers help?? Accept the fearListen, saying you understand- great helpNever say that fear does not exist, it DOES to the CHILDLet the child express fear without ridiculeFear being made fun ofMay not open upHelp the child feel able to face the fearTalking & act helpReading a book
20Fear Sometimes, fears are justified. Action must be taken Bully at school
21Jealousy Sibling rivalry – common Caregivers – unintentionally make the problem worseMay try to improve behavior by comparingDamage a child’s self-esteem & undermine family relationshipsExpress feelings by:TattlingCriticizingLying
22Caregivers Encourage cooperation & empathy Avoid taking sides Give children a change to work through their own problemsSibling rivalry tends to fade
23Worry Children worry Tension – emotional stress Fire in home Stranger taking themBully in the neighborhoodActive imagination
24Worry Emotional strain & Physical symptoms Stomachaches, headaches, and sleeping difficultiesCry, scream or throw tantrumsBite nails, swing legs or grind teeth
25Ways to reduce worry & tension Look for the causeAsk them to draw a pictureGive children time to calm downTime outProvide chances to get rid of tensionPhysical way of releasing stressRead a book about the issue causing stressMaintain normal limits on behaviorDo not ease up on limits
26At your table,Create a list of issues and situations that might cause stress in children 4-6.
27Questions??? What is self-confidence?? How can you build a child’s self-confidence?Who is more physical in expressing violence
28Self-ConfidenceNew skills & dealing with unfamiliar situations = increased self-confidenceSelf-confidence – belief in one’s own abilitiesStart taking the initiative & making decisions on their ownErikson – encouragement = self-confidenceRepeated discouragement/punishment = feelings of inferiority or inadequacy
29Self-Confidence Provide opportunities for preschoolers to perform well Internal satisfaction goes farther than praiseSelf-esteem will help develop self-controlSee world in terms of all or nothingHow will this hinder their self-esteem??
30Self-Confidence All or nothing Projects – does not go their way = “I can’t do anything right”Self-esteem & self-confidence = loweredImportant – children experience more successes than failures
31Self-Confidence Show Respect Give Praise & Encouragement Plan Actives Offer choices“Because I said so” – not effectiveGive Praise & EncouragementGood Job, I appreciate thatPlan ActivesChallenging, but not overwhelmingChildren need down timeEncourage IndividualityOpportunities
32Write a dialogueBetween a parent and child in which the parent is encouraging the child.Write an effective dialogue, one with a purpose, use appropriate language and quotation marks.Make sure it reflects the age, personality and background of each person.
33Causes of Anger and Aggression Preschoolers use aggression toGet their wayHurt anotherGain attentionGain affection
34Fear and AnxietySome toddler fears fade away and preschoolers develop new fears, some increase.Fear of the unknownMonsters, RobbersFear of physical injuryFear of death by fire, auto accident, drowning, the fear of bites from insects or animalsFear of pain caused by medical and dental workAnxiety of a general natureFear of a tornado may spread to thunderstorms and high windsI LOVED going to the dentist as a kid! I think I’m one in a million who do… but I always loved going. How many of you feared going to the dentist?
35Feeling and Controlling Emotions Preschoolers still react to common childlike stressors (situations that cause stress)These may include:IllnessMovingDeathAdult quarrelsDivorce
36Feeling and Controlling Emotions Controlling outward signs of emotions such crying, screaming and hitting to help children become socially acceptable!However, if children control emotions without admitting their underlying feelings to themselves and others, they may become emotionally troubled.Children need to express themselves!“I am angry.”“I am afraid.”
37DependencyPreschoolers feel a conflict between their need for dependence and independence!Sometimes preschoolers ask for help and they really do need it and other times they ask for help even when they don’t! Emotional Dependence: The act of seeing attention, approval, comfort and contact.Do you think that some teenagers feel a conflict between their need for dependence and independence, too? It may not exist for you… but if it does… how is it different from a preschooler?And sometimes…. Preschoolers don’t ask for help and the need it!
38Social & Moral Development With your knowledge of a preschooler’s emotional development, what problems might occur when preschoolers play in a group??
39General Social Patterns As children enter preschool and kindergarten they must learn three important social skillsHow to interact with new peopleHow to make friendsHow to work & play in organized groupsLearn to take direction & accept authority from others outside the homeDetermine right and wrong – act accordingly
40How do you think social development will differ at the different ages: 4, 5 & 6
41Four Years Form friendships with playmates Engage in cooperative play Play in groups of 3-4Share toys, take turnsOften bossy & inconsiderate – fightsFamily is still more importantSeek approval, “I’m good at drawing pictures, aren’t I?
42Five Years More outgoing & talkative Play in groups of 5-6 Play – more complicatedFights – less frequentName-calling & wild threatsMore respect for other’s belongingsConcerned – what their friends say and doDo not want to be thought as different – they do not want to be ridiculeGossip starts (friends, who has what toys)What the group values, behaviors that are desirable
43Six Years Social relations – friction, threats & stubbornness They want everythingWant to do things their wayBest friends – usually same sexPlay in mixed groupsNo regard for team effort – they will just stop playing
44What would you do??You are caregiver playing a game with a five year old boy and his eight year old sister. The boy is obviously cheating. His sister is about to complain. What do you do??
45Family Relations 4 years 5 years 6 years Close ties Want to feel importantProud – help with choresQuarrel & bicker w/siblings5 yearsDelight in helping at homePlay better with siblingsProtective of younger siblings6 yearsDo not get along well with family membersSelf-centeredArgue with adult family membersRough & impatient with younger siblingsFight with older siblings
46What do you think???Why do you think it is emotionally difficult for some parents to enforce the standards of behaviors they have set for their children?
47Moral DevelopmentThe process of learning to base one’s behavior on beliefs about what is right and wrongBegins early in lifePreschoolers start to learn the reasons for rulesThey start to develop conscience – inner sense of right and wrong that guides an individual’s behaviorRules they learn in ECH – form the basis of their developing conscience
48Do you think that boys and girls develop a sense of right and wrong at the same time?? Support your answers with evidence.
49Guidelines for Moral Development Set clear standards of behaviorRespond to inappropriate behaviorTalk about mistakes in privateUnderstand children will test your limitsConsider the child’s age & abilitiesIt is a lifelong task to learn self disciplineContinue to show love despite misbehavior
50Handling LyingRemember: Preschoolers have a hard time telling fantasy from reality.At times, they are not deliberately lying.You can show you know the difference, “ I will listen to your story and then I need to know what really happened.”Lying at this is a misunderstandingChild may think they completed task – so they will tell you they did. However, you do not think soBe sure the child understands the instructions/directions
51Handling Lying Sometimes – they do tell deliberate lies Consider: Get attentionAvoid punishmentPlease others & not risk losing loveConsider:Does he know he lied?Why is he lying?Do you need more information?Is the child Asking for attention
52Model Moral Behavior Everyday actions Children learn by following an example – learned behaviorDo not send mixed messagesTelevision, movies & other media – influences
53QuestionsIdentify characteristics that marks the emotional development of 4-6 year oldsList five ways to reduce worry and tensionDescribe how to help children develop self- confidenceList three social skills children must learn as they begin school.Identify chacteristics of family relations of 4-6 year olds
54QuestionsExplain the relationship between imagination and fear in the mind of a preschooler.Describe how initiative and self-confidence are related.Explain how parents/caregivers should handle lying.
55Resolving ConflictsPreschoolers spend a lot of time with other children = conflictAggressive Behavior – hostile and at times, destructive behaviors that people display when faced with conflictChildren need to learn that aggressive behavior is unacceptable
56Resolving Conflicts Suggestions Urge children to talk about their feelingsAcknowledge the efforts of children to resolve conflictsModel appropriate behavior
57Social & Moral Development Competition – rivalry with the goal of winning or outperforming othersTeamwork and cooperation
58Learning Gender RolesPreschoolers are beginning to grasp the concept of how to fit into certain social groupsFamily, school, clubs, and othersGender-role learning = learning what behavior is expected of males and femalesGender role is a major concept children learn in the preschool years.
59How does gender role develop? By how others treat them and how they see others in their male or female rolesSex-typing = treating boys and girls differentlyClothingToysThe way parents reactChildren most often identify and imitate models of the same gender as well as:TeachersCharacters from TV, movies, and storybooksDoes sex-typing exist throughout all of childhood and adolescence?
60Cultural DifferencesSociety’s view of male and female is not as clearly defined as it once was!Traditional views:Male – more aggressive, economic head of the familyFemale – wife, motherHow many of your mom’s stay-at-home?Society’s view has CHANGED!
61Sexual stereotyping = a statement or even a hint that men and women always do or should do certain tasks.
62Extending Social Relations Social learning's:SharingControlling angerThinking of other’s feelingsMaking joint efforts with others
63Adults are still important Still depend on adults for many of their needsAdults are social modelsTeach by exampleModel relationshipsMoralsSelf-controlMannersAnd much more!!
64Making Friends Depends on the following: child’s friendlinessAbility to follow group rulesLack of dependence on adultsPrefer friends of the same genderSelf-centered view about friendshipsThey see friends as people who play with you, help you, share their toys with you, etc.Creates a closed circle of friends“You can’t play with us!”
65Learning from Play Groups Play experiences are richer with othersLearn new ideasBehave with peersLearn to play fairlyBecome less self-centeredLearn that friends are fun!