It is a list and range of words that any syllabus contains to increase students amounts of words. Vocabulary can be defined as “the words we must know to communicate effectively: words in speaking (expressive vocabulary) and words in listening (receptive vocabulary)” P.S: A students vocabulary develops with age and learning. with age and learning. P.S: A students vocabulary develops with age and learning. with age and learning.
teaching new vocabulary There are many steps for teaching new vocabulary:- 1.Firstly showing both the meaning and the form of the word. 2.Pronounce the word two or three times with students listening. 3.Let students repeat the word after listening. 4.Checking understanding of the meaning by ask questions to check for comprehension. 5.Encourage students to use the word.
Highlighted words are:- a group of words which colored with color differs from the basic text. This words differ from one stage to another according to the students needs.
Some times we use highlighted words to capture Ss attention. To indicate that colored words are important, and they are the most words related to the lesson. To familiarize Ss with new and unknown words which related to the reading lesson. To teacher :The highlighted words are the most important word that he will focus on in the explanation and exams. To students :They know that those words the teacher will focus on
Highlighted Words in the Lower Stage Lower stage is the most important stage, because here the teacher is going to build the basic elements between students that will help them in the future to deal easily with English Language. At this stage there is no highlighted words. This stage depends on the pictures that match with suitable vocabulary. Ss here are not prepared to deal with long text or with along vocabulary, so the role of teacher is teach them how to match between the pronounced word with appropriate picture. Kids still beginner they are learning how to write alphabets, all of what Ss take is must taught with easy way, all later stages depend on this stage. Vocabularies at this stage produced in a simple way and simple language that suits Ss needs and their thinking.
Notes about Highlighted Words 1.We can find highlighted words through reading texts, and other texts, but not all highlighted words included new words related to the lesson. At lower stage, At lower stage, we can see at lower stage that all new words should Ss taught is available at table of contents. For example : Grade 3, Unit 13
2.At Upper stage, Grade 7 Unit 17 Page 70. Here we have reading lesson about Arts and Crafts of Palestine. This lesson highlighted new vocabulary, but it did not convey the whole new words, such as : Olive-wood carving, Wicker furniture Another example taken from Grade 8 / Unit 6 / lesson 3 & 4 / page 38 Here we have new words Ss should know their meaning, such as ( commander, bank notes )
secondary stage o At secondary stage also we can find lessons did not convey all new words. o The highlighted words in the reading texts did not include all the new words,but the most impotent words that related to the main topic of the lesson. o Ex/ G 11- / U 6-/ pg 61 –l 6. o In this lesson there are too many new words that are not highlighted secondary stage o At secondary stage also we can find lessons did not convey all new words. o The highlighted words in the reading texts did not include all the new words,but the most impotent words that related to the main topic of the lesson. o Ex/ G 11- / U 6-/ pg 61 –l 6. o In this lesson there are too many new words that are not highlighted
Despite of non highlighted words through some texts, there are many lesson include and covered all highlighted and new words. For example Grade 12, Unit 7, Lesson 7&8. Despite of non highlighted words through some texts, there are many lesson include and covered all highlighted and new words. For example Grade 12, Unit 7, Lesson 7&8.
Referring to the TB, we found that highlighted words are almost active and rarely we can see passive words. The main purpose of introducing new words is to familiarize Ss with these words not to make the word more complex that Ss could understand and recognize the word. The most words are active and rarely we have passive form it related to the aim beyond this lesson.
Unfamiliar Words Some lessons have unfamiliar words that the Ss don’t hear before or don’t know the meaning of these words. Not all highlighted words are familiar to the Ss, that require more efforts from the teacher to explain them at comfortable way.
This unfamiliar vocabulary make the lessons difficult for teaching and difficult for learning. For example:- Upper stage For example:- 1) at Upper stage, Grade 6, Unit 6, lesson 1. 2) Grade 9, Unit 5, Lesson 3 &4, Page 32. Secondary Stage At Secondary Stage also we have some lessons conveyed unfamiliar words that the students had not the experience of using such words such as: Grade 12, Unit 5, Page 51, lesson 6 Grade 11, Unit 9, Page 92-93, Lesson 7-8
Irrelevant exercises Irrelevant exercises means that this exercises in WB aren't related to the theme of SB exercises or to the topic ( reading or speaking exercises). lower stage At lower stage we don’t have WB, all exercises available in one book. Most of exercises that related to this stage at SB are relevant to the main topic and to the table of content. For example:_ Grade 3, Unit 6, lesson 1
Upper stage At Upper stage, there are some vocabulary exercises in WB irrelevant to reading or speaking lessons at SB. Grade 9, Unit 9, Page 50 (WB), & Page 54 (SB). Grade 6, Unit 12, Page 46(WB), & Page 50 ( SB). At Secondary stage At Secondary stage Grade 12, Unit10, Page 98 [SB], Page 68 [WB]
Are there any Difficult Words for Ss?? _ Nothing should be easy. E4P syllabus is not perfect, it is manmade. That means that we should have difficulties through syllabus, it should suites all learners levels. We can find difficulty in every stage even in the lower stage( little differences). _ The teacher role will increase, if the Ss faced any difficulties they need who explain and justify. Lower Stage G 3, U 11 _ At Lower Stage we have little differences such as : G 3, U 11 Upper stage _ At Upper stage there are some difficult words that may they face. Grade 9, unit 6, Page 38, Lesson 3&4 For example:_ Grade 9, unit 6, Page 38, Lesson 3&4 _ Secondary stage :_ Grade 12, Unit 9, Page 95 / Grade12, Unit10, Page 104
Using these lists of words is to provide making meaning vocabulary students with additional practice in using independent word – learning strategies such as (suffixes, prefixes)and to explore interesting uses of words such as ( homophones….). Wordlists at E4P available in some stages such as Upper and Secondary stages, while the lower stage there isn't any word lists pages. They include dictionary pages more than wordlists. So not all stages contain wordlists Wordlists at E4P available in some stages such as Upper and Secondary stages, while the lower stage there isn't any word lists pages. They include dictionary pages more than wordlists. So not all stages contain wordlists
The word list put at the end of SB and presented in a very complex way without meaning. These word list only contain the word,its place in SB and the transcription of the word only. On the other hand the two books (SB-WB) in all levels had never said anything about.
There is no similarities between stages in word lists pages. At Upper elementary stage they ordered in alphabetical order from (A_Z). They arranged in good and arrangement way. It collects all words that are in the level. While at Secondary stage word lists arranged in phonological technique. Words here arranged according to the units (unit by unit). Words here are not arranged alphaptical, each word take appropriate transcription. Beside each word the number of the page that included this word.
Dictionary Pages are: printed resources that lists words in alphaptical order, listing the meaning, pronunciations, and parts of speech for the word. Obviously in E4P we can find dictionary pages almost at many stage. At Primary stage basically depends on the picture dictionaries (SB)in order Ss get clear words and vocabulary. Such as in the First Grade, at the end of the book. It contains words arranged from A to Z included pictures.
Secondary Stage In the Secondary Stage there is no dictionary pages. The students considered as advanced learner, so they deal with them as if they are professionals of using the real dictionary The teachers have to ask their students to make their own vocabulary note and write every word that the teacher write in the bored
Are Dictionary Pages Presented in a Similar Way ?? We can see that there are differences in presenting Dictionaries. These Dictionary pages differ according to the Ss levels and Ss needs. Lower stage For example, at Lower stage dictionaries are linked with pictures, these are found at SB. Upper stage At Upper stage we can find this pages only in WB, here they classified very well. Secondary stage According to Secondary stage there aren't any dictionary pages.
o Generally o Generally, dictionaries can be benefit for : Increasing vocabulary. Also, it can help effectively communicating with others. For schools:_ o For schools:_ Dictionaries are beneficial to help children with writing home works or looking up the word meanings for themselves. One of the first tools they need to succeed in life. Children can learn the power of words and their meanings by performing many different tasks. Dictionaries are great tool for better Ss, better writers, and more educated & successful people.
Teachers can produce their own matching quizzes such as : Matching the word to the picture. Complete the sentence with suitable definition. Teacher could make a quiz and then can encourage his Ss to use the dictionary to match the word to its definition.
Textbooks: long wordlists Many textbooks have very long wordlists for each unit - 100 words would not be unusual. This means that, in order to understand the text/s related to a particular unit, students have to know or be able to guess at a lot of vocabulary. Boredom: Students and Teacher Both students and teachers can become bored by this. Presentation of vocabulary is often done in the same way repeatedly
Difficulty: for students, and therefore teacher For English majors, long lists of words are trying enough; for non-majors they are very difficult The lesson has Unfamiliar words Word lists in Secondary stage contain transcription. New words are not recycled in subsequent lessons in the same unit, and also not recycled in subsequent units.
1.Motivation: Motivation is vital if interest is to be maintained and especially so over the long haul of acquiring a lot of vocabulary 2. Enjoyment: Enjoyment can be a way of motivating and making the heavy task of learning seem a little lighter 3. Textbook support: Textbooks need extra support. In other words, just learning the textbook, and learning from the textbook, is not really enough, and certainly not very varied.
4.In and outside of class: If students are to acquire enough vocabulary, the few hours they spend on English in the classroom can never be enough. They need to be encouraged to work on this after class and between lessons. 5.Regular revision: It is salutary how much is forgotten rather quickly. Students need revision of vocabulary if they are to make their knowledge more permanent 6.Recycling: textbooks Recycling is similar to revision. There are various ways to recycle vocabulary, but textbooks don’t always do this for the teacher/student
o Vocabulary learning can often be seen as a difficult process of memorising lists of unrelated terms. However, there are many other much more successful and interesting ways to learn and teach vocabulary in the ESL classroom. o E4P proved the importance of using vocabulary with different texts ( listening, speaking, reading, and also writing), that we cannot work on without using vocabulary. o E4P proved the proficiency of using words and vocabulary correctly in spite of some difficulties. o We can see that stages basically build on vocabulary, we can see that there is specific lessons in every Unit about vocabulary.